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What does the process of motivation depend on?

What does the inner form of a word mean?

What is the term motivation used to denote?

What is the phonetical motivation?

What is implied by the term morphological motivation?

What does the semantic motivation mean?

How do you understand the term semantic change of a word?

What factors influence semantic changes of words?

What are extra-linguistic causes of semantic change of words?

What linguistic causes of semantic change can be singled out?

What is the commonest form of linguistic causes?

What is meant by discrimination / differentiation of synonyms?

What does fixed context denote as a linguistic cause of semantic change?

What is a necessary condition of any semantic change?

What are the basic types of association involved in various semantic changes?

How can you describe similarity of meanings or metaphor?

How can contiguity of meanings or metonymy be interpreted?

What are the results of the change of denotational aspect of lexical meaning?

What is meant by restriction of meaning?

What is extension of meaning like?

What are the results of the change of connotational aspect of lexical meaning?

What does amelioration of meaning imply?

What does deterioration of meaning denote?




Identify the type of motivation in the following words. Group the words according to their type of motivation: 1) phonetical; 2) morphological; 3) semantic.

1) Buzz (жужжание) – a low, continuous humming (гудящий) or murmuring (жужжащий) sound, made by or similar to that made by an insect (насекомое); - phonetical

2) driver – someone who drives a vehicle, especially as his job; morphological

3) click – a short sharp sound as of a switch being operated or of two hard objects coming smartly into contact; phonetical

4) careless – not taking enough care; morphological

5) leg – the part of a piece of furniture such as a table or chair that supports it and raises it off the floor; semantic

6) bang – a sharp knock or blow; phonetical

7) horse – a piece of equipment shaped like a large box that is used in gymnastics; semantic

8) singlehood (холостой) – the state of being single rather than married; morphological

9) sizzle (шипеть) – a hissing (шипящий) sound, as of food frying or cooking; phonetical

1) Wall – emotions or behavior that prevent people from feeling close to each other; phonetical

2) hand-made – made by hand, not machine; morphological

3) piggish – selfish (эгоистичный); semantic

4) blue-eyed – having blue eyes; morphological

5) boom – a loud, deep, resonant sound; phonetical

6) sound bite (фраза из речи политика) – a short comment by a politician or another famous person that is taken from a longer conversation or speech and broadcast alone because it is especially interesting or effective; semantic

7) leaflet (брошюрка) – a small, often folded piece of printed paper, often advertising something, usually given free to people; semantic

8) quack (кряканье) – the characteristic harsh sound made by a duck; phonetical

9) streamlet (ручеек) – a small stream (ручей) (a natural flow of water). morphological

State what kind of association is represented in the following set of words:

Hand – the hour hand; metaphor

Foot – the foot of a mountain; metonymy

Face – the face of the clock; metaphor

Leg – a chair leg; metonymy

Tongue – tongues of fire; metaphor

Eye – eye of a needle. (ушко иглы) metaphor

Pick out the metaphors from the following combinations.

a green bush; a green apple; green with envy (позеленевший от зависти) - metaphor;

seeds of evil (семена зла) - metaphor; seeds of plant;

a fruitful tree; fruitful work (плодотворная работа) - metaphor ;

a fruitless effort (бесплодные усилия) - metaphor; a fruitless tree;

the root of a word (корень слова) - metaphor; the root of a tree;

a blooming rose; blooming health (цветущее здоровье) - metaphor;

fading or faded beauty(увядающая красота) - metaphor; a fading or faded flower.

Explain the logical associations in the following groups of meaning for the same words.

1) the hand of a child – the hand of a clock (стрелка часов); To point on smth

2) the bridge across-the-river – the bridge of the nose (переносица); Be between. The bridge between two banks’ of river and between two eyes.

3) the tongue of a person (язык человека) – the tongue of a comb – расческа, гребенка => возможно: зубья расчески; ???

4) the coat of a girl – the coat of a dog (шерсть собаки); The coats made of an animal’s coat or wool.

5) the neck of a woman – the neck of a bottle (шея женщины – горлышко бутылки); the part of a body connecting the head to the rest of the body and the part of the bottle connecting the lid (крышка) to the rest of the bottle. Или narrow part of something.

6) the mouth of a child – the mouth of a river (устье реки). Возможно, как «уста» и «устье». «Отверстие между губами» и «выходное отверстие – впадение реки в водоем/море»

1) green grass – green years (юные годы); Person grows like a grass? 2) nickel (metal) – nickel (a coin in the US and Canada worth five cents); coin made of a nickel; 3) glass (стекло) – a glass (стакан); a glass made of a glass; 4) bronze (metal) – a bronze (a statue of a person or animal, made of bronze) ???; 5) Kashmir (town in North India) – cashmere (very soft wool that comes from a type of goat). These goats inhabit in North India

Define the kind of association involved in the semantic change.

Model: glass (transparent solid substance used of making windows, bottles, etc. – a glass (a container used for drinking, made of glass) – metonymy or the contiguity of meaning.

1) a foot of a person – a foot of a hill (подножие холма); - metaphor. 2) jean (heavy twilled cotton cloth, esp. denim) – jeans (trousers made of denim); metonymy. 3) Matisse (proper name) – a Matisse (a painting); metonymy. 4) the wing of a bird (крыло) – the wing of a building; metaphor. 5) the key to a door – the key to a mystery; metaphor. 6) copper (metal) – copper (coin); metonymy. 7) the heart of a man – the heart of a city; metaphor. 8) crown (корона) (a circular ornamental headdress worn by a monarch) – crown (monarchy); metonymy. 9) a whip (a lash used to urge horses on) (плетка – используется, чтобы подгонять лошадей) – a whip (an official in the British Parliament to see that members are present at debates (чиновник, партийный организатор); metaphor. 10) China (a country) – china (dished made of porcelain - фарфор). metonymy.

1) eye (one of the two body parts in your face) – eye (a hole in the end of a needle-игла) (ушко); metaphor. 2) jersey (knitted cloth) (джерси – вязаная одежда) – jersey (knitted shirt or sweater); metonymy. 3) silver (metal) – silver (collection of silver things); metonymy. 4) branch (part of a tree that grows out of its trunk) – branch (a part of a particular area of study or knowledge); metaphor. 5) tongue (an organ in mouth) – tongue (language); metonymy. 6) head (top part of body) – head (the leader or most important person in a group); metaphor. 7) hot tea (very high in temperature) – hot love (involving strong emotions); metaphor. 8) skirt ( a piece of clothes) – skirt (a girl or young woman); metaphor? 9. nose (the part of your face above your mouth) – nose (the front part of an aircraft or boat); metaphor 10) Parliament (assembly) – Parliament (building) metonymy.

Identify the nature of semantic changes in the italicized words.

I put the letter well into the mouth (отверстие) of the box and let it go and fell turning over and over like an autumn leaf. metaphor

Those who had been the head of the line paused momentarily on entry and looked around curiously. (Те, кто были в начале очереди, остановились на мгновение на входе и с любопытством оглянулись вокруг) metaphor

A cheerful-looking girl in blue jeans came up to the stairs whistling. (Веселая девушка в голубых джинсах насвистывая поднялась по лестнице) metonymy

That year he hit the jackpot with his first novel and decided to buy a Ford. metonymy

Oh, Steven, I read a Dickens the other day. It was awfully (ужасно) funny. metonymy

They sat on the rug before the fireplace, savouring its warmth, watching the rising tongues of flame. (Они сидели на ковре перед камином, наслаждаясь его теплом, наблюдая за восходящими языками пламени) metaphor

He inspired universal confidence and had an iron nerve.(Он внушал всеобщее доверие и имел железные нервы) metaphor

A very small boy in a green jersey with light red hair cut square across his forehead was peering at Steven between the electric fire and the side of the fireplace. metonymy

As I walked nonchalantly past Hugo’s house on the other side they were already carrying out the Renoirs. (Когда я беспечно прогуливался мимо дома Хьюго на другой стороне, они уже выносили (картины) Ренуара) metonymy

He has been collecting porcelain all his life. (фарфоровые изделия) metonymy

Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of changes of the denotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.

Model: loan: ‘a gift from a superior; a thing borrowed’ – ‘a sum of money which is borrowed, often from a bank, and has to be paid back, usually together with an additional amount of money that have to pay as a charge for borrowings’.

The result of the change of the denotational aspect of lexical meaning of the word loan is that the word became more specialized in meaning (restriction of meaning, specialization).

1) bird: ‘a young bird’ – ‘a creature with wings and feathers which can usually fly in the air’; The second meaning of word bird is broader and more general. generalisation

2) girl: ‘a small child of either sex’ – ‘a small child of female sex’; the range of meaning was narrowed. Specialization

3) camp: ‘a place where troops (армия) are lodged (разместиться) in tents’ – ‘a place where people live in tents or hunts’; word became more broader and more general, came into daily life. generalisation

4) arrive: ‘reach the shore (берег) after a voyage’ – ‘reach a place at the end of a journey or a stage in a journey’; meaning was greatly widened ,became broader .generalisation

5) deer: ‘any quadruped (четвероногое животное)’ – ‘a hoofed grazing or browsing animal, with branched bony antlers that are shed annually and typically borne only by the male; narrowing of meaning . specialization

6) rug (коврик): ‘rough woolen stuff’ – ‘a small carpet’. The meaming became more narrow, nowadays, we use rug only as a ​ HYPERLINK "http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/piece" \o "piece" piece of ​stuff used for ​covering the ​floor or for ​decoration. specialization

1) barn(амбар): ‘a place for keeping barley(ячмень)’ – ‘a large farm building used for storing grain, hay, or straw or for housing livestock’; word became more broader in meaning. Generalization

2) glide(скользить): ‘ to move gently and smoothly’ – ‘fly with no engine’; word became more specialized in meaning. specialization

3) room: ‘space’ – ‘a part or division of a building enclosed by walls, floor, and ceiling’; meaning was narrowed. specialization

4) fly: ‘ move with wings’ – ‘to move through the air or in the outer space’; word became more broader in meaning. generalization

5) artist: ‘a master of the liberal arts (гуманитарные науки)’ – ‘a person who produces paintings or drawings as a profession or hobby’; word became more specialized in meaning. Specialization

6) champion: ‘a fighting man’ – ‘a person who has defeated or surpassed all rivals in a competition, especially a sporting contest. meaning is narrowed, for ex. the best fighter is winner or champion . specialization

Analyze the meanings of the italicized words. Identify the result of changes of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning in the given words.

Deterioration or Amelioration

Model: villain: ‘a feudal serf, peasant cultivator in subjection to a lord’ – ‘a person guilty or capable of a crime or wickedness’. – The result of the change of the connotational aspect of lexical meaning of the word villain is that the word acquired a derogatory emotive charge (deterioration of meaning).

1) fond: ‘foolish, infatuated (лишенный рассудка) – ‘loving, affectionate’; amelioration

2) knight: ‘manservant’ – ‘noble courageous man’; amelioration

3) cunning(хитрый) ’possessing erudition or skill’ – ‘clever in deceiving’; deterioration

4) gang: ‘a group of people going together’ – ‘an organized group of criminals’; deterioration

5) marshal: ‘manservant attending horses’ – ‘an officer or highest rank in the armed forces’. amelioration

1) coarse: ‘ordinary, common’ – ‘rude or vulgar’;deterioration 2) minister: ’a servant’ – ‘a head of a government’amelioration; 3) enthusiasm: ‘a prophetic or poetic frenzy (безумие, бешенство)’ – ‘intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval’; amelioration 4) violent: ‘having a marked or powerful effect’ – ‘using or involving physical force intended to hunt, damage, or kill someone or something’; deterioration5) gossip: ‘a godparent, a person related to one in God’ – ‘the one who talks scandal; tells slanderous stories about other people’. deterioration

Read the following extracts and identify the nature and the results of semantic change in the denotational aspect of meaning.

Sometimes, the process of transference may result in a considerable change in the range of meaning. For instance, the verb to arrive (French borrowing) began its life in England in the narrow meaning «to come to shore, to land». In Modern English it has greatly widened its combinability and developed the general meaning «to come» (to arrive in a village, town, city, country, at a hotel, hostel, college, theatre, place, etc.). The meaning developed through transference based on contiguity (the concept of coming somewhere is the same for both meanings), but the range of the second meaning is much broader.


Another example is pipe. Its earliest recorded meaning was ‘a musical wind instrument’. Nowadays it can denote any hollow oblong cylindrical body (e.g. water pipes). This meaning developed through transference based on the similarity of shape (pipe as a musical instrument is also a hollow oblong cylindrical object) which finally led to a considerable broadening of the range of meaning.


The word ‘bird’ changed its meaning from ‘the young of a bird’ to its modern meaning through transference based on contiguity (смежный)(the association is obvious). The second meaning is broader and more general.


A) In Middle English the word ‘girl’ had the meaning of ‘a child of either sex’. Then the word underwent the process of transference based on contiguity and developed the meaning of ‘a small child of the female sex’, so that the range of meaning was somewhat narrowed.

B) In its further semantic development the word ‘girl’ gradually broadened its range of meaning. At first it came to denote not only a female child but, also a young unmarried woman, later, any young woman, and in modern colloquial English it is practically synonymous to the noun woman (e.g. The old girl must be at least 70), so that its range of meaning is quite broad.


A)The history of the noun lady somewhat resembles that of girl. In OE the word hl1fdiZe denoted the mistress of the house, i.e. any married woman. Later, a new meaning developed which was much narrower in range: ‘the wife or daughter of a baronet’ (aristocratic title). specialization

B) In Modern English the word lady can be applied to any woman, so that its range of meaning is even broader that of OE hl1fdiZe. In modern English the difference between girl and lady in the meaning of woman is that the first is used in colloquial style and sounds familiar whereas the second is more formal and polite. generalization

Here are some more examples of narrowing of meaning:

Deer: any beast a certain kind of beast;

Meat: any food a certain food product;

Boy: any young person of the male sex servant of the male sex.

It should be pointed out that in all these words the second meaning developed through transference based on contiguity, and that when we speak of them as examples of narrowing of meaning we simply imply that the range of the second meaning is narrower than that of the original meaning.

Read the following extracts and identify the nature and the results of semantic change in the connotational aspect of meaning.

Let us try and see what really stands before the examples of change of meaning which are traditionally given to illustrate deterioration or amelioration of meaning.

Knave: boy swindler, scoundrel;

Villain: farm-servant, serf base, vile person;

Silly: happy foolish. deterioration

These examples show that the second meaning, in contrast with the one from which it developed, denotes a person of bad repute or character. Semantically speaking, the second meaning developed a negative evaluative connotation which was absent in the first one.

In the following cases the situation is reserved: the first meaning has a negative evaluative connotation, and the second meaning has not. It is difficult to see what is actually ‘elevated’ here. Certainly, not the meaning of the word:

Nice: foolish fine, good;

Tory: brigand, highwayman member of the Tories.


There are also some traditional examples in which even this readjustment cannot be traced.

Lord: master of the house, head of the family baronet (aristocratic title);

Lady: mistress of the house, married woman wife or daughter of baronet.

In these words the second meaning developed due to the process of transference based on contiguity. Lord and lady are also examples of narrowing meaning if we compare the range of the original and of the resultant meanings. amelioration




What does polysemy denote?

What words do we call monosemantic? Are there many such words in English?

What words are called polysemantic?

What contribution did Academician V.V. Vinogradov make to the development to the problem of polysemy?

What is the difference between meaning and usage?

Where does polysemy exist?

What makes speech unambiguous?

What did prof. A.I. Smirnitsky claim? What term did he create?

How are all lexico-semantic variants of a word united?

What does polysemy in diachronic term imply?

What does the primary and the secondary meaning of the word denote?

What is the main source of polysemy?

What can semantic changes result?

How is polysemy understood synchronically?

What do the central (basic) and marginal (minor) meanings of a word imply?

What are the two levels of analysis in investigating the semantic structure of a word?

Why semantic structure of the word is never static?

What is historical changeability of semantic structure of the word evidence?

What is context?

What is the lexical context of the word? Give examples.

What is the grammatical context of the word? Give examples.

How may the extra-linguistic context be presented?

What is lexical ambiguity?


Read the sentences in which the polysemantic word simple is used. Give all the lexico-semantic variants constituting the semantic structure of this word. Check yourself by a dictionary.

1) The book tries to give simple explanations of some very complex scientific ideas.  ​easy to ​understand or do; not ​difficult

2) Sally likes clothes that are simple but elegant. without ​ HYPERLINK "http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/decoration" \o "decoration" decoration; ​plain

3) The simple fact is that he wants a divorce. used to ​describe the one ​important ​fact, ​truth, 

4) Archaeologists found several simple tools at the site. A knife is a simple tool. having or made of only one or a few ​parts

5) Her grandparents were simple people who never had much money. I’m just a simple farmer.  ​ordinary; ​traditional or ​natural ​rather than ​modern and ​complicated:

6) You may be joking but she’s simple enough to believe you. A simple ​person does not have a ​normal ​level of ​intelligence: easily ​deceived

7). I’m afraid old Jack is a bit simple.  ​foolish; ​

Give the lexico-semantic variants constituting the semantic structure of the word school in the following sentences. Check yourself by a dictionary.

1) The kids will be at school until 3.00 today.  a ​ HYPERLINK "http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/place" \o "place" place where ​children go to be ​educated

2) I didn’t like school very much. he ​period of ​your ​life during which you go to school, or the ​teaching and ​learning ​activities which ​happen at school

3) The School of Management in Cornwall is considered the best one in the country.  a ​part of a ​college or ​university ​specializing in a ​particular ​subject or ​group of ​subjects

4) Harvard, which I graduated from 5 years ago, is a very good school.  a ​HYPERLINK "http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/college" \o "college"college or ​university or the ​time that a ​student​spends there.

5) What you think about this probably depends on which school of economics you belong to. a ​group of ​painters, ​writers, ​poets, etc. whose ​work is ​similar, ​especially ​similar to that of a ​particular ​leader:

6) In the distance we could see a school of whales. a ​large ​number of ​fish or other ​sea ​creatures​swimming in a ​group

Define all lexico-semantic variants of the verb to think in the following sentences. Look up in a dictionary.

1) I don’t think there’s a bank in the village.  to have a particular idea or opinion about something/somebody; to believe something

2) Nobody seriously thought of him as a candidate for the job. to form an idea of something; to imagine something

3) Let’s stop and think before we do anything else. to use your mind to consider something, to form connected ideas, to try to solve problems, etc.

4) He could never think of the woman’s name. to remember something; to have something come into your mind

5) It was kind of you to think of our daughter. to have a particular idea or opinion about something/somebody; to believe something

6) I expect we were all thinking the same thing.

7) I never thought that I’d end up working here. to expect something

State which of these words possesses wider polysemy: man, fellow, change (n), federation, order.


1)male person - an adult male human

2)humans - humans as a group or from a particular period of history

3) particular type of man - a man who comes from the place mentioned or whose job or interest is connected with the thing mentioned (a Frenchman, a businessman, a sportsman 4) a man who likes or who does the thing mentioned a betting/drinking/fighting man I think he’s a beer man (= he drinks beer).

5) a man who works for or supports a particular organization, comes from a particular town, etc. the BBC’s man in Moscow (= the man who reports on news from Moscow)

6) soldier/worker - a soldier or a male worker who obeys the instructions of a person of higher rank. The officer refused to let his men take part in the operation. The conditions in which the men were working were terrible.

7) a man who comes to your house to do a job. the gas man The man's coming to repair the TV today.

8) form of address (informal, especially North American English) used for addressing a male person Nice shirt, man! Hey man. Back off!

9) used for addressing a male person in an angry or impatient way Don't just stand there, man—get a doctor!

10) husband/boyfriend - a husband or sexual partner What's her new man like?

11) strong/brave person - a person who is strong and brave or has other qualities that some people think are particularly male Come on, now—be a man.

12) servant (служащий) - a male servant My man will drive you home.

13) in chess - one of the figures or objects that you play with in a game such as chess


1) (informal, becoming old-fashioned) a way of referring to a man or boy He's a nice old fellow.

2) a person that you work with or that is like you; a thing that is similar to the one mentioned. She has a very good reputation among her fellows. Many caged birds live longer than their fellows in the wild.

3) (British English) a senior member of some colleges or universities. a fellow of New College, Oxford

4) a member of an academic or professional organization. a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons

5) (especially North American English) a graduate student who holds a fellowship. a graduate fellow, a teaching fellow


to become different. Rick hasn't changed. He looks exactly the same as he did at school.

change somebody/something to make somebody/something different. Fame hasn't really changed him. Computers have changed the way people work.

to pass or make somebody/something pass from one state or form into another. Wait for the traffic lights to change. change (from A) to/into B The lights changed from red to green.

to replace one thing, person, service, etc. with something new or different. We change our car every two years.

to exchange positions, places, etc. with somebody else. Can I change seats with you?

to put on different or clean clothes. I didn't have time to change clothes before the party

to put clean clothes or a clean nappy / diaper on a baby. She can't even change a nappy.

to exchange money into the money of another country


a country consisting of a group of individual states that have control over their own affairs but are controlled by a central government for national decisions, etc. the Russian Federation

a group of clubs, trade/labor unions, etc. that have joined together to form an organization. the International Tennis Federation

the act of forming a federation. Many MPs are against federation in Europe.


1) arrangement - the way in which people or things are placed or arranged in relation to each other.

2) the state of being carefully and neatly arranged. It was time she put her life in order.

3) controlled state - the state that exists when people obey laws, rules or authority. Some teachers find it difficult to keep their classes in order.

4) instructions - something that somebody is told to do by somebody in authority order. I'm under orders not to let anyone in.

5) a request to make or supply goods. These items can be made to order (= produced especially for a particular customer)

6)  a request for food or drinks in a restaurant, bar, etc.; the food or drinks that you ask for.

7) a formal written instruction for somebody to be paid money or to do something. You can cash the order at any post office.

8) system - the way that a society, the world, etc. is arranged, with its system of rules and customs. The old order in Europe saw rapid change in the late 1980s.

9) a social class. the lower orders

10) biology - a group into which animals, plants, etc. that have similar characteristics are divided, smaller than a class and larger than a family the order of primates

11) religious community - a group of people living in a religious community, especially monks or nuns religious orders

12) special honour - a group of people who have been given a special honour by a queen, king, president, etc. The Order of the Garter is an ancient order of chivalry.

Compare the semantic structure of the following words:

a) slender and skinny;

slender = thin in an attractive or elegant way

skinny = very thin, especially in a way that you find unpleasant or ugly

b) to stop and to cease.

to stop = to no longer move; to make somebody/something no longer move (The car stopped at the traffic lights.)

to cease = to stop happening or existing; to stop something from happening or existing (You never cease to amaze me!)

Analyze the meanings of the given polysemantic words taken from the Dictionary of English Etymology. These meaning are considered primary and central in Middle English. What are their basic (or central) meanings from the point of view of the present-day language? What can you say about the historical development of their semantic structure?

Model: pension – ‘fixed or regular payment, spec. out of the revenues of a benefice’ (XIV c.).

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘a regular payment made by the state to someone who can no longer earn money by working’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word pension remains central.

likely – ‘probable’ (XIII c.);

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘such as well might happen or be true; probable’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word likely remains central.

revolution – ‘movement of a celestial body in an orbit’ (движение небесного тела на орбите) (XIVc.);

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘1. an attempt, by a large number of people, to change the government of a country, especially by violent action; 2. a great change in conditions, ways of working, beliefs, etc. that affects large numbers of people’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word revolution ceases to be central.

3) to perish – ‘come to a violent or untimely end, cease to exist’ (прийти к насильственному или несвоевременному концу, перестать существовать) (XIIIc.);

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘to die, especially in a sudden violent way’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word to perish remains central.

4) challenge (вызов) – ‘accusation’ (обвинение) (XIII c);

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘1. a new or difficult task that tests somebody’s ability and skill; 2. an invitation or a suggestion to somebody that they should enter a competition, fight, etc.’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word challenge ceases to be central.

5) single – ‘unaccompanied, unmarried; individual; not double (XIV c.);

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘only one, not married or having a romantic relationship with somebody, for one person - intended to be used by only one person’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word single remains central.

6) to betray – ‘to give up treacherously’ (сдаваться предательски) (XIII c).

In modern English the central meaning of the word is ‘1. to give information about somebody/something to an enemy; 2. to hurt somebody who trusts you, especially by not being loyal or faithful to them’. Thus, in the present-day language the primary meaning of the word to betray remains central.

Look up in the dictionary for the verb fire and answer these questions:

How many meanings are explained?


Write the number of the meaning that:

refers to making smb. leave the job;


refers to baking clay (обжиг глины);


explains fire used when it starts to work.


Look at the entry in an English dictionary for the word way. All the examples below contain this word. Which (number of the) meaning does each example illustrate?

It's not right, whichever way you think about it.

(Это не правильно, в не зависимости от того, как вы думаете об этом)

a method, style or manner of doing something

They live out Cambridge way.

names of streets

There are so many delicious ways you can prepare chicken.

a method, style or manner of doing something

Could you show me the way to the temple (храм) ?

a route(маршрут) or road that you take in order to reach a place

Frank was in a bad way for weeks after the accident.

A specified condition or state

Explain the meaning of each italicized word in given collocations:

1) Smart (adj).

Smart clothes (neat in appearance), smart answer (clever), smart house (operating by automation), smart garden (well-groomed), smart repartee (witty), smart officer (ready-witted), smart blow (quick, sharp), smart punishment (severe).

2) Stubborn (adj)

A stubborn child (unreasonably unyielding, mulish ), a stubborn look (resolute), a stubborn horse (difficult to remove, deal with, or use), stubborn resistance (tough resistance), a stubborn fighting (very strong and determined opposition), a stubborn cough (difficult to control and cure), a stubborn depression (difficult to handle).

3) Sound (adj)

Sound lungs (free from injury or disease), a sound scholar (based on thorough knowledge and experience), a sound tennis-player (good), sound views (logically having true premises), sound advice (showing good judgment or sense), sound criticism (serving a useful purpose), a sound ship (ship, intended for navigation in straits), a sound whipping (hard, severe).

4) Root (n)

Edible roots (the part of a plant that attaches it to the ground, typically underground), the root of the tooth (part of tooth located inside the body), the root of the matter (salient facts), the root of all evil (the basic cause, source, or origin of something), square root (a number that produces a specified quantity when multiplied by itself), cube root (the number that produces a given number when cubed).

5) Perform (v)

To perform one’s duty (accomplish, or fulfill), to perform an operation (carry out), to perform a dance (present (a form of entertainment) to an audience), to perform a play (to act).

6) Kick (v)

To kick the ball (to propel by striking with the foot), to kick the dog (hit someone forcefully with your foot), to kick off one’s slippers (remove an item of clothing), to kick somebody downstairs (assign to a lower position; reduce in rank).

Identify lexico-semantic variants of the word engaged in the following contexts:

They’ve been engaged for 6 months; having agreed to get married

I cannot get though – her line’s engaged; telephone is being used, busy

To be otherwise engaged; to be unable to do something because you have arranged to do something else

His father engaged a private tutor to improve his maths. to hire someone

Sort out the following sentences with the verb to see according to the meanings:

visual apprehension;

to visit somebody;

mental comprehension

meeting somebody.

1) Don’t you see my meaning? (3) 2) Mr. Thomas is seeing a client at 2:30. (4) 3) If you shut your eyes, you cannot see. (1) 4) Can I see you on business? (4) 5) Why not see your lawyer. (2) 6) I can see that you are not very happy with the situation. (3) 7) Let me see your pictures. (1) 8) I wish you could see you again some time. (4) 9) I had not seen him for a long time. (4) 10) He just won’t see the reason. (3) 11) It is dark and I can hardly see to do my work. (1) 12) Ian laughed politely even though he couldn’t see the joke. (3) 13) I have to see my teacher about my grades. (2) 14) We’ll see each other at my house tonight. (4) 15) You ought to see a doctor about those symptoms. (2)

Complete the examples below with the words from the box, choosing one word which fits in the gaps in all three examples. Then check your answers by looking up the headword in the dictionary.

post deal blow mean mind

A strong wind was blowing across the moors. Visitors can watch the men blow glass in the workshop. The victim was apparently killed by a blow to the head with a heavy object.

The word means something different in French. I’d feel mean saying no. I didn’t mean to step on your toe.

I wonder what’s going on in his mind. I don’t mind going if no one else wants to. He told me to mind my own business.

His first shot hit the post. The Prime Minister appointed her to the post of ambassador. New job openings are posting every day on their website.

The government must now deal with the problem of high unemployment. She spent a good deal of time on the project. We’ve cut a deal with Germany on wine imports.

Read the dictionary definitions and choose the word that each describes. Check your answers in the dictionary.

To walk slowly and noisily without lifting your feet. (c)
a) limpb) hobblec) shuffle

A person whose attention is fixed on only one thing can be called: (c)
a) simple-mindedb) narrow-mindedc) single-minded

A wooden house built in a mountain area, especially in Switzerland. Its roof usually has steep sides. (a)
a) chalet b) dachac) chateau

To go somewhere very quickly because you are angry or upset. (b)

a) burst outb) storm outc) step out

The last few words of a joke including the part that makes the joke funny. (b)
a) main lineb) punch linec) chorus line

A sweet sticky food made from boiled fruit and sugar that usually spread onto bread. (c)
a) jellyb) jamc) marmalade

A person who is slightly angry because someone else has something you would like or can do something you would like to do. (c)
a) upsetb) bad-temperedc) jealous

Someone who spends a lot of time sitting at home watching television. (c)
a) watchmanb) house-sitterc) couch potato