Учебное пособие_Английский язык для специалистов таможенного дела О.А. Кузнецова В.Д. Пономарева2016_0d3e365fa5f00241750e497dcc6b0448

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Государственное казенное образовательное учреждение
высшего образования
Российская таможенная академия
Ростовский филиал





О.А. Кузнецова, В.Д. Пономарева

Английский язык для специалистов таможенного дела

Учебное пособие


Дисциплина: Иностранный язык (английский язык)
Специальность: 38.05.02 Таможенное дело












Ростов-на-Дону
2016

Рецензенты:
А.В. Ширикова, доцент кафедры менеджмента, экономики и гуманитарных дисциплин Ростовского института (филиала) ФГБОУ ВО РЭУ им. Г.В. Плеханова, кандидат педагогических наук
В.Р. Саркисьянц, заведующий кафедрой языкознания и иностранных языков Ростовского филиала Российского государственного университета правосудия, доктор филологических наук, доцент
О.В. Дышекова, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Ростовского филиала Российской таможенной академии, кандидат филологических наук



Кузнецова О.А., Пономарева В.Д.
Английский язык для таможенников / О. А. Кузнецова, В. Д. Пономарева. – Ростов н/Д : Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2016. – 247 с.



Учебное пособие Английский для специалистов таможенного дела по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский язык) предназначено для студентов 2 курса, специальность: 38.05.02 Таможенное дело.
Целевой установкой учебного пособия является развитие у студентов коммуникативной компетенции, способности к межкультурной и профессиональной коммуникации, достаточной для осуществления будущей профессиональной деятельности, определяемой указанной специальностью.
Учебное пособие включает в себя профессионально-ориентированные материалы, сопровождаемые лексико-грамматическими упражнениями, направленными на совершенствование коммуникативных навыков устной и письменной речи.









Кузнецова О.А., Пономарева В.Д., 2016
Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2016.
CONTENTS
Contents / Содержание
3

Introduction / Введение
4

Module 1. Smuggling and Drug Trafficking
7

Unit 1.1. The Problem of Smuggling
7

Unit 1.2. Combating Smuggling
21

Module 2. Customs Clearance Procedures
37

Unit 2.1. Customs Payments37Unit 2.2. Customs Tariffs System50Module 3. Customs Clearance of Goods64Unit 3.1. Customs Control of the Cargo64Unit 3.2. Transportation of Goods77Module 4. Customs Union Procedures92Unit 4.1. Transit Procedure92Unit 4.2. Basic Customs Procedures107Module 5. Customs Enforcement and Compliance124Unit 5.1. Customs Violations124Unit 5.2. Commercial Fraud138Module 6. Customs Service: Mission, Objectives, Future Aims154Unit 6.1. Customs Agency of the Future
154

Unit 6.2. Changing Customs
167

Additional Reading
182

Tests
204

Grammar Reference
229

Заключение
244

Список использованной литературы
245




Введение
В соответствии с ФГОС ВО процесс изучения дисциплины Иностранный язык (английский язык) по специальности 38.05.02 Таможенное дело направлен на формирование общекультурной (ОК-9), общепрофессиональной (ОПК-2) и профессиональной (ПК-18) компетенций. Развитие названных компетенций предусматривает готовность к коммуникации в устной и письменной формах для решения задач как межличностного и межкультурного взаимодействия, так и в процессе будущей профессиональной деятельности; владение навыками сотрудничества с таможенными и иными компетентными органами иностранных государств, Всемирной таможенной организацией и иными международными организациями, занимающимися таможенным делом.
Это требует обучения студентов речевым умениям и навыкам чтения, аудирования, говорения, письменной речи, перевода и предполагает наличие готовности студентов их реализовывать в репродуктивной и продуктивной речевой деятельности в соответствии с коммуникативными задачами.
Методическая записка
Данное учебное пособие разработано в соответствии с программными требованиями и имеет целью подготовить студентов – будущих таможенников, работать с источниками по таможенной тематике, вести деловую переписку, участвовать в беседе на профессиональные темы, участвовать в типичных ситуациях профессиональной направленности.
Предлагаемые в учебном пособии разделы охватывают широкий спектр профессиональных тем, таких как: Контрабанда. Методы борьбы с контрабандой, Таможенные платежи, Совершение таможенных операций в отношении товаров, Таможенные процедуры. Таможенная процедура таможенного транзита с применением книжки МДП, Таможенные правонарушения, Миссия таможни. Таможня будущего. Перспективы развития.
Методической задачей каждого раздела является введение и отработка специализированной лексики, для чего предусмотрены лексико-грамматические упражнения, упражнения на словообразование, обобщающие коммуникативные упражнения, направленные на совершенствование навыков говорения на основе оригинальных текстов.
Работа над лексическими единицами значительно расширяет имеющийся словарный запас студентов, позволяет активизировать его за счёт наиболее часто встречающихся слов и словосочетаний, позволяет углубить знания о сферах профессиональной деятельности в различных ситуациях, что необходимо для совершенствования коммуникативных умений и навыков.
Разделы дополнены словарями (Glossary) наиболее трудных слов, встречающихся в текстах. После каждого раздела студентам предлагаются тесты для самоконтроля.
Приоритетной задачей учебного пособия является формирование и систематизация всех видов речевой деятельности: аудирования, чтения, устной речи и письма. Этим обусловлена последовательность изучения информации – от определения главной идеи текстового материала до подготовки коммуникативно-ориентированных заданий-ситуаций, что находит отражение в формулировках каждого из разделов учебного пособия: Practicing Vocabulary, Preparing to Talk, What Do You Think, Practising Language.
Достижению этих целей способствуют соответствующие задания: подбор английских эквивалентов к словосочетаниям на русском языке, различные виды перевода текстов с английского языка на русский со словарем и без словаря, подбор соответствующих речевых формул и др.
В разделе What Do you Think? предлагаются более сложные творческие задания, ролевые игры, дискуссии и ситуативные имитации.
Предлагаемые в разделах пометы (Hints) имеют целью настроить студентов на выполнение задания и обеспечивают их полезной информацией, активизирующей усвоение материала.
В приложении студентам предлагаются дополнительные тексты по чтению для самостоятельного изучения и грамматический комментарий.
Module 1. SMUGGLING AND DRUG TRAFFICKING

Unit 1.1 THE PROBLEM OF SMUGGLING

In this Unit, you will learn about:
causes and types of smuggling
places of concealment
the problem of human trafficking
the definition of the word ‘contraband’
Grammar: Conditional sentences (Type I-II)

Exercise 1. Write out international words from Texts 1-3.
Exercise 2. Which words from column A go with the words from column B?

ABevasion
cause
punitive
stiff
ban
possession
forfeiture
dissemination
concealmentраспространение
суровый, беспощадный
запрет
штрафной
причина, основание
уклонение
конфискация
сокрытие, утаивание
владение, обладание


Exercise 3. Find the words / phrases in Text 1, which mean the following:
- a sum от money that must be pаid as punishment for breaking a law or rule;
- the crime of taking, sending or bringing goods secretly and illegally into or out of a country;
- the process or coming to live permanently in a country that is not your own; the number of people who do this;
- an object such as a knife, gun, bomb, etc. that is used for fighting or attacking somebody;
- a rule or law that limits what you can do or what can happen;
- the act of avoiding somebody or of avoiding something that you are supposed to do.

Exercise 4. Match words to form pairs of nouns and adjectives.
various
global
illegitimate
tremendous
punitive
stiff
electrical
weakgoods
border control
fines
problem
forms of labour
penalties
trade
amount
Exercise 5. Choose the right word for each sentence from the list below:
tremendous; smuggling; stiff; weak; differentThere is also a ______ amount of human smuggling.
______ is also caused by tax differentials, weak border controls, and import restrictions and bans.
Individuals charged with drug possession usually face _____ penalties, which include property forfeiture, hefty fines and time in prison.
Smuggling is also caused by ______ border controls, and import restrictions and bans.
______ products are liable to be smuggled from one location to another.


Exercise 6. Problem questions:
Why is smuggling a serious problem for all nations?
What goods are often smuggled?
What are the reasons for smuggling?
What is human trafficking?
What countries are affected by human trafficking?
Exercise 7. Scan Text 1 for certain true / false information.
Human trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery.
Human trafficking is a crime.
The aim of smugglers is to donate money.
The smugglers are not punished.
Text 1
How Big Is the Worldwide Smuggling Problem?
Smuggling typically refers to the act of transporting some object into or out of a location in a way that is against the laws of that location.
There are many reasons to smuggle. For instance, the engaging in illegitimate trade, including drugs, illegal immigration or emigration, tax evasion, supplying contraband to a jail inmate, or the theft of the goods being smuggled. Smuggling is also caused by tax differentials, weak border controls, and import restrictions and bans.
There are a number of different ways in which this action can occur, and many different products that are liable to be smuggled from one location to another. This often involves narcotics or weapons. There is also a tremendous amount of human smuggling, or human trafficking, which occurs in an effort to avoid the immigration laws of various countries.
Human trafficking affects every country of the world, as countries of origin, transit or destination or even a combination of all. Trafficking often occurs from less developed countries to more developed countries, where people are rendered vulnerable to trafficking by virtue of poverty, conflict or other conditions.
Many of the people smuggled through such trafficking operations are then forced by their smugglers into various forms of labor and their presence in the new area is illegal.
When those involved in smuggling are discovered, they typically face jail time and punitive fines, as well as the seizure of the goods being smuggled. While laws vary according to jurisdiction, individuals charged with drug possession usually face stiff penalties, which include property forfeiture, hefty fines and time in prison.
Exercise 8. Widen the idea of Text 1 adding two-three sentences more.
Exercise 9. Cover the Russian outline of the current legislation of the Russian Federation with a sheet of paper and translate the English outline into Russian. Then cover the English outline and translate the Russian text into English. Open the other variant of the text, line by line, to check yourself:
According to the Criminal Code of the RF, the word contraband means:

a) The smuggling of cash and (or) monetary instruments
(Art. 200.1 of the Criminal Code.);

b) The smuggling of alcohol and (or) tobacco products (Art. 200.2 of the Criminal Code.);

c) The smuggling of potent, toxic, poisonous, explosive, radioactive substances, radiation sources, nuclear materials, firearms or their main parts, explosives, ammunition, weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery, other weapons, other military equipment, as well as materials and equipment that can be used to create weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery, other weapons, other military equipment, as well as strategic goods and resources or cultural values or the most valuable wildlife and aquatic biological resources (Art. 226.1 of the Criminal Code);





d) The smuggling of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors or analogues of plants containing narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, or parts thereof, containing narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, tools or equipment, are under special control and used for manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Art. 229.1 of the Criminal Code).Cогласно УК РФ, понятие контрабанда означает:


а) Контрабанду наличных денежных средств и (или) денежных инструментов (ст. 200.1 УК РФ);

б) Контрабанду алкогольной продукции и (или) табачных изделий (ст. 200.2 УК РФ);

в) Контрабанду сильнодействующих, ядовитых, отравляющих, взрывчатых, радиоактивных веществ, радиационных источников, ядерных материалов, огнестрельного оружия или его основных частей, взрывных устройств, боеприпасов, оружия массового поражения, средств его доставки, иного вооружения, иной военной техники, а также материалов и оборудования, которые могут быть использованы при создании оружия массового поражения, средств его доставки, иного вооружения, иной военной техники, а равно стратегически важных товаров и ресурсов или культурных ценностей либо особо ценных диких животных и водных биологических ресурсов (ст. 226.1 УК РФ);

г) Контрабанду наркотических средств, психотропных веществ, их прекурсоров или аналогов, растений, содержащих наркотические средства, психотропные вещества или их прекурсоры, либо их частей, содержащих наркотические средства, психотропные вещества или их прекурсоры, инструментов или оборудования, находящихся под специальным контролем и используемых для изготовления наркотических средств или психотропных веществ (ст. 229.1 УК РФ).


Exercise 10. Read Text 2 to give the English equivalents for:
аквалангист; страх травмировать себя; быстроходный катер; стекловолокно; предметы домашнего обихода; изобретательный; мясные консервы; собаки, натренированные на обнаружение наркотиков; книжный переплет; гроб (катафалк); бросить якорь; гигантский термит; цистерна, бак с двойным дном; пропитать рубашки и свитера (жидким) героином; замороженная рыба; приборная доска; разоблачить (раскрыть) преступников; стеклоочиститель.

Text 2
Drug Trafficking
Places of Concealment

Criminologists distinguish between personal and impersonal drug smuggling methods. In the first case, smugglers personally transport drugs across the border.
Capsules holding drugs are often swallowed and transported inside the stomach. Although this widespread smuggling method frequently kills the drug courier, the desire to make money is greater than the fear of personal injury or death.
In 2006, a record 320 capsules filled with over 330 grams of heroin was discovered in the stomach of an Australian woman.
Customs services have found that drugs are most often smuggled in suitcases and bags with false bottoms. Drugs are also transported inside various household items, vehicles or freight containers.
Drugs have been found inside car doors, engine compartments, dashboards, seats, specially equipped spare-tire wells, additional gas tanks, etc. Liquid drugs have also been found inside windshield-wiper fluid tanks.
Drugs are often concealed inside rest rooms and other public facilities on passenger trains and ships, making it difficult to expose the culprits.
In some cases, drugs are placed inside wooden furniture parts. Drugs are often hidden in clothes.
When drug couriers are not directly involved in transporting the drugs across the border, it is considered impersonal smuggling. In 1993, a 1,000-kg cocaine shipment was seized at the Torfyanovka Customs checkpoint of the Vyborg Customs house. The drugs were hidden inside cans and imported into Russia as canned meat purchased by a Russian company from a Colombian agricultural enterprise.
Drugs can also be mailed inside letters, packages and parcels.
Drugs have been discovered in frozen fish (inside the fish or in between the fish in a crate), shrimps, exported coffee bags, book bindings, crafts (both inside them and in crafts made with the addition of cocaine), in the form of resin inside false-bottom tanks, canned liquids, bottles of alcohol, etc.
Chemicals used in drug production are transported in boxes of fruit, vegetables and other essential items.
In the United States, border security was tightened following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC. Drug couriers have become more inventive in response. Smugglers use new methods, and they have also revived some long-forgotten methods, including using speedboats on the sea.
Drug smugglers in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean fasten metal drug containers to the bottom of cruise ships, where they are retrieved by scuba divers when the ships drop anchor at U.S. ports.
Smugglers from Mexico and Colombia soak shirts and sweaters in liquid heroin, dry them and pack them inside suitcases, allowing them to evade airport Customs officers and drug-sniffing dogs. Upon arrival in the United States, the heroin is washed off with water and turned back into powder.
Peruvian drug barons came up with one of the most unusual methods of smuggling their products across the border. They used giant Argentine termites to smuggle opium to a European heroin lab, which were ostensibly being sent to a biological institute in Germany. Each termite was covered with a thick layer of opium, which was so skillfully applied that the police had trouble finding the drug.
The crime rings in Palermo, Sicily, have their own unusual smuggling method. Police have repeatedly arrested drug runners transporting drugs in hearses.
Mexican Customs officers have uncovered an unusual method of smuggling cocaine across their border. Colombian smugglers tried to bring in a jeep with 13 parts made from a combination of fiberglass and cocaine. The contraband was exposed with the help of police informants and drug-sniffing dogs.
The police are now trying to find a way to extract cocaine from fiberglass. It appears that drug barons have invented a new process unknown to science.
Exercise 11. Re-read Text 2 as often as necessary to fill in the following table:
Personal drug smuggling methods
Impersonal drug smuggling methods
Exercise 12. Comprehension questions.
How do criminologists distinguish smuggling methods?
What unusual smuggling methods are mentioned in the article?
What are the new drug concealment places you have read about?
Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps.
Customs services have found that drugs are most often smuggled in __________
Drugs are often concealed inside __________
Chemicals used in drug production are transported in ___________
Drugs have been discovered in ___________
Exercise 14. Summarize the information of Unit 1.1 to be ready to speak on:
reasons for smuggling;
human trafficking;
places of concealment;
notion of the word smuggling.
 Hints:
Use the following prompts as a plan:
major global problem; different causes of smuggling; tremendous amount of human trafficking; personal drug trafficking methods; impersonal drug trafficking methods; terrorist attacks; drug couriers inventions; drug barons; police informants; drug-sniffing dogs.


Exercise 15. Practice the following formulas of agreement and disagreement in short dialogues about reasons and types of smuggling.
Yes, indeed; I agree with you; I am of the same opinion; You are quite right; There is no doubt about it;
I disagree with you (on that point); Oh, no! You are wrong; Nothing of the kind; I am afraid I cant.
Exercise 16. Class discussion. How effective do you think are the measures taken by different countries for preventing drug smuggling?
Exercise 17. Prepare a presentation on one of the following points:
1. Main reasons for smuggling.
2. The illegal transportation of drugs.
3. The problem of human trafficking.
Use the following basic tips to make your presentation:
 Hints
Structure
Keep copies of any articles used and of your notes. Remember to consult them whenever you are writing essays, reports, presentations, letters etc...Practice

Practice beforehand in
front of a mirror, with a
recorder or in front of a
friend.
Body Language

Smile, make eye contact,
stand up straight & move
around a bit.
Dont hide behind the
podium!
Notes & Handouts
Have brief notes on
postcard sized cards.
Have a handout that the
audience can take away
afterwards.
Basic tips to make presentation
Speech
Speak clearly,
confidently, concisely &
not too fast. Use every-
day language rather than
jargon.PowerPoint
Keep slides clean & simple. Dont have lots of text on each slide. Use charts, diagrams & pictures
Interaction
Build a rapport with your audience. Get them involved by asking & encouraging questions. Use humour if appropriateNervousness
Its normal to be a bit
nervous: this helps make
you more energised.
Preparation & practice
will reduce nerves!
Exercise 18. Translate the following text into Russian:
What are Differences between Smuggling and Trafficking?
Migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons are different legal concepts. However, they do overlap. According to the UN definitions, differences between the two include the following. (Note that national definitions may vary.):
Smuggling involves moving someone across an international border for profit, while trafficking can occur within or across borders and is always for the purpose of exploitation.
In contrast to trafficked persons, migrants in smuggling situations are not necessarily victims of crime. They may have suffered no harm or injury in the migration process. However, like any other migrant or indeed any other person, they can still become a victim of crime. Migrants can face a number of risks in the smuggling process, including theft, extortion, rape, assault and even death at the hands of smugglers. As noted above, some smuggling situations descend into becoming trafficking situations.

Exercise 19. Translate the following word-combinations into English:
разрушающее влияние наркотиков; оценивать масштабы проблемы; маршруты наркотрафика; предпринимать меры; провоз наркотиков через границы; организованные преступные группировки; сокрытие наркотиков в полостях тела; ограничительные меры; заводская упаковка; встроенный тайник; оптовые рынки; снижение спроса; серьезный вызов; международный опыт; усиление контроля на границе; упаковки; маленькие партии наркотиков; многообразие методов; социальная реклама.
Exercise 20. Insert the missing words. Use your active vocabulary.
The drugs may be concealed inside ______ bodies.
Many people smuggled through such trafficking operations are often ______ by their smugglers into various forms of labor.
Russia and Kazakhstan discussed the issues of _____ routes.
The annual _____ of drug industry is from $55 to 400 billion.
Some _____ groups are often comprised of family members.
There are some main ways to _____ narcotraffic.
Exercise 21. Translate these sentences into English. Use First Conditionals.
Если его документы будут в порядке, он получит визу в течение двух недель.
Я позвоню тебе, если у меня будет время.
Если в зале таможенного досмотра будет много народа, нам придется подождать.
Что ты будешь делать, если вес твоего багажа превысит норму?
Если директор не сможет принять меня завтра, я приеду в другой раз.
Ты позвонишь мне, если будут какие-нибудь проблемы?
Если их багаж будет слишком тяжелый, они наймут носильщика.
Если груз будет доставлен вовремя, ваш заказ будет обязательно выполнен.
Если она не уедет в командировку на следующей неделе, ваше заявление будет подписано.
Будьте осторожны! Если вы потеряете свои документы, у вас могут возникнуть проблемы с получением визы.
Exercise 22. Join the following sentences.
E.g. He is not here. He can’t give us an advice. If he was (were) here, he could give us an advice.
The tourist doesnt have permission from the Ministry of Culture. He is not allowed to take the icon abroad.
The passenger doesnt know Customs rules. He cant fill in a declaration form.
The student doesnt read 50 pages a day. His vocabulary doesnt increase.
You dont do morning exercises every day. Your health isnt good.
You dont like music. You dont go to the concerts often.
This coat is very expensive. I cant buy it.
You have no vet certificate. Your dog will be kept in confinement.
The tourist has no entry declaration. He has difficulties at the Customs.
She doesnt read much. She writes compositions badly.
The passenger is too nervous. His luggage will be checked very carefully.
Exercise 23. Use Second Conditionals.
E.g. If I missed my flight, I would catch the next one.
What would you do if?
you hadnt got anything to declare
you lost your luggage claim receipt
you had a holiday in winter
your friend was ill
you bought a discount ticket
the passer-by asked you for help
you lost your luggage
someone offered you a bribe
you were late for the flight to Moscow
your colleague invited you to lunch
you couldnt speak English
your documents were stolen.
Exercise 24. Put the verb into the correct form. Translate them into Russian.
They would be rather offended if I ________to see them. (not/go)
If you took more exercise, you ________better. (feel)
If I was offered the job, I think I ________it. (take)
Im sure Amy will lend you the money. Id be very surprised if she _______. (refuse)
If I sold my car, I _______much money for it. (not/get)
A lot of people would be out of work if the factory _______. (close down)
What would happen if I ________ that red button? (press)
Liz gave me this ring. She ________ very upset if I lost it. (be)
Mark and Carol are expecting us. They would be disappointed if we ________. (not/come)
Would Tim mind if I ________ his bicycle without asking him? (borrow)
If somebody ________ in here with a gun, Id be very frightened. (walk)
Im sure Sue ________ if you explained the situation to her. (understand)
If I were you, I ________ (not/wait) for them.
If we had the choice, we ________ in the country. (live)
I ________ that coat if I were you. (not/buy)

GLOSSARY

abuse
annual
approximately
capacity
challenge
claim
concealment
dissemination
forfeiture
hefty
hub
inmate
measure
punitive
rapid
reduction
scale
seizure
significance
steadily
stiff
stomach
turnover
vulnerable
to avoid
to cause
to charge
to comprise
to conceal
to distinguish
to engage
to estimate
to extend
to occur
to refer
to retrieve
to swallow
злоупотребление
ежегодный; годичный, годовой
приблизительно
мощность; пропускная способность
сложная задача, проблема
требование, претензия, иск
сокрытие, утаивание
распространение
штраф, конфискация; переход в казну
большой, объёмный, массивный
центр (событий); узловой аэропорт
заключённый (в тюрьме, лагере)
мера, эталон, основание (для чего-л.)
карательный; связанный с применением наказания
быстрый, скорый, стремительный
снижение, уменьшение, спад
уровень / ступень развития; масштаб; размер
конфискация, наложение ареста, изъятие
важность, значительность; значимость
поступательно, монотонно, неизменно
непоколебимый, непреклонный, жёсткий
желудок
оборот, товарооборот
восприимчивый; чувствительный, уязвимый
избегать, остерегаться, уклоняться
являться причиной, вызывать, побуждать
возлагать ответственность, обременять
включать, заключать в себе
скрывать, утаивать
различать, находить отличия
вовлекать; уговаривать; принуждать
оценивать; исчислять
простираться, распространять влияние
происходить, случаться, совершаться
приписывать (чему-л.); относить на счёт чего-л.
находить, отыскивать
глотать, проглатывать


UNIT 1.2
Combating Smuggling
In this Unit, you learn how to:
explain what smuggling is
discuss the process of contraband
describe the ways of combating smuggling
Grammar: Conditional sentences (Type I-II)

Exercise 1. Find the dictionary definitions of the following words:
smugglerthe act or process of discovering, finding, or noticing something;gunrunnera valuable return;demandthe act or process ofshipping; the goodsshipped;detectionone that imports or exports secretly contrary to the law and especially without paying duties imposed by law;authoritya runner of contraband;shipmentan act of hiding or concealing;searchan act ofdemandingor asking especially with authority; the quantity of a commodity or service wanted at a specified price and time; urgent need;courierone that traffics in contraband arms and ammunition;profitpower to influence or command thought, opinion, or behaviour; freedom granted by one in authority;concealmentan act ofsearching; the act or process of looking for someone or something; rummage.
Exercise 2. Give the synonyms to the following words. Consult Text 1.
Boundary; clandestine; cargo; couriers; restrictions; illegal; profit; contraband; detection; narcotics; concealment; backpack; removal; search; valuable; control.
Consult the dictionary, if necessary (Synonym.com).
Exercise 3. Match words to form pairs of opposites:













international; arrive; offer; permission; disinterested; buy; detected; legal; loss
Exercise 4. Find in Text 1 words which follow the verbs below:
conceal, restrict, combat, avoid, make, apprehend, hide, move, swallow, search.

 Hints
As you read the texts, underline the main ideas and supporting information. Then write short abstracts of them. Dwell on the authors attitude.
Exercise 5. Scan Text 1 Preferred Commodities Regularly Smuggled Abroad to find words that relate to:
Customs authorities;
people who smuggle goods;
goods that are favoured by smugglers.
Exercise 6. Read Text 1 to answer the following questions:
What is smuggling?
Why do people smuggle?
What do laws of most nations require?
What form does smuggling sometimes take?
What goods are favored by smugglers? Why?
What smugglers are called gunrunners?
Why do some countries restrict the removal of valuables out of the country?
What methods do smugglers use to move goods?
What do Customs agents undertake to combat smuggling?
How can law enforcers of various nations cooperate in apprehending smugglers?
Text 1
Preferred Commodities Regularly Smuggled Abroad
Smuggling is the illegal movement of goods across national borders to avoid Customs duties or import or export restrictions. It typically occurs when either the Customs duties are high enough to allow a smuggler to make a large profit on the concealed goods or when there is a strong demand for prohibited goods, such as narcotics or weapons.
Laws of most nations require entering and, in fewer cases, departing travelers and shipments to pass through the Customs to see that required duties are paid. Smuggling sometimes takes the form of running crossing a national boundary without going through Customs. More often, the smuggler comes through Customs but attempts to conceal the smuggled goods, or contraband.
Goods that are of high value but small bulk are favored by smugglers. Narcotics and other drugs, diamonds, gold, and watches make up the largest portion of the worlds contraband in terms of value. Restrictions and demand for restricted goods vary from country to country; thus what is smuggled varies.
Cigarettes and alcohol, often subject to taxes and prohibitions, are widely smuggled. Many nations regulate the sale of guns and munitions; smugglers in these products are called gunrunners. Stolen goods are often smuggled out of the country in which they were stolen and into a country where they can be sold with less chance of detection. Some countries restrict the removal of works of art and valuable antiquities; such objects are sometimes smuggled out to sell to dealers and collectors.
Travelers at international borders can properly be stopped by Customs agents, required to identify themselves, and asked to submit to a search. To combat smuggling, Customs agents have the authority to search an individual and his baggage or any packages or containers sent into the country.
Smugglers use two methods to move goods. One is to move cargoes undetected across borders. For example, smugglers move illegal narcotics from Mexico into remote areas of the Southwest United States using airplanes, trucks, and human mules. These mules walk across an isolated region of the Mexico-U.S. border with backpacks full of illegal narcotics.
The other method is one of concealments. For example, a smuggler may hide illegal narcotics in unlikely places on ships or cars, in baggage or cargo, or on a person. Some drug couriers swallow containers of narcotics to avoid detection of the drugs if searched.
Law enforcement agencies all over the world are concerned with the control of smuggling. The U.S. Coast Guard helps apprehend smugglers. Through Interpol, an international police agency, law enforcers of various nations can cooperate in apprehending smugglers.
Exercise 7. Read the text “Combating Smuggling” to find the English equivalents for:
наказание; законодательство; пожизненное заключение; осуждение за преступление, вменённое по обвинительному акту; сбор разведывательных данных; штраф; правоохранительные органы; спецподразделение / части специального назначения; мобильные рентгеновские системы (мобильные досмотровые комплексы) сканирования; ‘пиратские’ товары; связь / взаимодействие; защита прав интеллектуальной собственности; транспортные средства; пункты контроля / пропуска; высокотехнологичное оборудование; таможенная очистка.
Text 2
Combating Smuggling
The most effective means to suppress smuggling are sustained actions against smugglers by all the law enforcement agencies including Customs authorities. The Customs Services all over the world adopt the following strategies:
Tough anti-smuggling legislation (1)
There is an adequate legislative support for the Customs administrations and regional Customs departments to combat different types of smuggling activities. The maximum penalty for conviction on indictment of the most serious smuggling offences must be life imprisonment and an unlimited fine.
Intelligence-led Customs operations (2)
An Intelligence Bureau is established to strengthen intelligence collection and analysis.
Increased enforcement operations (3)
Special task forces are set up by the Customs departments and the Police Forces to curb smuggling.
The Intellectual Property Investigation Bureau has also been strengthened to increase its law enforcement capabilities against infringement of intellectual property rights.
Introduction of High-tech equipment for anti-smuggling purposes (4)
To strengthen cargo examination and enhance the efficiency of Customs clearance, the Customs departments use the mobile X-ray scanning systems and Vehicle X-ray Inspection Systems to enhance contraband detection capacity.
Enhanced co-operation with the tobacco and pharmaceutical and copyright industries (5)
Customs co-operates closely with the industries in the fight against illicit tobacco and pirated goods.
Increased cooperation between federal and regional Customs authorities (6)
There must be established liaison between federal and regional Customs authorities to share information and intelligence. This liaison provides a framework for both administrations to cooperate in the fight against smuggling and illicit trafficking of dangerous drugs, the protection of intellectual property rights, and the exchange of enforcement experience and training.
Anti-Narcotics Operations (7)
The Customs authorities are entrusted to combat all drug smuggling activities. The Customs officers play an important role in drug detection by carrying out Customs clearance and control of incoming and outgoing passengers, cargoes, postal articles and means of conveyance at the ports of entry. For increasing the efficiency of drug detection and Customs clearance, the Customs drug detector dogs are used to assist Customs officers at various control points.
Customs officers must conduct surveillance on drug trafficking activities for planning enforcement actions and provide intelligence for the frontline officers to take enforcement actions at the control points.
Exercise 8. Summarize the main points of Text 2 in writing.
Exercise 9. Read the text below to answer the questions:
Why do you think Customs officers should use specially trained dogs?
What do the sniffer dogs duties include?
How are sniffer dogs trained?
How much time do experienced sniffer dogs need to check vehicles and passengers baggage?
How long are the dogs in service before their retirement?

Text 3
Drug Detection Dogs 
To prevent the traffic of smuggling Customs officers should more often use specially trained dogs and new sophisticated equipment.
The sniffer dogs do not just have to search for drugs. Their duties also include detaining wrongdoers, resisting their attacks, and convoying and guarding detained persons. For this reason, larger breeds, such as German shepherds, Rottweilers, Giant Schnauzers and Labradors are preferred.
Temperament, working qualities, ancestry and health are also taken into account. Female dogs are preferred because their behavior is not as hormone-orientated as it is among males.
Sniffer dogs are trained in accordance with their natural needs. Games and treats are used to improve the dogs sense of smell. Training methods depend on the dogs temperaments. Dogs, like people, may be cholerics or phlegmatics.
The training procedure usually begins when the dog is 1.5 years-old. The dogs are not only trained to sniff out certain smells, but also give special signals, showing the specialist where the source of smell is. Each dog passes an exam and receives a certificate.
Drug detection dogs have unique training experience and specialists working with them try not to show off their work. Experienced sniffer dogs need around two minutes to sniff out a passenger car and seven minutes to check a lorry. The dogs are in service for eight years before their retirement, when they are cared for by dog specialists.
Exercise 10. Read Text 4 to match left and right.
1) to discourage illicit drug usea) охранять, контролировать (свою) территорию

2) to enforce domestic laws
b) предотвращать поставки наркотиков

3) to prevent supplies of illicit drugs
c) действовать независимо, самостоятельно

4) to intercept shipments
d) препятствовать незаконному использованию наркотиков

5) to act independently
e) проводиться местными агентами

6) to guard ‘turf’
f) применять местные законы

7) to be conducted by local agents
g) перехватывать партии наркотиков


Text 4
The US Law Enforcement Activities in the Struggle against Drugs
Basically, there are two strategies by which the US law enforcement bodies discourage illicit drug use:
the first strategy seeks to disrupt and discourage use by enforcing domestic laws against drug use and internal trafficking;
the second strategy seeks to prevent supplies of illicit drugs from entering the country, either by preventing their cultivation (выращивание) abroad or by intercepting shipments to the United States.
The latter strategy is largely the work of federal agents, although state and local agencies may occasionally participate. The efforts (действия) to control illicit drug use within the United States are conducted by federal, state, and local agents.
Occasionally these different levels of government join forces and work together; however, they act independently, jealously (ревностно) guarding their ‘turf’ (i.e. their resources and sources of information) from one another.
Exercise 11. Answer the following questions:
1. How do the US law enforcement bodies discourage illicit drug use?
2. What forces control illicit drug use in the United States?

Exercise 12. Interpret the phrase: Customs co-operate closely with law-enforcement agencies from other countries. Support your statements with your own examples. Use the Internet to find necessary information.
Exercise 13. Explain how you understand the meaning of the following words. What word among them can unite the others?
Drug couriers; mules; drug dealers; smugglers; gunrunners; drug pushers.
Consult the dictionary, if necessary.
Exercise 14. Express your attitude to the phrase:
The right mix of modernization will allow agencies to achieve high performance long into the future.
Exercise 15. Work in pairs. Compare strategies of the law enforcement bodies in Russia and the USA to discourage illicit drug use. Give your own opinion.
Exercise 16. Work in small groups. Make up short dialogues about methods of smuggling.
 Hints
Use the following phrases:
Id like to ask you about; Looking at it from another point of view ; If I understand you correctly you are saying that ; I mean that; The fact is that; I have a question about ; As I said before ; For example; Let me add immediately ; I would agree to you up to the point; You may be interested to know that ; To sum up.
Exercise 17. Class discussion. Speak on the measures taken by Customs authorities to suppress smuggling. Complete the following table using Texts 2, 4.

Anti-smuggling strategiesAnti-smuggling tacticsTough legislation


Intelligence-led Customs operations
Co-operation of Customs administrations with regional Customs agencies
Collection of intelligence data; use of informants in anti-smuggling work;
etc.
Hints
When completing the table, make transformation of the sentences taken from the texts.

Exercise 18. You ask a friend questions. Use What would you do if _________?
(Maybe one day your friend will win a lot of money.)
What would you do if you won a lot of money?
(Your friends car has never been stolen but perhaps one day it will be.)
What _______?
(Perhaps one day your friend will lose his/her passport.)
What _______?
(There has never been a fire in the building.)
What _______?
Exercise 19. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.
Youd feel better if __________
Id feel very angry if __________
If I didnt go to work tomorrow __________
Would you go to the party if ___________
If I took the exam at once ___________.
Would you mind if __________
Id be very happy if ___________
Exercise 20. Open the brackets using Conditionals.
If the vaccination certificate (be) valid, the passenger with the dog (be admitted) to entry.
We (cancel) if you dont deliver the goods by Friday.
If you execute the order carelessly, they (place/not) another order with you in the future.
If the Customs officer (discover) excessive quantity of medicines in the baggage, he (detain) the passenger.
If I had more time, I (do) a course in Business English.
If the truck (not/be overloaded) it (not/overturn).
If the company (use) new sales techniques, the volume of sales (be) higher.
If you (make) all the arrangements in advance, your goods delivery (be) in time.
If you (customize) your CV (краткая биография,резюме) your chances of getting a job will be better.
They (accept) this lot of goods if they (be) satisfied with their quality.
If your documents (be checked) then, you (go) through the Customs control now.
If the vessel (clear) all the formalities on arriving, a Customs inspector (grant) the permit to depart immediately.
If the Customs duties (be paid) before the goods were released from the Customs, you (can/leave) on schedule.
You (can/take out) the icons of the country, if you (get) the permit from the Russian Ministry of Culture.
If the Customs officer (not/discover) smuggled goods in the baggage of that passenger an hour before, the flight (be delayed).
Exercise 21. Translate the following sentences paying attention to if-clauses:
Many smugglers will be able to avoid detection if they take their contraband into or out of the country when there are no visible signs of a Customs presence.
If we had more employees, we would work more efficiently.
If we delivered poor quality, we would not be the leading company in our business.
If you send your order by fax, we will deliver the goods immediately.
The producers will deliver the goods ordered by our firm if we fulfill all our obligations according to the Contract.
If the goods are packed very carefully our firm will not suffer losses.
If the Customs officer carried close examination of the documents he would reveal the possibility of smuggling.
Smuggling will occur if there is an imbalance in the supply and demand of the particular goods.
The Customs officer will be suspicious if a passenger returning from holidays has only one light luggage.
If the Customs use modern technical equipment, passenger examination will be better.
I could not afford to go to that resort if I did not receive a bonus.
Exercise 22. Answer the questions in the way shown:
A: Shall we catch the 10.30 train?
B: No. (arrive too early) If we caught the 10.30 train, wed arrive too early.
1. A: Is Gerry going to take the examination?
B: No. (fail) If he _________.
2. A: Why dont we stay at a hotel?
B: No. (cost too much money) If __________.
3. A: Is Sally going to apply for the job?
B: No. (not get it) If __________.
4. A: Lets tell them the truth.
B: No. (not believe us) If __________.
5. A: Why dont we invite Bill to the party?
B: No. (have to invite his friends too) If __________.
Exercise 23. Complete the sentences using Second Conditionals.
If I joined the Customs, I __________.
If I worked at the Customs of the airport, I __________.
If I didnt study at the Customs Academy, I __________.
If I stayed at home today, I _________.
If I were involved in anti-smuggling work, I __________.
If I got a full-time job in Rostov Customs, I __________.
If I inspected cargo and means of conveyance, I _________.
If I worked in the Police Department, I _________.
Use as many prompts as you can:
to work in shifts; to fight against organized crime; to sleep all day long; to work hard; to put Academy skills to good use; to lead international links with regional Customs; to examine freight vehicles; to deal with passengers; to search people for illegal goods; to collect Customs duties; to use new information technologies; to rummage for contraband; to have the chance to protect society; to enjoy about job.
Exercise 24. Translate into English.
Если бы они знали Российские таможенные правила заранее, им бы не пришлось заплатить за лишний вес багажа.
Вы нарушили условия контракта. Если бы груз был доставлен вовремя, ваш заказ был бы уже выполнен.
Мы были бы вам признательны, если бы вы зарезервировали для нас номер в гостинице.
Если бы они сейчас правильно заполнили декларацию, у них не было бы проблем на таможенном контроле.
Не его вина, что он не сделал перевод. Если бы он не был так занят, он смог бы закончить его вовремя.
Жаль, что мой багаж был такой тяжелый. Мне пришлось нанять носильщика.
Exercise 25. Fill in the gaps.
1. If I had the opportunity, I think I ________ one of those round-the-world air tickets.
bought
buy
would buy
2. You ________ pay interest if you _________ the bill within sixty days.
will have to; hadnt settled
have to; wont have settled
would have to; didnt settle
3. Drop in for a coffee tomorrow if you ______________ too busy.
arent
wont be
wouldnt be
4. The Customs officer will stamp your documents when you ________ the receipt.
will bring
brings
bring
5. If I had the permission, I could ________ through the formalities now.
have pass
passed
pass
6. If you violated the Customs rules, you _________.
might be punished
will be punished
be punished
7. The delegation will start for London as soon as they ________ their visas.
had received
received
receive
8. Well meet our friends when the plane from Moscow________.
arrive
will arrive
arrives
9. You would be legally free to enter the country if you ________ the true value of your articles.
stated
would state
will state
10. If I had the opportunity, I think I _________ one of those round-the-world air tickets.
bought
buy
would buy
11. If I were you, I _________ that coat. Its much too expensive.
wouldnt buy
dont buy
am not going to buy
GLOSSARY

ancestry
происхождение;родословная

antiquities
древности, древние артефакты

backpack
рюкзак, ранец

bulk
груда, кипа, масса; груз судна

choleric
холерик (темперамент)

clandestine
тайный, скрытый, секретный; нелегальный

diamond
алмаз, бриллиант

infringement
нарушение (закона, клятвы)

intelligence
разведка, разведывательная служба; интеллект

law enforcer
сотрудник правоохранительного органа, ‘силовик’

phlegmatic
флегматик (темперамент)

remote
дальний, далекий, отдаленный

removal
перемещение; устранение, ликвидация

retirement
выход в отставку; уход на пенсию; отход от дел

sniffer dog

собака-ищейка, собака-одоролог (по запаху ищет наркотики и взрывчатку)

surveillance
надзор, наблюдение

tough
жёсткий, плотный, сильный

turf
разг. контролируемая территория; сфера влияния

wrongdoer
преступник, правонарушитель

to apprehend
задерживать, арестовывать

to be favored by smb
быть, оказаться в чести / фаворе у кого-либо

to curb
обуздывать, сдерживать

to discourage
препятствовать, мешать осуществлению

to disrupt
подрывать, разрушать

to enhance
увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать

to entrust
вверять; поручать (кому-л.); возлагать на (кого-л.)

to identify
идентифицировать, распознавать

to intercept
останавливать, задерживать

to require
требовать, приказывать; нуждаться

to show off
хвастать, выставлять напоказ

to strengthen
усиливать(-ся), укреплять(-ся)

to suppress
пресекать, подавлять, сдерживать

to vary
отличаться, варьировать(-ся)


MODULE 2. CUSTOMS CLEARANCE PROCEDURES

UNIT 2.1 CUSTOMS PAYMENTS

In this Unit, you learn how to:
talk about collections of duties and taxes
describe protective role of tariffs
describe goods to which import duties apply
speak on types of goods which are exempt from Customs duty
Grammar: Conditional sentences (Type III)


Exercise 1. Give the Russian equivalents for:
articles are liable to duty, to exceed a certain fixed quota, under Customs restrictions, to submit Customs declarations, to apply the law, to impose tariffs, the flow of revenue, cultural valuables, inefficient domestic industries, dumping.
Exercise 2. Find in the dictionary definitions of the following words:
ad valorem, equipment, valuables, tariff, dumping, consumer, protectionism, label.
Exercise 3. Practise useful expressions related to Unit 2.1.
items brought into a country
state the value
revenue collection
payable duties
combined rate
to double the base rates
fixed duties
raw materials
movement of goods
handmade goods
amount of imports
impose tariffs
certain priority imports
foreign competition
to force the consumer
предметы, ввозимые в страну
указать стоимость
сбор доходов
налоги, подлежащие уплате
совокупная ставка
удвоить базовые ставки
фиксированные пошлины
сырье
перемещение товаров
товары ручной работы
объем импорта
вводить тарифы
определенный приоритетный импорт
иностранная конкуренция
принуждать, заставлять потребителя (приобрести что-либо)

Exercise 4. Replace the underlined words in Texts 1-2 with the words in the box.
resolve; rivalry; antagonists; verbally; lessening; amount; defence; particular; limitations; instrument; statute; stores; ineffective; private; strategy; merchandise; defend; tax; decay; method; commerce; profits; obstacles; bad; position; mass; purpose


Exercise 5. Match the sentence halves. Consult Texts 1-2.
1. Base Customs duty rates
2. Сustoms regulations…
3. Tariffs determine…
4. Customs payments are generally paid…
5. Revenue collection and protection of economic interests…
6. High tariffs…
7. A decline in business…
8. Domestic industries…
leads to fewer jobs.
stipulate what articles are liable to duty and what are duty-free.
have always been the principle function of Customs.
before or when submitting Customs declarations to Customs.
benefit from a reduction in competition.
usually reduce the importation of a given product.
vary widely.
which nations will be granted the most favorable trading conditions.Exercise 6. Skim Text 1 to answer the following questions:
What does Customs duty stipulate?
What is a traveler asked to do during the Customs control?
When are Customs duties paid?
What duties are called specific?
How are ad valorem duties levied?
What goods are exempt from Customs duty?
Text 1
Customs Duty
Customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. Every country has its own Customs regulations, which stipulate what articles are liable to duty and what are duty-free.
Sometimes an article which falls under Customs restrictions and is liable to duty is allowed in duty-free, if the traveler does not exceed a certain fixed quota. Customs restrictions also include a prohibited list of items which may not be brought into a country or taken out of it.
If the traveler has any item which comes under Customs restrictions, he is asked to declare it. That is, he is asked to name the item, stating its value and other particulars. The declaration is made either orally or in writing on a special form.
The practice seems to vary in different countries. Upon payment of duty the traveler is given a receipt. As a rule personal effects are duty-free. Customs payments are generally paid before or when submitting Customs declarations to Customs.
Revenue collection and protection of economic interests have always been the principal function of Customs.
Import duty applies to most goods. The duties payable are of two kinds. If they are fixed duties imposed according to the physical quantity of the goods (volume, weight or quantity, etc), they are called specific duties. If they are levied according to the value of the goods, they are known as ad valorem duties (Latin for according to value).
The majority of Customs duty rates in Russia are ad valorem. Some duties have a combined rate incorporating the two and, therefore, the tax base may vary.
Base Customs duty rates vary widely, from 100% but not less than Euro 2 per litre on spirits to 0% for some printed matter and certain priority imports.
Zero duty applies, for example, to a wide range of equipment and machinery. On average, duty rates fall between 5% and 20% of the Customs value of goods. The base rates specified in the law apply to countries that enjoy Most Favored Nation status. Certain raw materials and handmade goods from developing and least developed countries may be imported at 75% of the base rates or zero rates, respectively. Goods originating in other countries will be subject to duty at double the base rates.
Exercise 7. Use the following word-combinations in the sentences of your own.
Customs regulations; prohibited list of items; to submit Customs declarations; exempt from Customs duty; protection of economic interests; subject to duty; the principle function of Customs; zero duty; goods for personal use; international movement of goods; the value of goods; Customs duty rates; Most Favored Nation status.
Exercise 8. Make up sentences with the given Russian phrases. Pay attention to the prepositions:
при ограничениях
подлежать
ввозить в страну
вывозить из страны
после уплаты
применяться к странам
по курсу
для личного пользования
освобождаться от
ввозиться физическими лицами
на специальном бланке
under restrictions
be liable to/be subject to
be brought into a country
be taken out of the country
upon payment
apply to countries
at а rate
for personal use
be exempt from
be imported by individuals
on a special form

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences:
1. В России большинство ставок таможенных пошлин являются адвалорными.
2. После оплаты пошлины туристу выдается квитанция.
3. Базовые ставки таможенной пошлины в большинстве своем отличаются друг от друга.
4. Сбор доходов и защита экономических интересов всегда являлись основной функцией таможни.
5. Некоторые товары освобождаются от таможенных пошлин.
6. Таможенные ограничения распространяются на товары, запрещенные к ввозу / вывозу из страны.
Exercise 10. Read Text 2 for certain true/false information. Support your idea.
High tariffs abandon protectionism.
Tariffs protect foreign industries.
Many developing nations use tariffs as a way of raising revenue.
Tariffs are rarely used by the governments.
Trade barriers are usually pro-producer and anti-consumer.
Text 2
The Basics of Tariffs and Trade Barriers

Tariffs are a political tool that has been used throughout history to control the amount of imports that flow into a country. They determine which nations will be granted the most favorable trading conditions. High tariffs create protectionism, shielding a domestic industrys products against foreign competition. High tariffs usually reduce the importation of a given product because the high tariff leads to a high price for the customers of that product.
Tariffs are generally imposed for one of four reasons:
To protect newly established domestic industries from foreign competition.
To protect aging and inefficient domestic industries from foreign competition.
To raise revenue. Many developing nations use tariffs as a way of raising revenue. For example, a tariff on oil imposed by the government of a company that has no domestic oil reserves may be a way to raise a steady flow of revenue.
Opponents of tariffs argue that tariffs hurt both (or all) countries involved, those that impose the tariff and those whose products are the target of the tariffs. A decline in business leads to fewer jobs and spreads the slowdown in economic activity.
However, tariff opponents argue that the costs of tariffs can not be ignored. These costs come when the price of the goods on which the tariffs were imposed has increased; the consumer is forced to either buy less of these goods or less/fewer of some other goods.
Despite these arguments that tariffs are eventually harmful to all parties in a trade relationship, they have been used by all nations from time to time.
Countries may set tariffs as a retaliation technique if they think that a trading partner has not played by the rules. For example, if France believes that the United States has allowed its wine producers to call its domestically produced sparkling wines Champagne (a name specific to the Champagne region of France) for too long, it may levy a tariff on imported meat from the United States. If the U.S. agrees to crack down on the improper labeling, France is likely to stop its retaliation. Retaliation can also be employed if a trading partner goes against the government's foreign policy objectives.
The benefits of tariffs are uneven. Because a tariff is a tax, the government will see increased revenue as imports enter the domestic market. Domestic industries also benefit from a reduction in competition, since import prices are artificially inflated. Unfortunately for consumers both individual consumers and businesses higher import prices mean higher prices for goods. If the price of steel is inflated due to tariffs, individual consumers pay more for products using steel, and businesses pay more for steel that they use to make goods. In short, tariffs and trade barriers tend to be pro-producer and anti-consumer.
(by Brent Radcliffe)
Exercise 11. Study the following chart. Fill in the missing parts using the dictionary.

tariff







Exercise 12. Work in pairs. What advantages and disadvantages of tariffs can you think of? Use the facts from the texts.
Exercise 13. Prepare 10 15 questions covering the information of the texts. Types of the questions to be used:
a) What is the (nature, difference, process, role, importance) of Customs payments?
b) What role (function) do they play for the government, the consumer, the producer?
etc.
Exercise 14. Summarize Texts 1-2 using the following plan:
Types and definitions of Customs payments.
Goods which are exempt from Customs duties.
Protective role of tariffs.
Reasons of imposing tariffs.
Opponents and proponents of tariffs.
Tariffs as a retaliation technique.
Exercise 15. Give arguments for (pro) and against (con) the following statements:
Protective tariffs are designed to provide a source of income for the federal government.
Revenue tariffs are aimed at protecting domestic production from foreign competition.
Specific duties are imposed according to the value of goods.
Exercise 16. In pairs, discuss the following questions:
What is the difference between a tariff and protective tariff?
What is the significance of the protective tariff?
What is the purpose of a protective tariff?

 Hints:
1. A protective tariff is a tax on imports to protect an industry in your country by making the imported goods more expensive and less attractive to the consumer.
2. A protective tariff keeps money earned locally within the domestic economy.
3. A protective tariff prevents unfair import competition.

Exercise 17. Translate the following sentences paying attention to if clauses:
They would have signed it, if they had been satisfied with the results of the test.
If we had known more about their culture, negotiating could have been easier.
If you had read the paper, you would have seen the advertisement.
The passenger could use the green channel if he had nothing to declare.
If everybody had prepared for the meeting, we would have had a much more effective discussion.
Smuggling would occur if there were an imbalance in the supply and demand requirements for some particular goods.
If the Customs officer had made close examination of the commercial documents, he could have revealed the case of smuggling.
If a new case had been recorded, everyone who had been in contact with the person would have been vaccinated.
If the violation occurred, the merchandize would be seized by the Customs.
If the customer had called earlier, I would have told her to try your cell phone.
Exercise 18. Fill in the gaps.
1. If you _______ the luggage claim receipt at once after arrival of the plane, you would have got your luggage.
would show
has shown
had shown
2. If the passenger had filled in his declaration correctly, he ________any problems now.
didnt have
wouldnt have
hadnt
3. If they _________ reschedule the debt, they ______ bankrupt.
hadnt been able to, would have gone
wont be able to, will have gone
wouldnt be able to, would go
4. If he _________ through the declaration form, he ________ several mistakes.
looks; finds
looked; will find
had looked; would have found
5. John would have taken a great risk if he _____________ his money in that business.
invests
invested
had invested
6. If the sales _____________ poor, we ____________ the distribution network.
were; will change
have been; will have changed
had been; would have changed
7. If all of the passengers had put on a life-jacket, a lot of them _______when the boat was capsized last week.
wouldnt die
wouldnt have died
didnt die
8. My sisters train arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadnt decided to go to the train station early, she _______ there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived.
would wait
wait
would have waited
9. If you _____ a policeman, he ____ you the way.
asked; will tell
asks; tells
had asked; would have told
10. They ______ their plane if they had not woken up late.
would not missed
did not missed
would not have missed
11. If I had the opportunity, I think I ___________ one of those round-the-world air tickets.
bought
buy
would buy
12. If the policyholder __________ the company before the expiry date, the company __________ to terminate the agreement.
does not contact; shall be entitled
didnt contact; will be entitled
wouldnt contact; would have entitled.
Exercise 19. Finish sentences using the Subjunctive mood.
If there were no tariffs,
If the government hadnt imposed tariffs on oil,
Unless the countries set tariffs,
If there hadnt been any benefits from tariffs,
The payment of duties would be easier if
Certain goods would be exempted from Customs duty if they
If Customs tariffs hadnt been developed, it
If the Customs officer had had more time yesterday, he
It is desirable that the information you obtained
If he had not done well on the training course, he .
Exercise 20. Translate the sentences using Conditionals.
Если бы таможенник не проверил тщательно багаж пассажира из Амстердама в прошлый раз, предметы контрабанды не были бы найдены.
Я бы мог закончить работу вчера, если бы Вы мне помогли.
Вы бы получали все необходимые сведения, если обратились бы тогда в справочное бюро.
Если бы он тогда сдал последний экзамен, он бы поступил в университет.
Если бы пассажир правильно заполнил таможенную декларацию, он успел бы на самолет, который вылетел два часа назад.

GLOSSARY

ad valorem
artificially
average
benefit
decline
eventually
flow
dumping

labeling
particulars
receipt
retaliation
revenue
to shield
to spread
tool
value
to apply
to crack down

to determine
to establish
to exceed
to grant
to hurt
to impose
to incorporate
to inflate
to involve
to levy
to vary
адвалорный, соответствующий объявленной цене
искусственно
нормальный, обыкновенный, обычный, средний
выгода; польза; прибыль; преимущество
падение, спад; упадок, конец, закат
в конечном счёте, в итоге, в конце концов
течение, движение (действие, процесс), поток
демпинг (продажа товаров по искусственно заниженным ценам для вытеснения конкурентов)
маркирование, нанесение маркировочных знаков
особенности
квитанция
отплата; мера возмездия
доход, государственные доходы, доходные статьи
защищать
распространяться
орудие, средство, способ
стоимость, цена; рыночная цена
применять к (чему-л.); употреблять для (чего-л.)
сломить сопротивление (кого-л. / чего-л.); принимать крутые меры (против кого-л. / чего-л.)
определять, устанавливать
учреждать, устанавливать (отношения)
превышать; переступать пределы, границы
дарить, жаловать, даровать; предоставлять
причинять вред, ущерб
облагать (налогом, податью, сбором)
соединять(-ся), объединять(-ся)
взвинчивать, вздувать цены
привлекать, вовлекать, втягивать
взимать (налог); облагать (налогом)
меняться, изменяться


UNIT 2.2 Customs Tariffs System

In this Unit, you learn how to:
characterize Customs tariffs system
describe Customs valuation
share and talk on types of payments in foreign trade
Grammar: Conditional sentences (Type III)

Exercise 1. Find the dictionary definitions of the following words:

tariffthe preferring of one thing before another; a right of certain creditors to priority of payment;distortionthe act or state of converting; exchange for an equivalent; as, for converting, for example, euros into dollars;assessmenta proportional part or share of a fixed quantity;valuenot genuine; untrue;preferenceappraisal; valuation of property, profits, or income, for the purpose of taxation;fictitiousthe action of distorting or the state of being distorted;conversionthe worth, merit, or importance of a thing; estimated or assigned worth; valuation;quotaa list or system of duties imposed by a government on imported or exported goods.
Exercise 2. Using the dictionary find the words synonymous to:
customer, merchandise, domestic, purpose, restriction, assistance, identical, adjustment, judicial, expansion, negotiations, obstacles, revenue, significant, importation, commercial.
Exercise 3. Fill in the table of derivatives.

VerbNounAdjective / Participlevaluationpayablearrangementdetermineexpansionprotectingassessmentprovisionencouragingclearancecommercialinflateapplicationproduced
Exercise 4. Study essential words and phrases:

Customs valuation таможенная оценка

assessments of Customs duties –
определение (начисление) таможенных пошлин

licensing arrangements –
порядок выдачи лицензий

preference system –
система преференций

arbitrary or fictitious Customs value –
спорная или фиктивная стоимость

dismantling of obstacles to trade –
ликвидация торговых барьеров

transaction value –
стоимость сделки

computed value method –
метод определения стоимости путем вычисления

“fall-back” method –
резервный метод /метод возвращения

clearance of goods –
таможенная очистка товара


Exercise 5. Read the text “Customs Tariffs System” to answer the following questions:
1. Why is Customs valuation a major feature of modern Customs tariff systems?
2. What is the Agreement intended to?
3. What does the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) note?
4. What are the methods of determining Customs value?
5. What is a protective tariff?
Text 1
Customs Tariffs System: Customs Valuation
Customs valuation is a major feature of modern Customs tariff systems. It is important for the assessment of Customs duties, whether for purposes of producing revenue or as a means of encouraging and protecting domestic industry. It is also a significant element in a variety of other aspects of international trade such as statistics, quota and licensing arrangements, taxes and other charges levied at importation and in the application of preference systems.
Certain valuation practices can have restrictive effects on international trade and were recognized at the Tokyo Round of multilateral trade negotiations. These negotiations, which took place between 1973 and 1979 within GATT in Geneva, were one of the major trade policy initiatives of our time; they were intended, to achieve the expansion and ever-greater liberalization of world trade, inter alia, through the progressive dismantling of obstacles to trade.
Customs valuation came under study within this framework and one of the results of the negotiations was the adoption of the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the GATT, which established a positive system of Customs valuation based on the actual price of the imported goods.
The Agreement, which entered into force on 1 January 1981, is intended to provide a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valuation of goods for Customs purposes; a system that conforms to commercial realities, and which outlaws the use of arbitrary or fictitious Customs values.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) notes that Customs value should, to the greatest extent possible, be based on the price actually paid or payable for the goods being valued; this price, subject to certain adjustments, is called the transaction value. The latter should be the Customs value in the great majority of importation and constitute the primary basis for valuation under the Agreement. Where there is no transaction value, or where the transaction value cannot be accepted because the price has been influenced by distortions resulting from certain conditions or restrictions, the Agreement provides for five other methods of determining Customs value, to be applied in a prescribed order, namely:
the transaction value of goods identical to the goods being valued;
the transactions value of goods similar to the goods being valued;
the deductive method;
the computed value method;
the fall-back method.
The Agreement also contains certain other provisions concerning, for example, currency conversion, the right of appeal to a judicial authority, the publication of law and regulations concerning Customs valuation, and the prompt clearance of goods.
A protective tariff is a financial decision by a government to apply a tax on the importation of foreign goods. This tariff is used to inflate import prices in order to protect the value of domestic merchandise that can be produced in the home country.
Exercise 6. Complete the following sentences.
Customs valuation is a ____________.
Customs valuation is important for purposes of __________.
Customs valuation is also a significant element in a __________.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is intended to provide a __________.
The transaction value should be the ___________.
The Agreement also contains ___________.
A protective tariff is used to ___________.
Exercise 7. Render the text below into English.
Use the following words and word-combinations:
foreign trade regulation; tool of trade policy; interaction; set of Customs duty rates; goods (commodity) nomenclature of foreign economic activity; Customs tariff concept, movement of goods, be payable, notion, coincide, common tool, blanket tariff.
Классическим инструментом регулирования внешней торговли является таможенный тариф, который по характеру своего действия относится к экономическим регуляторам внешней торговли.
Таможенный тариф в зависимости от контекста может определяться как:
инструмент торговой политики и государственного регулирования внутреннего рынка страны при его взаимодействии с мировым рынком;
свод ставок таможенных пошлин, применяемых к товарам, перемещаемым через таможенную границу, систематизированный в соответствии с товарной номенклатурой ВЭД;
конкретная ставка таможенной пошлины, подлежащей уплате при вывозе или ввозе определенного товара на таможенную территорию страны. В этом случае понятие таможенного тарифа полностью совпадает с понятием таможенной пошлины.
Обычно таможенный тариф применяется на национальном уровне, но в Таможенном Союзе тариф становится общим инструментом внешнеторгового регулирования, единым для всех стран-участниц в их торговых отношениях с третьими странами.
Hints:
In improving English fluency skills learn “blocks” (language chunks) not just individual words


Exercise 8. Read the text “Types of Payments in Foreign Trade” to match left and right:
1) legal action
a) предоплата (оплата авансом)

2) bill of exchange
b) оплата товара

3) banker’s transfer
c) перевод денег

4) a debtor
d) аккредитив

5) payment of goods
e) судебное разбирательство

6) open account terms
f) безупречная репутация

7) a creditor
g) банковский перевод

8) a single isolated transaction
h) переводной вексель

9) transference of money
i) условия оплаты по открытому счету

10) unquestionable reputation
j) дебитор, должник

11) payments in advance
k) кредитор

12) letter of credit
l) единичная (разовая) сделка


Text 2
Types of Payments in Foreign Trade
Payment of goods supplied in the local trade is a rather simple matter. It is made either in advance or within a sensibly short period after delivery. If a buyer fails to pay, there comes legal action after which payment can be enforced.
The matter is different in foreign trade because a great deal of time is spent on business correspondence, dispatch and delivery. It is here that banks play a fundamental part.
Payments in foreign trade are usually made by:
bankers transfer;
bill of exchange;
letter of credit.
As well as in the local trade, payment may be made in advance and on open account.
Payments in advance are used 1) when a buyer is in urgent need; 2) when a buyer is unknown to the seller; 3) in the case of a single isolated transaction. The method of payment in these cases will probably be by a bankers transfer or bankers draft.
Open account terms are granted by a seller to a buyer of unquestionable reputation in whom he has complete confidence, e.g. regular customers, agents or distributors. In these cases payment is made quarterly by bill of exchange or bankers transfer.
The bankers transfer is a mere transference of money from the bank account of the buyer in his own country to the bank account of the seller in the sellers country.
The bill of exchange is a written order from a creditor to a debtor to pay on demand or at a specified date a stated sum of money to a person named on a bill, or to his order.
The letter of credit is the most generally used method of payment in the export trade. It starts with the buyer who instructs his bank to issue the L/C for the amount of the purchase and in favour of the seller. It may be paid to the seller not immediately upon execution of the order. If there is an agreement between the seller and the buyer the agent bank can accept the bill of exchange drawn by the seller on the agent bank. The buyer gets credit and the action is absolutely safe for the seller, who can discount the bill for ready cash if he needs it.
Exercise 9. Give the English equivalents for the following Russian words and word-combinations:
полностью доверять; акцептировать (принимать); по требованию; способ оплаты; поквартально; внешнеторговая операция; банковский счет; отправка и доставка товара; выполнение заказа; наличные (деньги); получить кредит; дисконтировать вексель; безотлагательная необходимость; выдавать аккредитив; клиент (заказчик).
Exercise 10. Comprehension questions.
What are types of payments in foreign trade?
In what way may they be made?
When are payments in advance used?
What is the method of payment in such cases?
Whom are open account terms granted to?
What is necessary for a customer to do while paying by banker’s transfer?
What is the bill of exchange?
Exercise 11. Translate into English.
Кому могут быть предоставлены условия оплаты по открытому счету?
Условия оплаты по открытому счету предоставляются покупателю с безупречной репутацией;
Сроки по уплате таможенных платежей определяются исходя из положений международных договоров и законодательства стран-членов Таможенного Союза;
Денежные средства, получаемые от уплаты иди взыскания таможенных платежей, подлежат зачислению в федеральный бюджет Российской Федерации.
Hints
As you translate the sentences, turn to the text of the textbook or glossary to this Unit




Exercise 12. Make questions to go with the given answers. Ask your partner these questions.
Questions
When?


Why?


What?

How many?

What?

Why?
Answers
The question of Customs valuation was in the forefront during the Tokyo Round of the GATT negotiations in Geneva between 1973 and 1979.
The Harmonised System is now used all over the world for a variety of purposes (Customs tariffs, trade statistics, internal taxes, freight tariffs etc.)
Tariff quotas, rules of origin and tariff preferences are among the measures which depend on the value of goods.
The HS is the international product nomenclature used by more than 150 countries.
The desire for greater freedom created favourable cinditions for the standardization of Customs tariffs.
Misclassification of goods can result in delays in clearance, evasion of trade controls, distortion of trade data and loss of revenue.
Exercise 13. Summarize the information of Unit 2.2 to be ready to speak on:
information of Customs tariff system;
types of payments in foreign trade;
methods of determining Customs value.
Use the following prompts as a plan:
Customs Tariffs System
tariff definition; the HS nomenclature; general rules of interpretation; to declare products to Customs by means of HS codes; The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); prompt clearance of goods; a protective tariff; to protect the value of domestic merchandise; negotiated tariff rates; a way to protect a countrys economic system; import tariff; an additional cost on products; ad valorem tariffs; encourage a business to find domestic markets; to impose economic sanctions on other countries; the outright ban on importing products; to ensure consistency in international trade; to discourage trade with particular countries; as a punitive measure. 
Types of Payment in Foreign Trade
common payment methods; cash in advance; Letter of credit; documentary collection; open account or credit; countertrade or barter; hybrid methods; wire transfer; type of product; customers creditworthiness; competitors offering; suppliers demand; risk in international trade; payment by check; buyers bank;
to maintain the balance of payment position.
Methods of Determining Customs Value
Customs Tariff Law; to comply with international rules; the import transaction of the imported goods; the benefit of the seller; cost of transport; cost of insurance;
commissions; the value of materials; export quota and licence costs; interest charges; rights of reproduction; management fees; VAT; trade statistics purposes;
freight; insurance; charges and expenses; profit and general expenses. 
Exercise 14. Class discussion. How effective do you think is the tariff system in Russia. Use as much language from these pages as possible. Find additional information on the Internet.
Exercise 15. Work in pairs. Write a possible ending to each sentence. Then share your ideas with another group.
The Harmonised System is a systematic classification.
A good nomenclature must be continuously updated, be kept in step with
Customs tariffs are based on the nature of goods and
An ad valorem tax is a tax based on.


Exercise 16. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form.
If the tourist had filled in an entry declaration, he (have) difficulties at the Customs control yesterday.
If you (see) him then, he would have told you the news.
If he (not work) hard, he wouldnt have made progress.
If the passenger hadnt been too nervous then, his luggage (not be checked).
If she had come to the university yesterday, she (take) part in the conference.
If the passenger had known Customs rules then, he (not exceed) duty-free allowance.
If his documents (be signed), he could have gone on a business trip last week.
If we (arrive) at the airport in time, we would have caught our flight to London then.
If I had known you were in our city in summer, I (go) to visit you.
If he (not lose) his baggage claim receipt then, he would have got his baggage at once.
Exercise 17. Put the verb into the correct form.
George got to the station in time to catch his train. If he (miss) it, he (be) late for his interview.
Its good that you reminded me about Anns birthday. I (forget) if you (not remind) me.
Unfortunately, I didnt have my address book with me when I was in New York. If I (have) your address, I (send) you a nice postcard.
I took a taxi to the hotel but the traffic was very bad. It (be) quicker if I (walk).
I wasnt tired last night. If I (be) tired, I (go) home earlier.
Exercise 18. Write a sentence with if clauses for each situation.
The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
If the driver in front ___________.
I didnt know that George had to get up early, so I didnt wake him up.
If I ___________.
I was able to buy the car only because Jim lent me the money.
If I ___________.
Margaret wasnt injured in the crash because she was wearing a seat belt.
If Margaret ___________.
I didnt get a taxi because I didnt have any money on me.
If I ___________.
Exercise 19. Translate into English. Use Past Conditionals.
Они опоздали бы на самолет вчера, если бы не смогли поймать такси.
Если бы вы задекларировали все свои вещи, вы бы не оставили их на хранение в таможне на такой длительный срок.
Если бы вы не потеряли свой паспорт, у вас не возникли бы осложнения при оформлении визы.
Если бы груз был доставлен вовремя, заказ был бы выполнен в соответствии с условиями контракта.
Если бы ваши транспортные документы были в полном порядке, товары были бы выгружены очень быстро.
Если бы он знал, что их рейс будет задержан, он бы приехал в аэропорт позже.
GLOSSARY
account
счёт (в банке; за товары, услуги), кредитный счёт, кредит; сумма

adjustment
регулирование, согласование, корректирование

arrangement
размещение, расположение; классификация

banker
банкир

bill
счет; банкнота, купюра; инвентарь, документ

cash
деньги, наличные деньги; наличный расчёт

confidence
доверие, вера; уверенность

creditor
кредитор

customer
клиент, заказчик, покупатель

debtor
дебитор, должник

delivery
поставка, доставка

demand
требование; экон. спрос

dispatch
отправка, отправление, отсылка (курьера, почты)

distortion
искажение, извращение (высказываний, фактов)

distributor
дистрибутор, распространитель, агент по продаже

draft
набросок, черновик, проект; чек, счет

fictitious
поддельный, фальшивый, фиктивный

immediately
незамедлительно, сразу же

negotiations
переговоры

obstacle
преграда, препятствие

order
заказ; приказ, распоряжение

prompt
срочный, быстрый, немедленный

purchase
покупка, закупка, приобретение

revenue
доход

transaction
дело, сделка, соглашение

transfer
перевод, перечисление (денежных сумм)

urgent
срочный, неотложный

valuation
оценка, определение ценности

value
ценность, стоимость

to be granted to / be intended to
быть предоставленным / предназначенным для чего-либо

to conform
согласовывать, приспосабливать, адаптировать

to constitute
составлять, основывать

to discount
Уменьшать (цену) ; предоставлять скидку;
фин. дисконтировать, производить дисконт

to dismantle
снимать, лишать

to draw
зд. представлять

to inflate
взвинчивать, вздувать (цены); вызывать инфляцию

to issue
выпускать, издавать; пускать в обращение; выдавать

to outlaw
объявлять незаконным; запрещать


Module 3. CUSTOMS CLEARANCE OF GOODS
UNIT 3.1 CUSTOMS CONTROL OF THE CARGO

In this Unit, you learn about:
Customs clearance procedure
documents accompanying the Cargo
Grammar: Conditionals with I wish

Exercise 1. Practice useful expressions related to Unit 3.1.
cargo shipments
duty collection
inspectional techniques and devices

to release goods
to minimize damage

to identify shipments
to result in increased seizures
to be deficient in quantity
to ship
to complete a delivery
to relieve from duty
carrier of the goods
perishablegoods
dangerous goods
exhibition goods
entertainment goods
safety regulations
consumer protection regulations

environment protection
limitedamount
перевозки грузов
сбор пошлин
(инспекционные) технические устройства проверки и контроля
выпустить товары
свести к минимуму ущерб (повреждения)
для идентификации грузов
привести к увеличению изъятий
быть недостаточным по количеству
перевозить груз
завершить доставку
освободить от пошлины
перевозчик груза, товаров
скоропортящиеся товары
опасные грузы
выставочные товары
представительские товары
правила техники безопасности
положения о защите прав потребителей
охрана окружающей среды
ограниченное количество


Exercise 2. Using the dictionary find the words synonymous to:
purpose, devices, damage, examination, goods, regulations, dangerous, quantity, carrier, protection, different, accidents, trade, sponsor, demonstration.
Exercise 3. Fill in the table of derivatives.
VerbNounAdjective / Participleshiploadsupplyinspectioncompleteregulationestablishprohibitedpreventexaminationdamagedtransportcarrieremployedconsumer
Exercise 4. Make up semantic map of the word CARGO.










 Hints:
Semantic map describes the schematic relations that compose a concept (theme). The major purpose of the semantic map is to allow students to organize their prior knowledge into these formal relations and thus to provide themselves a basis for understanding what they are about to read and study.
Exercise 5. Match left and right to learn about the documents which must accompany the cargo.

Cargo Entry Declarationупаковочный лист

Bill of Lading
сертификат качества

Bill of Parcels
сертификат заводских испытаний

Invoice
сертификат происхождения

Packing List
счет-фактура

Insurance policy
декларация на ввоз груза

Test Certificate
накладная

Certificate of Origin
письмо-обязательство

Certificate of Quality
коносамент

10) Letter of Obligation
страховой полис





Exercise 5. Read Text 1 to answer the following questions:
1. What documents must accompany the cargo?
2. Why are all cargo shipments subject to Customs control?
3. Where is the cargo examined?
4. What attention should be paid to when shipping perishable goods?
5. Why must transportation of dangerous goods be regulated so carefully?
6. Why are exhibition goods relieved from duty?

Text 1
Customs Control of the Cargo
Cargo shipments entering the country are to be supplied with the necessary documents. The cargo documents: Declaration on Goods, Bill of Parcels, Bill of Lading, Invoice, Insurance Policy are checked before unloading the vehicle.
Cargo shipments are to be inspected for duty collection and anti-smuggling purposes. Various inspectional techniques and devices can help release goods quicker, with less damage and also result in increased seizures of prohibited items.
The cargo is examined at the Customs control zone. A Customs officer should be careful in order to minimize damage. If its necessary to damage an article, its value should be established before the examination. If the cargo is found in bad or damaged condition or deficient in quantity, the cargo is put apart for examination in the presence of the owner or the carrier of the goods.
Perishable goods
When shipping perishable goods, particular attention should be paid to shipping methods. When goods are moving and they are on dry ice or ice packs, there is a limited amount of time they can be in transit. It is recommended that goods that are perishable be shipped early in the week preferably Sunday, if available, or on Monday. This allows for all processes to be completed for the import of these types of products and still be able to complete a delivery before the weekend.
Dangerous goods
Transportation of dangerous (hazardous) goods must be regulated in order to prevent, as far as possible, accidents to persons or property and damage to the environment, the means of transport employed or to other goods. However, with different regulations in every country and for different modes of transport, international trade in chemicals and dangerous products would be seriously impeded, if not made impossible and unsafe. Moreover, dangerous goods are also subject to other kinds of regulations, e.g. safety regulations, consumer protection regulations, storage regulations, environment protection regulations.
Exhibition goods
Exhibition goods are relieved from duty because they are imported temporarily only for demonstration at an event. Exhibition goods (or: entertainment goods official goods, souvenirs and refreshments) are released duty free. A Letter of Obligation issued by the sponsor of the event must support exhibition goods. The documents supporting exhibition goods must state that exhibition goods are coming into the country for exhibition purposes only.
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps.
The cargo documents: __________ are checked before unloading the vehicle.
Cargo shipments are to be inspected for ____________.
The cargo is examined at __________.
When shipping perishable goods, particular attention should be paid to ____________.
Transportation of dangerous goods must be regulated in order to ____________.
Exhibition goods are relieved from duty because _____________.
Exercise 7. Translate the following into Russian:
Traditionally, goods being imported or exported have been cleared at the port of departure or arrival. As enforcement officers of the borders and all points of entry for cargo, Customs officials are responsible for examining documents and cargo. This initial examination is the simplest way to identify shipments and to distinguish between legal and illegal shipments.
Exercise 8. Comprehension questions.
Where are goods being imported or exported usually cleared?
Why do Customs officials examine cargo shipments?
Exercise 9. Study the following verbs and words related to Text 2. Give your own examples with these phrases.
to identify and target containers выявить (выбрать) потенциально опасные контейнеры;
to pose a risk – представлять опасность;
to work in concert – работать согласованно;
to share critical data – поделиться важными данными (информацией);
to ascertain vulnerable links – выяснить уязвимые связи / места;
to prevent lapses – предотвратить отклонение от принципов / правил поведения.
Exercise 10. Match left and right.
1) Container Security Initiative (CSI)
a) система управления рисками;

2) breaches in integrity
b) контейнеры, перевозимые морским путем;

3) high-risk containers
c) оперативная автоматизированная информация;

4) risk management system
d) тщательная оценка (анализ) порта;

5) detection technology
e) основные (ключевые) элементы;

6) maritime containers
f) Программа безопасности контейнерных перевозок;

7) pre-screening
g) нарушения кодекса чести, неподкупности сотрудников;

8) collaborative targeting
h) технические средства обнаружения (контрабанды, запрещенных предметов);

9) core elements
i) контейнеры высокой степени риска;

10)thorough port assessment
j) предварительная проверка;

11)intelligence and automated information
k) совместная цель, стратегия.


Exercise 11. Read Text 2 to speak on resolving security concerns by the USA.
Text 2
Container Security Initiative (CSI)
The Container Security Initiative (CSI) is based on an idea that makes sense: extend zone of security outward so that American borders are the last line of defense, not the first. Through CSI, maritime containers that pose a risk for terrorism are identified and examined at foreign ports before they are shipped to the United States.
CSI consists of four core elements:
using intelligence and automated information to identify and target containers that pose a risk for terrorism;
pre-screening those containers that pose a risk at the port of departure before they arrive at U.S. ports;
using detection technology to quickly pre-screen containers that pose a risk;
using smarter, tamper evident containers (вскрытие контейнера).
Under the CSI program, the screening of containers that pose a risk for terrorism is accomplished by teams of CBP officials deployed to work in concert with their host nation counterparts (зд. представители аналогичных силовых структур принимающей стороны).
Requirements for CSI Expansion
In order to be eligible for CSI expansion a port must demonstrate the capability of six required standards.
The Customs Administration must be able to inspect cargo originating, transiting, exiting, or being transshipped through a country.
The seaport must have regular, direct, and substantial container traffic to ports in the United States.
Commit to establishing a risk management system to identify potentially high-risk containers, and automating that system.
Commit to sharing critical data, intelligence, and risk management information with the United States Customs and Border Protection in order to do collaborative targeting, and developing an automated mechanism for these exchanges.
Conduct a thorough port assessment to ascertain vulnerable links in a ports infrastructure and commit to resolving those vulnerabilities.
Commit to maintaining integrity programs to prevent lapses in employee integrity and to identify and combat breaches in integrity.
Exercise 12. Answer the following questions:
What is the Container Security Initiative based on?
What elements does CSI consist of?
What requirements are needed for CSI expansion?
Exercise 13. Rewrite the sentences below translating the Russian parts into English. Consult Text 2.
Under the Программа безопасности контейнерных перевозок, the тщательная проверка опасных контейнеров is accomplished by teams of сотрудники таможенной службы США.
Through CSI, контейнеры, перевозимые морским путем that pose a risk for терроризм are identified and examined at иностранные порты before they are shipped to the United States.
In order to be eligible for CSI распространение there must be an established система управления рисками to identify potentially контейнеры высокой степени риска at the port of entry.
One of the main elements of CSI includes maintaining integrity programs to prevent отклонение от принциповилиправил поведения in employee integrity and to identify and combat нарушения честности и неподкупности сотрудников таможни.
Exercise 14. Translate into English using the following phrases:
(The) Container Security Initiative (Program); container shipments; to be intended to (for); to prevent from terrorist attacks; to include the development of criteria; to identify suspect (dangerous) containers; before arrival at the port of entry.
Программа безопасности контейнерных перевозок предназначена для повышения контроля над контейнерными грузами и предотвращения использования контейнеров террористами для ввоза оружия. Программа включает разработку критериев выявления опасных контейнеров и проверку подозрительных контейнеров до их прибытия в порт.



Exercise 15. Interpret the phrase: “Customs clearance implies a process of completing all necessary formalities during cargo transportation over the border or changes in Customs treatment”.
Exercise 16. Make up short dialogues about formalities related to Customs clearance of the cargo.
Exercise 17. Prepare a presentation on one of the following points:
1. Customs control of exhibition goods.
2. Customs control of dangerous goods.
3. Customs control of perishable goods.
Exercise 18. Speak on the advantages of the US Container Security Initiative (Program).

Exercise 19. Translate the sentences with I wish... into Russian.
She wishes she had more free time.
I wish I had known his name.
Jennifer doesnt wish she went to school.
Do you wish you had more friends?
Does he wish he lived in London?
They dont wish they were bankers.
I wish I had thought of that idea before!
I wish I had bought Jane a present then.
I wish we had caught the train then. We had to wait for the next one so long!
I wish he hadnt paid too much money for this thing.
Exercise 20. Write sentences beginning I wish...
I dont know many people (and Im lonely). I wish I knew more people.
I dont have a key (and I need one). I wish __________.
Ann isnt here (and I need to see her). I wish __________.
Its cold (and I hate cold weather).
I live in a big city (and I dont like it).
I cant go to the party (and Id like to).
I have to work tomorrow (but Id like to stay in bed).
I dont know anything about cars (and my car has just broken down).
Im not lying on a beautiful sunny beach under palms (and thats a pity).
Im at the lesson now (but Id like to be at home).
Exercise 21. Write your own sentences beginning I wish...
(Somewhere youd like to be now at the seaside, in New York, in Paris, at the mountain resort, at home, etc.)
I wish I __________.
(Something youd like to have a computer, a job, a car, lots of money, etc.)
(Something youd like to be able to do skate, sing, speak a language, fly, etc.)
(Something youd like to be beautiful, strong, rich, famous, etc.)
(Somewhere youd like to work at Customs post, big company, Customs department, Operative Customs, city administration, etc.).
Exercise 22. Imagine that you are in these situations. For each situation, write a sentence with I wish...
Youve made too many mistakes in your test and now you feel upset. You say: I wish I had made too many mistakes in my test.
There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your decision was wrong.
You say: I wish I __________.
When you were younger, you didnt learn to play a musical instrument. Now you regret this.
You say: __________.
Youve painted the wall bright orange. Now you think that it doesnt look very nice.
You say: __________.
You are walking in the country (in the nature). You would like to take some photographs but you didnt bring your camera.
You say: __________.
You have some unexpected guests. They didnt tell you they were coming. You are very busy and you are not prepared for them.
You say (to yourself): __________.
You have failed your exam. You think that you didnt study well. Now you regret this.
You say: __________.
Exercise 23. Translate the sentences into English. Use I wish...
Жаль, что он такой невнимательный.
Жаль, что он живет так далеко от центра города.
Вот бы сейчас было лето!
Жаль, что у нас нет доступа к этой информации.
Я бы хотел, чтобы наши спортсмены выиграли соревнование.
Жаль, что мне надо готовиться к семинару.
Вот бы таможенный контроль закончился через несколько минут!
Жаль, что они не могут перевести текст.
Жаль, что у нас нет времени навестить друзей.
GLOSSARY
breach
брешь, пролом; нарушение

capability
способность, возможности; умение

chemicals
химикаты, химические вещества

collaborative
совместный

consumer
потребитель

counterpart
коллега; человек, находящийся на аналогичной должности или выполняющий сходную работу

delivery
доставка, поставка

disruption
разрушение, распад, раскол

environment
окружающая среда

employee
служащий; сотрудник. работник

evident
явный, очевидный

expansion
расширение, распространение

hazardous
опасный

initial
первоначальный, начальный, исходный

integrity
честность, неподкупность

maritime
морской

perishable
скоропортящийся

preferably
предпочтительно

property
собственность, имущество

requirement
требование; необходимое условие

shipping
перевозка груза (отправка, доставка)

smart
умный, сообразительный

storage
хранение

substantial
существенный, значительный

value
стоимость, ценность

vulnerable
уязвимый

vulnerability
уязвимость

to accomplish
совершать, выполнять

to ascertain
выяснить, установить

to be eligible for
иметь возможность, право на

to commit
совершать, вводить в действие

to deploy
дислоцировать, развертывать

to distinguish
различать, распознавать

to identify
выявлять, идентифицировать, распознавать

to impede
затруднять, препятствовать

to maintain
выполнять, поддерживать

to pre-screen
проводить предварительную проверку

to resolve
решать


UNIT 3.2 TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS

In this Unit, you will learn about:
international transportation and logistics
methods of goods transportation
forwarding processes
Grammar: Conditionals with ‘I wish’
Revision: Conditional sentences (Types II, III).

Exercise 1. Find the dictionary definitions of the following words:
logisticsthe act or skill of controlling and making decisions about a business, department, sports team, etc;insurancean agent who performs services (as receiving, transshipping, or delivering) designed to move goods to their destination;managementthe act of putting something that is not being used in a place where it is available, where it can be kept safely, etc.; the act of storing something;customersomeone who buys goods or services from a business; freightthe things that must be done to plan and organize a complicated customer activity or event that involves many people;forwarderan agreement in which a person makes regular payments to a company and the company promises to pay money if the person is injured or dies, or to pay money equal to the value of something (such as a house or car) if it is damaged, lost, or stolen;storagegoods that are carried by ships, trains, trucks, or airplanes.
Exercise 2. Match left and right. Study the following phrases related to Text 1.
1) supply chain management
a) внешнеторговая компания

2) logistics
b) навыки межличностных отношений

3) IT (information technologies)
c) резервирование (бронирование) места на судне

4) air freight
d) судовой агент

5) interpersonal skills
e) управление цепями поставок

6) export trading company
f) организация, действующая в роли посредника для продавца или покупателя

7) inland transportation
g) логистика

8) ship (shipping) agent
h) информационные технологии

9) booking of vessel space
i) прямой и обратный (грузо-) поток

10) vessel chartering
j) воздушные грузоперевозки

11) export management company
k) внутренние перевозки

12) forward and reverse flow
l) фрахтование судов


Exercise 3. Continue the synonymous line of the word-dominant CARGO:
Cargo goods...
Consult Text 1.
(Prompts: freight, commodity, load, haul, consignment, shipment, merchandise; shipload).
Exercise 4. Try to explain what the meaning of the word logistics includes. Find the definition of this word in the dictionary / encyclopedia. Pay attention to the explanation what it means in Russian: Логистика – организация рационального процесса продвижения товаров и услуг от поставщиков сырья к потребителям, функционирования сферы обращения продукции, товаров, услуг....


Exercise 5. Read the text to answer the questions:
What is logistics?
What are the different areas of logistics work?
Why is supply chain management important?
What skills do people need to build in preparation for a supply chain career?
Text 1
International Transportation and Logistics
Transportation is arguably the most critical component of global supply chains. Logistics is that part of supply chain management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and point of consumption in order to meet customers requirements.
Key skills for working in logistics include a results focus, initiative, flexibility, self-motivation, and a commercial understanding of how IT facilitates supply chain management.
Interpersonal skills are crucial, as a significant part of the role involves links with suppliers and customers. While graduates from all disciplines will be considered, a second language can be an advantage.
Transport managers need a comprehensive understanding of the local and international air freight, road freight and ocean carrier market. Key skills include strong planning and organizational ability, the ability to work effectively to tight deadlines, problem solving and negotiation skills.
The main logistics jobs are:
Foreign freight forwarders handlers of a myriad of foreign freight services: rate quotes, vessel chartering, booking of vessel space, handling of documentation and cargo insurance, tracing and expediting, arranging inland transportation and providing translation services.
Export management companies suppliers of expertise to those wishing to sell products overseas but lacking the necessary resources.
Export trading companies locaters of overseas buyers. They also handle export documentation, transportation and the meeting of foreign government requirements.
Customs brokers overseers of the movement of goods through Customs. They also ensure that accompanying documents are complete and accurate.
Ship brokers sales representatives for ship owners and purchasing representatives for the shipper.
Ship agents local representative of the ship operator that handles the ships arrival, berthing, clearance, loading and unloading.
Export packers suppliers of export packaging services.
Port authorities owner and operator of the port. They provide wharf, dock, and other terminal facilities at port locations.
Exercise 6. Scan Text 1 again to find the English equivalents for:
таможенные представители; организаторские способности; иностранные экспедиторы; требования клиентов (заказчиков); навыки ведения переговоров; рынок морских перевозчиков; судовые брокеры; ключевые навыки; необходимые ресурсы; котировки курса; сжатые сроки; поставщики экспортных упаковочных услуг; терминальный комплекс.
Exercise 7. Read Text 2 to describe the main documents used in transportation of goods.
Text 2
Documentation

Every mode of transport has its own specific document for carrying out transportation.
The main document used in air transportation is the Air Waybill (AWB), which consists of 12 copies distributed to the airline, exporter, importer, and Customs. For sea transport it is the bill of lading shortened frequently to the B/L. For international road freight, the consignment note completed by the haulers is the CMR note. When an exporter uses a road haulier, the hauliers receipt for the goods is called a CMR note. This is a contract of carriage but is not evidence of ownership of the shipment. The internationally recognized conditions of such transactions are governed by the CMR Convention.
The bill of lading is one of the oldest documents used in international trade. Bills of lading are issued either by shipping lines or by freight forwarders and also by the International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association (FIATA).
On claiming his goods the customer has to show a Customs clearance form, which allows the goods to be taxed, copies of the certificate of origin, if necessary, commercial invoices, import license, and health certificate for food or animal imports.
The bill of lading or waybill also has to be produced to prove ownership of the goods, and the Customs issues an out-of-charge note once the goods have been cleared by them.
Exercise 8. Comprehension questions.
What is the main document used in air transportation?
What is used for sea transport?
What is one of the oldest documents used in international trade?
What documents does the customer have to present when claiming his goods?
Exercise 9. Match left and right.
1) consignment note
a) разрешение на вывоз с таможни ранее задержанных грузов

2) freight forwarders
b) перевозчик на автодорожном транспорте

3) road haulier
c) импорт продовольственных товаров или товаров животного происхождения

4) out-of-charge note
d) транспортная накладная

5) food or animal imports
e) экспедиторы грузов


Exercise 10. Rewrite the sentences below translating the Russian parts into English.
Коносаменты are issued either by судоходные линии or by экспедиторы груза (транспортные агенты), and also by the Международная федерация экспедиторских ассоциаций (FIATA).
The накладная or waybill also has to be produced to prove право собственности на товары and the Customs issues разрешение на вывоз с таможни ранее задержанных грузов once the goods have been cleared by them.
On claiming his goods the заказчик has to предъявить таможенный сертификат на оформление груза, which allows the товары to be taxed, copies of the сертификат происхождения, if necessary, счет-фактура, and лицензия на импорт, и сертификат здоровья for food or animal imports.
Exercise 11. Scan the background information from Texts 1-4 (below) to list the advantages and disadvantages of different means of transport:

Text 1
Transportation by RoadText 2
Transportation by TrainInternational transportation of goods by road is the most available and simple type of international transportation: it is quick and cheap. In comparison with railway and air transport road transport is the most beneficial variant for goods transportation considering combination speed price quality.
Road transport tends to be comparatively cheaper and more direct than rail. No other form of transport is used, which reduces the risks of theft and damage. Road vehicles do not run to a timetable which makes road transport more flexible than rail.
On the other hand, road transport is slower than rail over long distances. It is not suitable for carrying bulk goods over long distances. Road transport can be slow when there are traffic jams or bad weather.  Rail transport is faster than road, which is necessary especially when transporting perishable goods, i.e. fish, fruit, meat, etc. Rail transport can be used for carrying bulk commodities (oil, grain, coal) in greater volume than road transporters.
One of the advantages of railway transportation in containers is the possibility of house to house delivery without the risk of goods integrity loss. Besides, railway transportation in containers is convenient for the companies, which operate with small lots of goods.
Rail transport is more likely to run in poor weather conditions such as fog and snow.
Rail is safer than road for carrying dangerous products such as nuclear waste.
Text 3
Transportation by SeaText 4
Transportation by AirCargo liners (freighters) run on fixed routes to fixed timetables. In this respect they are similar to passenger trains and buses. They can carry mixed cargoes. A freighter (cargo liner) might be transporting cars, television sets, spare machine parts and fruit. Alternately, they might carry only one type of cargo. For example, a refrigerated cargo liner might only be carrying meat.
Air transport is fast over long distances and could be used for sending emergency medical supplies or perishables such as flowers. Also there is less risk of theft or damage and air could be used for sending high value, low-bulk goods such as diamonds. However, it is expensive, particularly if heavy goods are carried. Only goods of a limited size and weight can be carried. Road transport is needed to take goods to and from airports. Air transport may not be able to operate during poor weather such as fog. 
Fill in the following table:


Means of transportation

Advantages

Disadvantages


Goods


Road (автодорожный)




Railway
(железнодорожный)




Sea / river / canal
(морской / речной)




Air (воздушный)






Exercise 12. Read Text “Customs Control of Means of Conveyance” and translate the Russian words in the text from Russian into English.
Choose from:
Personal effects; places under seal; payment of all duties; vessel; premises on board; inward documents; cargo; aircraft; Customs clearance; changes; formalities; confiscation; airfield; in authorized form; person in charge; rummage for contraband; crew; control; outward documents; permit to depart; Customs authority; articles; passengers; duration of their stay; departure; means of conveyance; Customs officer on duty; seals;
Customs Control of Means of Conveyance
All транспортные средства, entering or leaving the country are legally liable to таможенное оформление and control. The ответственное лицо of a судно or aircraft must answer the Customs officer’s questions and produce the necessary documents в надлежащей форме in respect of the means of conveyance, its груз and экипаж (команда).
The дежурный таможенник will check the документы на въезд. If they are in order, the necessary papers are signed and the date is stamped.
All means of conveyance are subject to Customs контроль for the период пребывания in the port or летное поле.
The Customs officer on duty must inspect the means of conveyance and seal up those помещения на борту a vessel or воздушное судно that contain those goods or предметы which may not be landed or taken ashore.
Not a person, except the представитель таможенных органов, can break or erase the пломбы.
Личные вещи of the crew and пассажиры are examined because any ship or aircraft is liable to досмотр на предмет контрабанды. Undeclared things are liable to конфискация, so they may be seized.
Prior to отправление the person in charge must produce the документы на выезд and to state in them the изменения which took place during the stay.
The Customs officer must inspect the means of conveyance, check the опломбированные помещения (места) and remove the seals, examine the crew’s personal effects and the passengers’ if any.
Upon уплата всех пошлин and clearing all the формальности the Customs officer grants a разрешение на выход в рейс.
Exercise 13. Scan the text Customs Control of Means of Conveyance and answer the following questions:
What formalities must a person in charge of a vessel or aircraft go through on arrival in the country?
What are the responsibilities of the Customs officer on duty when a ship (or an aircraft) arrives?
Why are personal effects of the crew and passengers examined?
What documents must the master (the captain) produce to the Customs authorities prior to departure?
When will the Customs officer grant a permit for the ship (or the aircraft) to depart?

Exercise 14. Read the text below and give some arguments for and against (pro and con) to prove why it is so necessary to ensure security of the cargo.
Governments are very concerned with the shipment of cargo, as it may bring security risks to a country. Therefore, many governments have enacted rules and regulations, administered by a Customs agency, to the handling of cargo to minimize risks of terrorism and other crime. Governments are particularly concerned with cargo entering through a countrys borders.
 Hints
Here you can see some phrases. They may help you.
May I put a word in?
If you ask me...
Generally speaking...
Strictly speaking...
That depends on...
On the one hand...
On the other hand...
From my point of you...
To summarize all...
If I am not mistaken...
As far as I know...
There is no doubt...
It is quite obvious / evident
It is common knowledge that...
In my opinion...
To my mind...
It seems to me...
To tell the truth...
As for me...
Exercise 15. Prepare to talk about different modes of transport, choosing advantages and disadvantages of each mode.
Exercise 16. Summarize the information of Texts 1-2 to be ready to speak on:
what logistics is;
key skills for working in logistics;
the main logistics jobs;
the main documents used in transportation of goods.



Exercise 17. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the phrases in bold type.
I wish you wouldnt keep borrowing money from me.
I wish you would remember to go to the bank from time to time.
I havent got any money. I wish I had some money.
Ill have to do some extra work over the weekend. I wish I didnt have to do any extra work over the weekend.
Now weve missed the train. I wish we hadnt missed the train.
I wish you wouldnt phone me so early in the morning.
Exercise 18. Open the brackets.
I wish the holidays (come) so we could go off to the seaside.
If he (be) more careful, he would not have had that terrible accident.
I wish you (start) a private enterprise.
We (not to make) an arrangement with him if we (know) that he was so inexperienced in this job.
If they (take into account) the forecasts of the suppliers, the delivery (be) not a failure.
She would have been top of her class if she (work) hard.
She (not pay) in cash if she had a credit card.
She wouldnt have missed the train if she (wake up) earlier.
Exercise 19. For each situation, write a sentence with I wish... Use words from brackets.
Dont be so conceited about your achievement.
(wish, not, so, your, conceited, you, were, about, achievement, I).
Its a pity the winter holidays are so short.
(the, I, winter, holidays, wish, longer, were).
I cant go with you to the rock concert.
(to, could, you, the, I, concert, go, wish, rock, I, with).
You are far too jealous of her success!
(her, less, success, jealous, were, you, wish, of, I).
Its a pity your friend cant come with us.
(I, could, us, come, your, have, wish, friend, with).
I cant play football.
(wish, I, football, could, play, I).
I would like to give up smoking.
(could, smoking, I, to, wish, I, give up).
I dont have a job as a radio announcer.
(as, a, I, job, had, radio announcer, wish, a, I).
Its difficult for me to ride in a car because of traffic jams in the city.
(city, werent, I, traffic, in, wish, jams, there, the).
Dont pay attention to his hurtful words!
(attention, didnt, words, I, his, to, pay, you, wish, hurtful).
Exercise 20. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
David and his friends went on an excursion last weekend. However, when they arrived in the mountain, it started to rain. They wish they (not/go) hadnt gone to the mountains.
Many young people these days have a difficulty in finding a job because of the global financial crisis. I wish every graduate (can/find) a job.
The coach trip to Paris was very exhausting. I wish I (fly) there instead of taking the coach.
I have three books to study for my next exam. I wish I (read) some of them last summer!
I wish I (not/stay up) late last night! I feel very tired now.
I have lost my keys. I wish I (can/remember) where I put them. But I cant.
I wish our personal things (be examined) fast.
There is no rain in our region this winter. I wish it (rain) these days. But it has been sunny.
I wish she (not/tell) them the truth before our meeting yesterday.
I have got only bad results for my English test. I wish I (have) better results.
There was an accident in the road yesterday, but I couldnt help. I wish I (can/help).
David received an e-mail, but he doesnt know who sent it to him. David wishes he (know) who sent e-mail to him.
He didn’t have time to watch the match between FC Bayern (Munich) and FC Arsenal (London). He wishes he (have) time to watch that exciting match.
Exercise 21. Translate into English:
Жаль, что вы не побывали на выставке.
Жаль, что он опоздал на свой рейс. Теперь ему придется поменять билет.
Жаль, что у вас возникли осложнения при оформлении визы.
Жаль, что вы не приняли во внимание все пункты контракта.
Жаль, что он не сдал экзамен.
Жаль, что мы не получили визу вовремя.
Жаль, что ты не справился с тестом.
Вот бы Вы объяснили эти правила заранее!
Жаль, что мой багаж был такой тяжелый. Мне пришлось нанять носильщика.
Жаль, что вы перестали работать таможенником.

GLOSSARY
ability
способность, возможность

acceptable
приемлемый, допустимый

accurate
верный, правильный, точный

arguably
спорно, возможно, вероятно

beneficial
выгодный

berthing
постановка к причалу

broker
брокер; посредник

bulk
прилагат. лежащий навалом; навалочный

cargo liner
грузовоз, грузовой лайнер

consignment
груз;партия товаров; консигнация

consumption
потребление

convenient
удобный

crucial
ключевой, критический, решающий

defense
защита, оборона

diamond
алмаз, бриллиант

efficient
эффективный, действенный

emergency
крайняя необходимость; непредвиденный случай

expertise
экспертиза

flow
поток

forwarding agent
экспедитор

freighter
транспортное средство, служащее для перевозок грузов, грузовой корабль

handler
оператор, работник

hailier
перевозчик; фирма- транспортировщик грузов

initiative
инициатива

inland
внутренний; расположенный внутри страны

link
связь

negotiation
переговоры

origin
происхождение; начало

overseas
заморский, заграничный

overseer
контролёр;инспектор

ownership
собственность, право собственности

particularly
особенно; в частности, в особенности

quality
качество

reverse
противоположный

significant
значительный, важный, существенный

similar
подобный, похожий

supplier
поставщик

theft
воровство, кража

transaction
сделка, транзакция

vessel
судно, корабль

weight
вес, масса

wharf
пристань, причал, верфь

to ensure
обеспечивать, гарантировать

to facilitate
упрощать, облегчать

to govern
управлять, регулировать

to handle
обрабатывать;управлять(чем-либо), справляться(с чем-либо)

to implement
выполнять, осуществлять

to issue
выдавать, выпускать

to purchase
покупать, приобретать


Module 4. Customs Union Procedures
Unit 4.1 Transit procedure




In this Unit, you learn:
what Customs transit is
how to speak on TIR Convention
about application of the TIR Convention in the Customs Union
Grammar: -ing forms. The Gerund


Exercise 1. Match the following collocations:
1) release for home consumption
2) export
3) Customs transit
4) Customs warehousing
5) processing on the Customs territory
6) processing outside the Customs territory
7) processing for domestic consumption
8) temporary importation (admission)
9) temporary exports
10) re-import
11) re-export
12) free trade
13) destruction
14) refusal of the state
15) free Customs zone
16) free warehouse

a) таможенный склад
b) переработка для внутреннего потребления
c) беспошлинная торговля
d) уничтожение
e) экспорт
f) выпуск для внутреннего потребления
g) реимпорт
h) отказ в пользу государства
i) реэкспорт
j) временный ввоз (допуск)
k) переработка на таможенной территории
l) свободный склад
m) временный вывоз
n) таможенный транзит
o) свободная таможенная зона
p) переработка вне таможенной территории


Exercise 2. Using the dictionary find the words synonymous to:
supervision, destruction, admission, free, production, consumption, enforcement, ensure, goods, mail, engine, agreement, member.
Exercise 3. Practice useful expressions related to Unit 4.1:
under Customs supervision
под таможенным контролем;

Customs authority of departure
таможенный орган отправления;

Customs office of destination
таможенный орган назначения;

the territory of a state not a member of the Customs Union
территория государства, не являющегося членом Таможенного союза;

goods transported by air
товары, перевозимые воздушным транспортом;

intermediate/emergency (technical) landing
промежуточная/ вынужденная (техническая) посадка;

international mail
международные почтовые отправления;

goods transported by rail
товары, перемещаемые железнодорожным транспортом;

agreement of the states-members of the Customs Union
договор государств-членов Таможенного союза;

to present transit declaration
представлять транзитную декларацию;

enforcement of Customs transit
соблюдение таможенного транзита;

to ensure identification of goods
обеспечивать идентификацию товаров.


Exercise 4. Fill in the table of derivatives.

Verb
Noun
Adjective / Participle


container




different

require




departure




approved

elaborate




load


facilitate





accompanied


movement




ratified

accept





combined
Exercise 5. Match words and their definitions:


convention
commission
container
amendment
transport
annex
carnet
solution
vehiclea) a very large metal box in which goods are packed to make it easy to lift or move them onto a ship or vehicle;
b) a system or method for carrying passengers or goods from one place to another;
c) a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation;
d) a machine with an engine that is used to take people or things from one place to another, such as a car, bus, or truck;
e) a group of people who have been given the official job of finding out about something or controlling something;
f) a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document, or the process of doing this;
g) a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same profession or organization or who have the same interests;
h) a part that has been added to the end of a document, report, etc.;
i) an official document that allows you to go somewhere, especially to drive across the border into another country for a limited period.

Exercise 6. Scan Text 1 for certain true/false information.
TIR stands for Transports International Train Transport.
The TIR Convention was revised in 1975.
The TIR Convention facilitates air transportation.
The vehicles move effectively by using the TIR Carnet.
Exercise 7. Read the text to answer the following questions:

What was the aim of the TIR Convention?
What does the abbreviation TIR mean?
How many countries signed the TIR Convention?
Why was it updated several times?

Text 1
The TIR Convention
The Customs Convention on the International Transport of Goods under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention, 1975) was elaborated under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
The solution was found by using approved vehicles which were effectively sealed and by using the TIR Carnet.
Today, the TIR Convention has 68 Contracting Parties worldwide.
The TIR Convention was revised in 1975 to take into account new methods of transport with the sea containers, followed by the inland containers and swap-body to facilitate rail-road combined transport.
Since its entry into force in 1978, the TIR Convention of 1975 has been updated over 20 times. The most recent relevant amendments came into force on 12 August 2006 with the addition of Annex 10, regarding the electronic control system for TIR Carnets commonly known as SafeTIR.
Exercise 8. Cover the Russian sentences with a sheet of paper and translate the English sentences into Russian, line by line, to check yourself:

1. SafeTIR system was created because of the need to upgrade risk management practices in order to maintain the security of the TIR system in the expansion and modernization of the market.
2. Statistics in the system SafeTIR shows that the amount of data received and processed by the system is constantly growing.

3. Real Time SafeTIR enables communication with Customs authorities in on-line mode
1. Система SafeTIR была создана в силу необходимости обновления методов управления рисками в целях поддержания безопасности системы МДП в условиях расширения и модернизации рынка.
2. Статистика по передачи данных в системе SafeTIR показывает, что объем данных, полученных и обработанных системой, постоянно растет.
3. Real Time SafeTIR позволяет осуществлять обмен данными с таможенными органами в режиме реального времени


Exercise 9. Scan Text 2 for certain true/false information:
Customs transit facilitates the movement of goods between the countries.
Customs transit system is based on 5 essential principles.
SafeTIR was ratified in August 2006.
TIR is an international harmonised system of Customs control.
Exercise 10. Find in the text the words which follow the verbs below:
to facilitate, to travel, to cover, to accompany, to take, to ratify, to confirm, to stand for, to accept, to open, to serve.
Exercise 11. Find in the text the words which follow the nouns below:
Example: Customs Customs regime, Customs territory, Customs procedure, etc.
Customs, movement, transit, country, unloading, control, termination, authorization, access, taxes.
Use the following word-combinations in the sentences of your own.
Text 2
Customs Transit: TIR
Customs transit is a Customs procedure used to facilitate the movement of goods between two points of the Customs territory, via another Customs territory, or between two or more different Customs territories. Goods move under cover of an internationally accepted Customs transit document, the TIR carnet.
TIR stands for Transports Internationaux Routiers (International Road Transport) and is an international harmonized system of Customs control.
The TIR Customs transit system is based on six essential principles, or basic requirements the six pillars of the TIR System. These are:
1) Goods should travel in secure vehicles or containers;
2) Throughout the journey, duties and taxes at risk should be covered by an internationally valid guarantee;
3) Goods should be accompanied by an internationally accepted Customs document the TIR Carnet, opened in the country of departure and serving as a Customs control document in the countries of departure, transit and destination;
4) Customs control measures taken in the country of departure should be accepted by all countries of transit and destination;
5) Access to the TIR procedure shall be dependent on prior authorization by national authorities (Customs);
6) The sixth principle, SafeTIR was ratified in August 2006. SafeTIR information should be sent by Customs to confirm the unloading of goods on termination of a TIR operation.
(TIR Handbook- UNECE)
Exercise 12. Answer the following questions:
What is Customs transit?
What documents must be presented?
How does transit work?
Can one transit document cover all the goods in a consignment?
What are essential principles of the TIR Customs transit system?
Exercise 13. Complete the sentences using the text below:
Customs transit is ___________.
Foreign goods are transported __________.
The TIR system allows Customs authorities to ___________.
TIR Carnets reduce __________.
The security measures are _________.
Payment of Customs taxes and duties may be secured by __________.
Text 3
Application of the TIR Convention in the Customs Union
Customs transit is one of the most popular Customs regimes of cargo movement, under which foreign goods are transported through the Unified Customs territory of the Customs Union without paying Customs duties, taxes and without prohibitions and restrictions of economic nature.
Transit declaration should contain a certain volume of information, which also includes information on the name, number and value of the imported goods, their HS code in accordance with the Commodity Nomenclature of the participating countries of the Union. As a transit declaration, the transportation and commercial documents may be represented to the Customs authority.
For the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, the TIR system is the most effective and practical means of financial security for Customs transit. It allows Customs authorities, national associations and road carriers to significantly increase the effectiveness of risk management measures. In addition, application of the TIR system results in reduced transportation costs.
For example, Kazakh business partners are at a great distance from main contractors, for which the goods are transported through plenty state borders, including those in Customs Union member states. Without TIR Carnet, the high costs, including Customs formalities costs, render international transport non-rational and inefficient. TIR Carnets used for transport of goods, reduce time and transport costs and, as a result, provides the advantages for the road transport industry and trade not only in Kazakhstan, but also the Customs Union in general.
Article 217 of the Customs Code of the Customs Union defines several measures to secure the Customs transit upon transport of goods on the territory of the Customs Union.
The security measures:
Security of payment of Customs duties and taxes,
Customs escort,
Designation of the route for the transportation of goods.
Payment of Customs taxes and duties may be secured by the following means:
Cash assets (money),
Banking guarantee,
Surety,
Pledge of property.
(TIR Handbook- UNECE)
Exercise 14. Answer the following questions:
What is the specific feature of the Customs transit?
What does the transit declaration contain?
What are the advantages of the Customs transit for the countries-members of the Customs Union?
What are the benefits of TIR carnet?

Exercise 15. Sum up the information on Customs transit using the following plan:
Elaboration of the TIR Convention.
Revision of the TIR Convention.
Essential principles of the TIR Customs transit system.
Benefits of TIR carnet.
Exercise 16. Use Texts 1-3 to summarize what you have learned or read on the problem discussed.
Exercise 17. Make the following knowledge test using the extra information on the Internet.
1. When was the current TIR Convention established?
a) 1975
b) 1998
c) 2005
2. Where can you find the text of the TIR Convention? Answer the question in writing.
3. Who can participate in the TIR Administrative Committee?
All member states of the United Nations.
Every two years a group of 7 representative states are elected among the Contracting Parties to the TIR Convention.
All Contracting Parties to the TIR Convention.
4. What are the 6 principles / pillars of the TIR System?
Reduced delays for border crossings
Controlled access
TIR Carnet
Coverage for all categories of goods
International guarantee system
Mutual recognition of Customs controls
Worldwide application of the system
Secure vehicles or containers
SafeTIR
Termination information on all TIR operations
5. Can a TIR transport begin and end in the same country?
Under no circumstances, as a TIR Carnet can only be used for international transport of goods.
Yes, provided that a part of the journey is performed in foreign territory.
6. Which of the following is not considered as heavy or bulky goods?
Bus travelling on its own wheels.
Livestock.
Milk in a tank.
Gravel on an open platform.
7. Can empty trucks travel on their own wheels under the TIR procedure?
No, under no circumstances.
Yes, if they are exported and considered as goods themselves.
8. May Customs authorities carry out physical examinations of TIR goods at Customs offices en route?
Only in exceptional cases.
Yes, as a general rule.
No.
Keys: 1 a); 2 the TIR Handbook; 3 c); 4 Controlled access; TIR Carnet; International guarantee system; Mutual recognition of Customs controls; Secure vehicles or containers; SafeTIR; 5 b); 6 c); 7 b); 8 a).
Exercise 18. Class discussion. Describe at least two benefits that TIR system gives to:
International trade
Customs authorities
Transport operators
 Hints:

Benefits for Transport operators
- Goods move across international frontiers with minimum interference
- Delays and costs of transit are reduced
- Simplification of documentation
- Gives access to many countries (55 in 2007)
- No need for a guarantee deposit at transit borders
Benefits for international trade
- Encourages the secure development of international trade
- Reduces transport costs by reducing formalities and delays in transit
- Facilitates transit movements by the application of standardized controls and documentation
Benefits for Customs
- Duties and taxes at risk are guaranteed
- Normally avoids the need for physical inspection of goods in transit
- Control and documentation are simplified.

Exercise 18. Translate the following word-combinations into English:
международный таможенный транзит; освобождение от уплаты таможенных пошлин; предоставлять выгоды (преимущества); финансовая безопасность; сниженные транспортные расходы; вступать в силу; соответствующие изменения; документ, одобренный международным сообществом; эффективность мер по управлению рисками; принимать во внимание; разгрузка товаров; обеспечивать безопасность таможенного транзита.
Exercise 19. Form Gerunds using the suffix -ing:
read; explain; govern; create; develop; increase; provide; delivery; establish; distribute; visit; enter.
Exercise 20. Make the following sentences simple using the Gerund.
Do you mind if I take your identity card for a moment?
We must consider the matter thoroughly before we come to any conclusion.
I remember that we have seen employees of the Customs administration only once.
When he received information from his firm he changed his mind.
Before he left the departure lounge he called on the Customs officer in charge.
Exercise 21. Translate into Russian paying attention to the Gerund.
There are restrictions and prohibitions on bringing many species into the United States.
No passenger would mind his baggage being examined at the Customs control.
The idea of paying a Customs duty on extra baggage is never a pleasure for tourists.
You can get your visa by presenting all necessary documents in authorized form.
Anybody would object to having a holiday in winter.
Nothing depends on the flights being cancelled at the airport.
They dont approve of their friends gambling.
Smugglers never look forward to being searched.
The Customs officers always insist on tourists filling in an entry declaration.
Customs officers often achieve success by detecting contraband.
 Hints:
Remember: the following verb phrases require an ing form in the compliment

Approve ofGet throughBe better ofInsist onCant helpKeep onCount onLook forward toDo not mindObject toForget aboutThink about / Think of
Exercise 22. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Mind the Gerund followed by the prepositions.
We were looking forward to introducing the new piece of legislation.
Customs officers working together and their sharing intelligence information with one another is of great advantage for border management.
Sellers compete by trying to produce the goods and services at the lowest possible price.
The TIR Carnet is a Customs transit document proving the existence of the international guarantee for duties and taxes for the goods transported under the TIR system.
TIR Carnet Holders are able to benefit from facilitated border crossings, by submitting TIR Pre-Declarations.
In line with the TIR Convention, Russian Customs authorities must continue to accept TIR Carnets at the Russian borders including after 1 December 2013.
The passenger thanked the Customs officer for explaining the Customs laws to him.
Exercise 23. Translate the sentences paying attention to the form of the Gerund.
He hates being interrupted all the time.
He never mentioned having been reprimanded by the dean.
We regret not having caught our flight.
Nobody prevented him from being sent on a business trip.
All the students succeeded in passing the exams.
I do not approve of your having missed the lecture.
She was not sure of having translated the sentences in the right way.
She never complains of having difficulties.
The Customs officers usually insist on tourists filling in an entry declaration.
Smugglers never look forward to being searched.
You can improve your pronunciation by reading to yourself.
She was afraid of missing the plane.
The Customs officers usually insist on tourists filling in an entry declaration.
GLOSSARY
amendment
application
assets
authorization
combined transport
commonly
contracting parties
contractor
costs
designation
escort
pillar
property
relevant
route
swap-body
surety
under the aegis
under cover
valid
via
to approve
to elaborate
to ratify
to revise
to seal
to take into accountпоправка
применение
активы
разрешение
комбинированные перевозки
обычно
договаривающиеся стороны
подрядчик
расходы
обозначение
эскорт
основной принцип; столб, опора
имущество
уместный
маршрут
съемный кузов
поручительство
под эгидой
под прикрытием
действительный
через
утвердить
разработать
ратифицировать
пересмотреть
опечатывать, пломбировать
учитывать, принимать во внимание

Unit 4.2
BASIC CUSTOMS PROCEDURES

In this Unit, you learn:
about basic Customs procedures
about New Computerised Transit System (NCTS)
about ATA Carnets
Grammar: -ing forms. The Gerund



Exercise 1. Match the words from Text 1 to their correct definition.

surveillance(chiefly of a court or other body) accepted as having legal authority to deal with a particular matter; (of a person) efficient and capable;refunda person or party who makes a formal declaration;proceduresuggested, implied though not directly expressed;exportclose observation, supervision, especially of a suspected spy or criminal;declarantan established or official way of doing something; series of actions conducted in a certain order or manner;implicitthe selling and sending out of goods or services to other countries, or the revenue from such sales;competenta repayment of a sum of money, typically to a dissatisfied customer.
Exercise 2. Find in the text the words which follow the verbs below:
to ensure, exported by, to foresee, to be taken over, to leave, to present, to be loaded for, to be made for, to release.
Exercise 3. Fill in the table of derivatives.
Verb
Noun
Adjective / Participle


payment




simplified

ensure




authorisation




exported


exception


accept




Exercise 4. Match left and right:
1) release of goods
a) упрощенная процедура

2) export procedure
b) выплата экспортной дотации / возмещения за экспорт

3) export restrictions
c) меры по надзору

4) simplified procedure
d) разрешение или лицензия на экспорт

5) payment of export refund
e) правильное применение всех экспортных мер

6) (an) implicit declaration
f) таможенный пункт отправления (товаров)

7) surveillance measures
g) процедура экспорта

8) Customs office of exit
h) подразумеваемая декларация

9) export authorisation or licence
i) экспортные ограничения

10) correct application of all export measures
j) выпуск товаров


Exercise 5. Read Text 1 for general understanding.
Text 1
Export Procedure
The export procedure is obligatory for the goods leaving the EU Customs territory, with very few exceptions. This is due to the fact that this procedure must ensure the correct application of all export measures, e.g.: export restrictions and surveillance measures, and payment of export refunds for agricultural products.
The export procedure foresees, in principle, two stages:
First the exporter/declarant presents the goods, his export declaration and, where necessary, his export authorisation or licence at the Customs office responsible for the place where he is established or where the goods are packed or loaded for export.
If no simplified procedure is used, the export declaration is made on the Single Administrative Document (SAD) or its electronic equivalent. An oral (or sometimes implicit) declaration may also be made (at the Customs office of exit) in certain circumstances. However, neither an oral nor an implicit declaration may be made for goods in respect of which export refund or repayment of duties is claimed or which are subject to restrictions or other special formalities.
The Customs office to which the goods and the export declaration have been presented releases the goods for export on condition that they leave the EU Customs territory in the same condition as when the declaration was accepted.
In the case of goods exported by rail, post, air or sea, the Customs office of exit may be the office competent for the place where the goods are taken over under a single transport contract for transport to a third country (e.g. port, airport, railway station).
NOTES:
Single Administrative Document (SAD) межд. эк. единый административный документ (стандартная форма таможенной декларации, использующаяся в странах Европейского Союза; введена в 1988 г., заменила собой национальные экспортные и импортные таможенные декларации, использовавшиеся странами ЕС; содержит полную информацию о товаре и способах его транспортировки, сведения об отправителе и получателе товара, а также иные банковские, налоговые и страховые данные).
Exercise 6. Comprehension questions.
What must the export procedure ensure?
What are the principle stages of the export procedure?
What does the exporter present at the Customs office?
How is the export declaration made if no simplified procedure is used?
On what condition does the Customs office [to which the goods and the export declaration have been presented] release the goods for export?
In what cases may the Customs office of exit be the office competent for the place where the goods are taken over?
Exercise 7. Read Text 2 to give the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:
временный ввоз товаров (x2); без уплаты пошлины или НДС; на срок до одного года; таможенные органы; экономить деньги; профессиональное оборудование; паспорт на товары (x2); коммерческие образцы; ярмарки; промышленное оборудование; медицинская техника (приборы); скаковые лошади; картины старых мастеров; доисторические реликвии (реликты); звуковые системы для рок-групп.
Text 2
Temporary Importation and ATA Carnets

Temporary importation means that goods may be used in the EU countries without payment of duty or VAT under certain conditions and re-exported afterwards in the same state as they were in at import.
Oral, rather than paper, declarations can be made for certain types of goods. However, the Customs authorities may require a written inventory or list to support the oral declaration.
ATA Carnets
The Customs Convention on the ATA Carnet is applied for temporary admission of goods.
Carnets, also known as Passports for Goods or Merchandise Passports are the easiest way to speed through Customs and to save money.
The ATA Carnet is an international Customs document that permits the duty-free and tax-free temporary export and import of goods for up to one year. The Initials “ATA” are an acronym (аббревиатура) of the French and English words Admission Temporaire / Temporary Admission.
ATA Carnets cover:
Commercial samples.
Professional equipment.
Goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions and the like.
That means almost everything from the ordinary to the extraordinary, the usual and unusual: computers, repair tools, photographic and film equipment, musical instruments, industrial machinery, vehicles, jewellery, clothing, medical appliances and aircraft, race horses, old masters, prehistoric relics, ballet costumes and rock group sound systems, etc.
Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:
What does temporary importation mean?
What is an ATA Carnet?
What are advantages of the ATA Carnet?
Exercise 9. Render the text below in English. Consult Text 2.
Use the following phrases:
to issue for a certain fee; to use instead of the common Customs documents; national chambers of commerce; to simplify Customs clearance of goods; on the way to Russia; to admit ATA Carnets; temporary admission (importation); exemption from Customs duties; consumed goods; goods intended for commercial use.
Карнет ATA
Карнет ATA является международным таможенным документом, который выдается за определенную плату национальными торговыми палатами или другими национальными ассоциациями, уполномоченными на это таможенными органами в странах-участницах соответствующей международной конвенции. Карнет ATA заменяет стандартные таможенные документы, необходимые при ввозе и вывозе товаров.
Использование карнета ATA помогает упростить таможенное оформление товаров в странах по пути следования в Россию при условии, что такие страны также признают карнеты АТА.
Действие карнета ATA распространяется на временно ввозимые (на срок до одного года) товары, для которых может применяться полное освобождение от уплаты таможенных платежей при временном ввозе. Его действие не распространяется на потребляемые товары, изделия одноразового использования или товары, предназначенные для коммерческого использования.
Exercise 10. Read Text 3 to match left and right:

1) to keep abreast of the changes
a) общие транзитные процедуры

2) prevention and detection of fraud
b) инструмент для управления и контроля транзитной системы

3) needs of trade
c) бизнес-окружение / деловое сообщество

4) common transit procedures
d) охватить упрощенные процедуры

5) electronic processing of data
e) быть в курсе перемен (изменений)

6) haulier’s documentation
f) доказанные недостатки (изъяны)

7) to cover simplified procedures
g) выявление и предупреждение мошенничества

8) business environment
h) электронная обработка данных

9) tool to manage and control the transit system
i) потребности (нужды) торговли

10) proven flaws
j) документация перевозчика


Text 3
New Computerised Transit System (NCTS)
A key part of the reform of the transit system is its computerisation. In todays world, Customs administrations have to adapt to the needs of trade with speed and flexibility and keep abreast of the continual changes in the business environment. The NCTS will serve as a tool to manage and control the transit system. Based on the use of advanced computer systems and the electronic processing of data, it will guarantee a more modern and efficient management than the paper-based system, with its proven flaws. The main objectives of the NCTS are:
to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of transit procedures;
to improve both the prevention and detection of fraud;
to accelerate transactions carried out under a transit procedure and to offer security for them.
Therefore the computerised system will not, at first, cover simplified procedures under which the goods are transported by rail, air, sea or by pipelines and where, essentially, the hauliers own documentation is used.
As the NCTS will be applicable to the movement of goods subject to common transit procedures, 22 countries are involved in the project. It is estimated that it will eventually link some 3000 European Customs offices.
Exercise 11. Comprehension questions:
What is the New Computerised Transit System?
What is NCTS based on?
What are the main objectives of the NCTS?
Exercise 12. Scan Text 3 and complete the following sentences:
The NCTS is based on the ______________.
The main objectives of the NCTS are _____________.
In todays world, Customs administrations have to adapt to the ____________.
Exercise 13. Read Text Clearance for Home Use to translate the Russian words and word-combinations in the text from Russian into English.
Choose from:
Customs procedure; trade statistics; clearance of goods for home use; national legislation; veterinary; assessment and collection of Customs duties; examination of the goods; supporting documents; warehousing; lodgement of the goods declaration; prohibitions and restrictions; phytopathological; temporary admission; importation; measures; certain categories of goods; statutory or regulatory provision; obligations; release of the goods; Customs transit.
Text 4
Clearance for Home Use
Goods which are imported outright for use or consumption within the Customs territory must be declared for home use. They may be declared for home use either directly on импорт or after another таможенная процедура such as:
склад / складирование (хранение на складе);
режим временного ввоза;
таможенный транзит.
The main обязанности to be fulfilled by the declarant to obtain the выпуск товаров для внутреннего потребления are: the предъявление грузовой декларации with сопроводительные документы (import licence, certificates of origin, etc.) and the payment of any import duties and taxes chargeable.
The меры taken by Customs in connection with clearance are: checking of the goods declarations and accompanying documents; досмотр товаров; начисление и сбор таможенных пошлин and выпуск товаров.
Customs may also be responsible for obtaining the data required for торговая статистика and for the enforcement of other законодательное или регулирующее положение relating to the control of imported goods. Other competent authorities may also carry out certain controls (ветеринарный, health, фитопатологический, etc.) on goods declared for home use.
Национальное законодательство will specify the conditions to be fulfilled and the Customs formalities to be accomplished for the clearance of goods for home use. National legislation may include запреты и ограничения in respect of the importation of определенные категории товаров.
Exercise 14. Comprehension questions.
What goods must be declared for home use?
What are the main responsibilities to be fulfilled by the declarant to obtain the clearance of goods for home use?
What are the measures taken by Customs in connection with clearance of goods?
What may Customs also be responsible for?
Exercise 15. Translate the following into Russian.
Customs Warehousing
Customs warehousing allows the owner to hold imported goods from the countries that are not members of the EU and choose when he pays the duties or re-exports the goods.
The amount of working or processing allowed on goods held in warehouses is limited essentially to keeping them preserved with a view to subsequent distribution. However, it is possible to process goods under inward processing or processing under Customs control on the premises of a Customs warehouse.
Exercise 16. Read the text below to give the English equivalents for:
упрощать торговые процедуры; импортные сборы (издержки); хранение товаров из стран, не входящих в Евросоюз; выпускать для свободного обращения; процедура свободной зоны; освобождение от уплаты налогов, акцизов или местных пошлин.
Free Zones
Free zones are special areas within the Customs territory of the European Union. Goods placed within these areas are free of import duties, VAT and other import charges.
Free zone treatment applies to both goods from the EU countries and from the countries that are not EU members. On importation, free zones are mainly for storage of the goods from the countries that are not EU members until they are released for free circulation. No import declaration has to be lodged as long as the goods are stored in the free zone. Import and export declarations have only to be lodged when the goods leave the free zone. In addition, there may be special reliefs available in free zones from other taxes, excises or local duties.
The free zones are mainly a service for traders to facilitate trading procedures by allowing fewer Customs formalities.



Exercise 17. Work in small groups. Make up short dialogues about Customs procedures.
 Hints
Use the following phrases:
Id like to ask you about; Looking at it from another point of view ; If I understand you correctly you are saying that ; I mean that; The fact is that; I have a question about ; As I said before ; For example; Let me add immediately ; I would agree to you up to the point; You may be interested to know that ; To sum up.
Exercise 18. Prepare 10 15 questions covering the information of the texts (Units 4.1-4.2). Types of the questions to be used:
a) What is the (nature, difference, process, role, importance) of Customs procedures?
b) What role (function) do they play for the government, the EU countries, the passenger?
Exercise 19. Prepare a presentation on one of the following points:
The export procedure.
Temporary Importation / Admission.
The ATA Carnet.
The New Computerised Transit System.
Customs Warehousing.
Clearance for Home Use.
Customs Free Zone
Exercise 20. Summarize the information from Units 4.1-4.2 to describe some of the basic Customs procedures.
Fill in the table:
Customs ProceduresCharacteristicsCustoms transitTemporary importation (admission)


Customs warehousing


Clearance for home use


Export


Customs Free Zone





Exercise 21. Translate the following into English. Consult Units 4.1-4.2.
Виды таможенных процедур
В целях таможенного регулирования в отношении товаров устанавливаются следующие виды таможенных процедур:
1) выпуск для внутреннего потребления;
2) экспорт;
3) таможенный транзит;
4) таможенный склад;
5) переработка на таможенной территории;
6) переработка вне таможенной территории;
7) переработка для внутреннего потребления;
8) временный ввоз (допуск);
9) временный вывоз;
10) реимпорт;
11) реэкспорт;
12) беспошлинная торговля;
13) уничтожение;
14) отказ в пользу государства;
15) свободная таможенная зона;
16) свободный склад;
17) специальная таможенная процедура (таможенная процедура, определяющая для таможенных целей требования и условия пользования и (или) распоряжения отдельными категориями товаров на таможенной территории Таможенного союза или за ее пределами).
Exercise 22. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the Gerund.
His coming home late from work has become the pattern of his life.
We looked forward to our landing at Lincoln International airport.
Instead of taking a big suitcase we took two travelling bags.
Instead of bringing our pets with us on the trip we left them with the neighbors.
We went through the Green Channel instead of going through the Red Channel.
My camera was put into the X-ray machine without the film being ruined.
I also believe that it is useless fighting against drugs without encouraging international cooperation.
The passenger tried to prevent me from examining his videocassettes.
Nobody objects to Peters working in the Baggage Crew.
Michael denies his being sometimes impolite to passengers.
Exercise 23. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Gerund.
The man wasnt afraid of (fine) for (break) the Customs rules.
If you carry some prohibited articles, you risk (accuse) of smuggling.
The high-tech equipment must go through a number of tests before (install).
They succeeded in (detect) smuggling.
The importance of (use) drug detector dogs cant be overestimated.
After (establish) cooperation with banks we shall be able to prevent money laundering.
He passed the Customs control by (go) through the Green channel without (stop) by anyone.
I dont enjoy (work) in shifts and overtime.
Before (search) the cargo we usually process the documents.
(Go) through passport and Customs formalities is a tiresome procedure.
Exercise 24. Complete the sentence with a preposition and the Gerund. Use the language box.
after, for, in, of, without, to, from, by
Private aircraft have become the method of choice _______ transporting narcotics which are destined for the United States.
Customs officers are responsible ______ ensuring that imported and exported goods are properly identified and seized if stolen or smuggled.
Smugglers changed their tactics _____ landing cargoes on the shore _____ bringing contraband past Customs officials in ports using fraud, bribery and concealment.
The traditional Customs responsibilities ______ collecting duties and taxes and preventing smuggling still remain with us.
Customs narcotic detector dogs save countless man-hours _____ locating narcotics in vehicles, mail, and unaccompanied baggage and on cargo ships.
Technology has become a major tool _______ managing all national programs.
He left the office _______ saying good-bye.
The company gained a lot ______ evading the payment of the Customs duties on the imported goods.
_______ interrogating the crew the Customs investigator arrested one of them on suspicion of drug smuggling.
Exercise 25. Fill in the gaps:
1) The Customs officer is responsible for ____________ the stores.
to control
controlling
to be controlled
2) When Ann came in she found Jack ____________ a wonderful picture of the seaside.
finishing
finish
was finished
3) They insisted ____________ making decision at once.
at
about
on
4) The Customs rules __________ in the relation of exhibition goods must be fulfilled.
establishing
established
having established
5) There are several forms of___________ the goods for shipment.
preparing
prepare
prepared
6) Without ___________we entered that mysterious house.
have seen
having been seen
were seen
7) Avoid __________ mistakes if you can.
made
making
have made
8) Dont make so much fuss over __________ your money.
losing
lose
lost
9) She hates _____________.
laughed at
being laughed at
laughing at
10) Can you remember ____________the man before?
have seen
being seen
having seen
Exercise 26. Change the sentences using Perfect Gerund.
Example: He is proud of being a Customs officer. He is proud of having done this work.
She speaks of sending the letters to the Ministry of Culture.
I am sorry for bothering you.
He is blamed for coming late.
The student was praised for making a good report at the seminar.
She complained of having a bad headache.
He is proud of taking part in the discussion.
I am pleased at working with Ann.
He is accused of stealing money.
He suspected her of concealing prohibited items in her baggage.
He was delighted at going to the Olympic Games in Sochi.

GLOSSARY
applicable
подходящий, пригодный

due to
благодаря, вследствие, ввиду

equivalent
эквивалент

exception
исключение, изъятие

implicit
подразумеваемый, скрытый

in certain circumstances
при определенных обстоятельствах

initials
инициалы; заглавные буквы

in principle
в принципе

inventory
опись, список, инвентарь

permanently
постоянно

pipeline
трубопровод; канал (связи, коммуникации)

previously
предварительно

relic
реликвия, реликт

subsequent
последующий

transaction
дело, сделка, операция

to accelerate
ускорять

to claim
утверждать, заявлять, претендовать

to estimate
оценивать, производить оценку; устанавливать цену

to foresee
предусмотреть, предвидеть

to load
грузить (-ся), загружать

to lodge
предъявлять; подавать заявление, иск и т.д.

to take over
принимать от другого, перевозить


Module 5. CUSTOMS ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE
Unit 5.1 Customs Violations
In this Unit, you will learn about:
types of Customs offences and corresponding punishments
law enforcement activities of the Customs agencies
Grammar: Participles I-II
Revision: Modal verbs




Exercise 1. Read Text 1 to match left and right:

1) precautionary measures
a) конфискация товаров

2) possible penalties
b) в определенных обстоятельствах

3) fraudulent intent
c) в течение определенного периода (времени)

4) legal provisions
d) возможные наказания

5) breach of the Customs regulations
e) предполагаемое нарушение

6) within a specified time limit
f) меры предосторожности

7) seizure of the goods
g) умышленное намерение

8) confiscation of the means of transport
h) нарушение таможенных правил

9) in certain circumstances
i) положения закона

10) alleged offence
j) конфискация транспортного средства


Exercise 2. Match the words from the text to their correct definition.

conveyancethe act of losing something as a punishmentfraudulentto give or grant some right, title, etc.forfeituregiven as a fact without proofinadvertentbased on criminal deceptionconferto act against (a law)statutorytransportation, carryingallegeddone thoughtlessly, not on purposecontravenefixed, required by
Exercise 3. Give synonyms to the following words:
breach
seizure
to prohibit
authorities
regulations
conveyance
to be liable to
in accordance with
to be empowered
means of transport

Exercise 4. Use your knowledge to answer the following questions:
What Customs violations do you know?
Which of the Customs offences mentioned do you consider
most frequent?
most dangerous?
most serious?
most harmless?
Exercise 5. As you read Text 1 focus on different types of Customs offences.
Text 1
Customs Offences
One of the tasks of the Customs authorities is to investigate and establish any breach of the current Customs regulations. Only Customs offences which are regarded as relatively serious are brought before the administrative tribunals or courts of law.
When a Customs offence has been established, the Customs authorities are empowered, in certain circumstances, to take the necessary precautionary measures and to seize or detain the goods and means of transport.
The penalties applied vary according to the seriousness or the importance of the offences. Depending on the seriousness of the Customs offence, the Customs authorities may be empowered to require security, to seize or detain the goods and means of transport, or to detain the persons concerned and hand them over to other competent authorities.
After discovering a Customs offence the Customs authorities will inform the person concerned of the nature of the alleged offence and possible penalties.
The penalties are fines, seizure of the goods and, where appropriate, confiscation of the means of transport.
In cases where penalties are applied, the following Customs offences are punishable only by a small fine provided that there is no question of fraudulent intent:
- failure to present goods within a specified time limit;
- failure to follow itinerary prescribed for the conveyance of goods under Customs control;
- failure to produce documents or information within a specified time limit.
The fines are normally based on the amount of the duties and taxes and not on the value of the goods.
Exercise 6. Comprehension questions.
What is one of the tasks of the Customs authorities?
What are the Customs authorities empowered to do when a Customs offence has been established?
What do the penalties applied depend on?
What are the possible penalties?
What Customs offences are punishable only by a small fine?
What are the fines normally based on?
Exercise 7. Give the English equivalents to the following:
сотрудники таможенных органов; в соответствии с положениями; задержать и конфисковать товары; таможенные власти; компетентные органы; обеспечивать безопасность; административные органы; умышленное намерение; предъявлять документы; штрафы; основываться на чем-либо; налоги и пошлины.
Exercise 8. Rewrite the sentences below translating the Russian parts into English.
One of the задачи of the Customs authorities is to investigate and установить любое нарушение of the current таможенные правила.
The наказания applied vary according to the серьезность or the importance of the нарушения.
The fines are normally based on the сумма таможенных пошлин и сборов and not on the стоимость of the товары.
When таможенное нарушение has been established, the таможенные власти are empowered, in certain circumstances, to принять необходимые предупредительные меры and to конфисковать or detain the товары and транспортное средство.
Only Customs offences which are regarded as относительно серьезные are brought before the административные органы or courts of law.
The возможные санкции are штрафы, задержание of the goods and, where appropriate, конфискация of the means of transport.
If there is no question of умышленное намерение Customs offences are punishable only by a небольшой штраф.
Exercise 9. Sort out the following words into groups:

OFFENCES
PENALTIES























to smuggle; to detain goods; to impose a fine; to seize goods; to hand the offenders to competent authorities; to bring before a tribunal; to evade duties and taxes; breach of the provisions; fraud; to be subject to the administrative penalty; to detain goods; money laundering; failure to produce information about amount of the goods; to be liable to a small fine; to detain means of transport; to bring to court; to import goods without a visa.
Exercise 10. Read Text 2 to speak on common Customs violations.
Text 2
Customs Violations
Certain items must be declared on a Customs form when entering the United States. Sometimes mistakes or omissions by individuals on their declaration forms are due to lack of understanding. In some cases, if a penalty is imposed for failure to declare, it is often a small fine.
Common Customs violations include:
failure to declare money upon leaving or entering the country;
attempting to bring plants, foodstuffs or exotic species, or endangered fish, birds, or other wildlife into the United States;
attempting to import contraband items such as illegal drugs into the United States;
attempting to bring pharmaceuticals into or out of the country without declaring them or without having a valid prescription;
importing goods into the country without the proper quota or visa.
Exercise 11. Scan the text above to give the English equivalents to the following:
из-за недопонимания; упущение (пропуск чего-либо); налагать штраф; определенные предметы; пищевые продукты; ввозить фармацевтическую продукцию; животные и растения, находящиеся под угрозой уничтожения; действительное (на определенный срок) предписание; надлежащая квота.
Exercise 12. Read Text 3 for general understanding.
Text 3
Counterfeiting
Counterfeit goods are often smuggled into Russia. They are fakes of popular brands of perfume, CDs and medicines. To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. The spread of counterfeit goods (commonly called knockoffs сущ. разг. подделка, липа, дешёвка) has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly.
Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. The word counterfeit frequently describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of works of art, toys, clothing, software, pharmaceuticals, watches, electronics; company logos and brands. In the case of goods, it results in patent infringement or trademark infringement.
Additionally, it is fairly common in big cities for would-be criminals to sell counterfeit illegal drugs, such as a bag of pure baking soda sold as cocaine or heroin, or a bag of oregano sold as marijuana. This takes advantage of the extremely high prices of illicit drugs and the relatively low prices of common materials such as baking soda and oregano, as well as taking advantage of the similarity in appearances that certain house-hold items share with certain illicit drugs.
Many firms, among them drug makers and food processors, are reluctant to admit publicly that they have a problem with counterfeiting, in part for fear of alarming consumers and undermining their market share. But the battle against counterfeits is, in some ways, rather like the war on drugs: closing down the factories and taking out the dealers will have little effect so long as demand stays high.
Copyright piracy is a social problem. It cannot be solved by enforcement actions directed against the suppliers of pirated goods alone. As long as there are demands for pirated goods, pirates could still find niches to survive.
This in fact is the principle on which genuine and counterfeit perfumery and cosmetic products sit side by side on the shelves of Russian shops. But whereas a person going to an outdoor market to buy shampoo or body lotion knows that he is taking a risk, patrons of large chain stores believe that product quality is guaranteed.
The increase in world trade has generated an unprecedented surge in industrial counterfeiting. Despite increasingly sophisticated control techniques, and greater awareness and commitment on the part of politicians at the international level, counterfeiting and piracy now form an integral part of the world of consumers.
Today, counterfeit goods will cross several borders, or even several continents, passing from port to port and from airport to airport, changing ships or changing planes, using free zones and sometimes even switching transport documents or containers.
Exercise 13. Explain how you understand the meaning of following words:
infringement;
piracy;
forgeries;
counterfeiting.
Exercise 14. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:
проблемы контрафактной и фальсифицированной продукции в России; характерные признаки подделок; бренды парфюмерии; контрафактная продукция; меры пресечения; закон против контрафакта; беспрецедентный всплеск (размах); без согласия законного владельца; уклоняться от уплаты внутренних налогов; схема отмывания денег; имитация; подделка; дешевые низкопробные подделки; искать убежище (нишу) для выживания; действия правоохранительных органов; объем контрафактной продукции; кухонные комбайны; барьер на пути распространения поддельных товаров; бизнес на контрафакте; частный и государственный сектор; рынок на открытом воздухе; противодействовать пиратству; распространители дешёвых подделок.
Exercise 15. Comprehension questions.
What does counterfeit mean?
How do counterfeits range?
Do many countries suffer from counterfeits? Do they incline to admit this problem?
How can the problem of copyright piracy be solved?
What losses does Russia suffer from counterfeiting?
What products are vulnerable to counterfeiting in Russia?
What are the methods of fighting counterfeiting?
Is the Russian government concerned about the increase in counterfeiting?
How to stem the tide of counterfeit and pirated goods which is washing over the borders?

Exercise 16. Interpret the following:
Customs investigates the illegitimate movement of prohibited or restricted goods such as precursor drugs, weapons, performance and image enhancing drugs, child pornography and flora and fauna to and from the country.
Exercise 17. Choose one of the points below to make a short talk on:
The necessary precautionary measures taken by the Customs authorities against Customs offences;
factors which account for dramatic rise in the counterfeiting of consumer products;
the detrimental effects of counterfeiting on society.
Exercise 18. Summarize the main points of Texts 1-3 making use of the language box below:
Summing (it) up ...
To sum up, Id like ...
The text gives/ covers
The main points briefly present
And finally ...
Exercise 19. As a class, role play the panel discussion on counterfeiting.
 Hints:
Use the following structure of panel discussion:
Opening:
Welcome to the panel discussion.
Thank you for joining us today.
Its great to have you join us today.
Identifying the subject of the discussion:
Today on our show we will look into the problem of
Introducing the guests of the show:
Today we have with us (in our studio/on our panel..)
Thank you all for coming today (being here, joining the discussion).
Discussion
Closing:
Our time is up
The next subject will be
Thank you for coming
Thats all, good bye.


Exercise 20. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the verbs in italics.
The vessels crew must perform regular security checks and shipboard inspections throughout the duration of the port call.
All points of entry aboard the vessel must be locked.
The vessel must maintain a good lookout for approaching small boats.
Tobacco product packages intended for export are to be clearly labeled for export.
What is most important in counter-terrorism measures is to prevent occurrence of an attack.
Exercise 21. Translate into English.
Если вес вашего багажа превышает норму, вам придется заплатить пошлину.
Вам не надо указывать данные вещи в декларации.
Как называется журнал, который вы просматриваете?
Досмотр багажа обычно занимает немного времени.
Этот человек очень хорошо говорит по-английски, но мне трудно понимать его, так как он говорит очень быстро.
Позвони на вокзал, пожалуйста, и узнай, когда приходит поезд из Ростова.
Ваша ручная кладь может быть досмотрена на сканирующем устройстве.
Exercise 22. Make one sentence from two using an -ing clause.
Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm. Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.
I was watching television. I fell asleep. I ____________.
The man slipped. He was getting off a bus. The man ___________.
I was walking home in the rain. I got wet. I __________.
Margaret was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident. __________.
Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire. __________.
Exercise 23. Make sentences beginning Having.... (Participle II).
She finished her work. Then she went home. Having finished her work, she went home.
We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre. __________.
They continued their journey after theyd had dinner. __________.
After Lucy had done all her shopping, she went for a cup of coffee. ___________.
They arrived at the airport. Then they proceeded to the check-in desk. ___________.
Exercise 24. Make sentences beginning -ing or not -ing. Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done something) (Participles I-II).
I felt tired. So I went to bed early. Feeling tired I went to bed early.
I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat. __________.
She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country. ___________.
I didnt know his address. So I wasnt able to contact him. ___________.
Julia has travelled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries. __________.
The man wasnt able to understand English. So he didnt know what I wanted. _________.
We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldnt afford to stay in a hotel. __________.
He is unemployed. So he hasnt got much money. __________.
She doesnt have a car. So she finds it difficult to get around. _________.
As I had already seen the film twice, I didnt want to go to the cinema. __________.
Exercise 25. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to grammar constructions (-ing forms) in bold.
All the incoming and outgoing passengers must pass through the Customs control.
Do you have any items above the fixed quota?
Have you got any items in this suitcase prohibited from taking out of the country?
Having lost the key, I couldnt open my suitcase.
Working on this project, we found out a lot of interesting things.
Having completed the preparation, he took a short break.
Given the inflation rate does not exceed 2% per month, the GDP growth could be considered realistic.
Unless otherwise specified, the time of departure is always the same.
Everybody is innocent until proven guilty.
We completed our inspection, with the accompanying documents being checked twice.
There being too many applicants, the interviews were split into two days.
Weather permitting, the expedition will start tomorrow.
The room being too small, we moved into a larger one.
The work done, we were paid right away.
On November a detector dog was used in a check of passengers arriving on Air France.
Filling in the declaration, the passenger forgot to declare a picture bought in Moscow.
The person in charge of a means of conveyance cannot depart from the Customs zone without receiving an outward clearance.
Having examined the cargo, the Customs officer asked the captain several questions.
The documentary check having been finished, the officer-in-charge gave a permit to unloading.
Having been shown the wrong direction, the tourists lost their way soon.
Some of the questions put to the lecturer yesterday were very important.
Examining their baggage, he noticed some undeclared items.

GLOSSARY
breach
enforcement
failure
fake
awareness
bulky
commitment
forgery
fraudulent
genuine
infringement
intent
lack
niche
publicly
reluctant
unprecedented
sophisticated
spread
supplier
surge
tide
to empower
to enhance
to impose
to stem
нарушение, разрыв
соблюдение правопорядка, закона
неудача, провал
поддельный, фальшивый
осведомленность, осознание
большой, громоздкий
совершение, обязанность, долг
подделка, подлог
обманный, жульнический
истинный, подлинный
нарушение, посягательство
намерение, умысел
недостаток, нужда
ниша, убежище
публично, открыто
неохотный, вынужденный
беспрецедентный, беспримерный
утонченный, изысканный, изощренный
распространение, размах
поставщик
быстрый рост, скачок, всплеск, повышение
поток, течение, приток
уполномочивать, поручать
увеличивать, усиливать
облагать, налагать
приостанавливать, преграждать, препятствовать


Unit 5.2 Commercial fraud

In this Unit, you learn about:
types of commercial fraud
fighting counterfeiting
money laundering and terrorism financing
Customs enforcement measures
Grammar: -ing forms. Participles I-II


Exercise 1. Find the terms (in the text) which mean the following:
a large group of people who live together in an organized way, making decisions about how to do things and sharing the work that needs to be done;
the crime of getting money by deceiving people;
the act of avoiding something or someone;
the income that a government or company receives regularly;
someone who has committed a crime or a violent or harmful act;
the fact of noticing or discovering something;
the internet considered as an imaginary area without limits where you can meet people and discover information about any subject.
Exercise 2. Look through the text and find the words synonymous to:
force, bring face to face with, interdiction, assistance, control, defend against, lawful, struggle against, business, caution, novelty, lawless, benefit, knowledge.
Exercise 3. Find in the text the words which follow the verbs below:
to clear, linked to, to legitimate, to be confronted by, to take, to affect, to avoid, to deal with, to prevent, to detect, to prepare, to implement, to enhance, to fight.
Exercise 4. Which words from column A go with the words from column B?

ABmulti-mode
law enforcement
illegal
drug
commercial
criminal
high-speed
money laundering
strategic
crime
technological
driving approach
innovation
groups
force
scheme
agencies
entrants
smuggling
fraud
programs
computing systems
transportation system
activity


Exercise 4. Match left and right.

1) to keep abreast of change
a) методы раннего предупреждения

2) evasion of import duties
b) несанкционированное получение погашения

3) illegal capital outflows
c) стратегический многогранный подход

4) commercial fraud perpetrators
d) уклонение от уплаты пошлин на ввоз

5) unauthorized receipt of repayment
e) быть в курсе перемен (изменений)

6) ‘early warning’ methods
f) преступники в сфере коммерческого мошенничества

7) strategic multi-faceted approach
g) незаконный отток капитала



Exercise 5. As you read the text, focus on different types of commercial fraud.
Text 1
Commercial Fraud
All Customs administrations and law enforcement agencies are coming under increasing pressure to keep abreast of change: to clear goods and people more effectively and efficiently while protecting society from the nasties (e.g. drugs, diseases, terrorists, illegal entrants, commercial and electronic crimes, money laundering, etc.). They are confronted today by individuals and organized crime groups that are international in scope. It is suspected that more aspects of Customs commercial fraud, in particular over valuation, have been linked to the money laundering scheme.
The main driving force behind crime is profit. Illegal capital outflows could provide criminal groups with funds for other criminal acts such as arms and drug smuggling.
The evasion of import duties on goods imported into any country is financially damaging to legitimate industry and the taxpayer.
The WCO said that the revenue implication of commercial fraud for members around the world is huge. Information from different sources indicates that countries lose hundreds of million dollars in revenue as a result of commercial fraud. Customs commercial fraud perpetrators are taking advantage of every opportunity presented in the multi-mode transportation system and trade patterns to execute a variety of schemes.
Thats why Customs administrations must be aware of various kinds of money laundering methods, techniques and trends, such as evasion and of the duty tax payment, evasion of prohibition, restriction or requirement for import and / or export, unauthorized receipt of repayment and gaining illicit commercial advantage.
Customs administrations have an essential role to play in anti-money laundering activities because of their presence at borders, their legal powers, their trade knowledge, and their experience. They are becoming increasingly reliant on complex, high-speed computing systems.
But they understand that these same driving forces also affect criminal enterprises. Technological innovation is also facilitating criminal activity by creating new ways for illegal business, extra geographical reach, and greater flexibility to avoid detection.
Thats why Customs administrations attempt to deal with complicated offences committed in cyberspace. In order to effectively prevent and detect commercial fraud, Customs use a strategic multi-faceted approach, including international cooperation. They use a strategic early warning methods which enable Customs officers to both prepare for this new on-line world and to implement effective risk management strategies.
The WCO has actively championed anti-money laundering programs and has enhanced its Members ability to fight money laundering by developing training programs, legal instruments, and advocating best practices.
Exercise 6. Which of the following sentences are true (T) and which are false (F)? Support your reply.
One of the consequences of commercial fraud is injury to the industry.
There are many different kinds of commercial fraud.
The term commercial fraud covers a wide range of activities that may give rise to various causes of action.
The best way to combat economic crime is through prevention.
Fraud committed over communication media, namely, Internet is an enormous global problem.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions using the information above:
What does commercial fraud mean?
Why is commercial fraud committed?
What are the consequences of commercial fraud?
What do Customs do to stop fraud?
Why is the fight against fraud a challenge for Customs?
What are the Customs confronted by?
What is cyber fraud?
Exercise 8. Summarize the information of Text 1 to be ready to speak on types of commercial fraud. Use the following prompts as a plan.
Definition of the term commercial fraud.
Indicators of commercial fraud.
Fraud damages.
Customs administrations and anti-money laundering activities.
Online fraud protection.
Exercise 9. Skim Text 2 to answer the following questions:
What is a counterfeit?
How are counterfeits classified?
What losses do legitimate businesses suffer because of competition from counterfeiting?
What goods are usually counterfeited?
How much do governments lose because of counterfeiting?
Why are customers relatively unconcerned about counterfeiting?
How much pharmaceuticals may be counterfeit?
What does trade in reconditioned aircraft components mean?
What measures do law enforcement bodies take to combat counterfeits?
Exercise 10. Read Text 2 to find the English equivalents for:
по строгому определению; с целью умышленного введения в заблуждение и мошенничества; преступление без жертв; законный бизнес; фальшивомонетчик; подделки; фармацевтические препараты; доступ к товарам по более низкой цене; вредные вещества; поддельные этикетки; иностранные инвестиции; долгосрочная угроза; меры по борьбе с контрафактной продукцией; держатель марки; перевешивать выгоды; поддельные запасные части для автомобиля; срок годности; позволять.
Text 2
Counterfeiting
A counterfeit, on a strict definition, is something that is forged, copied or imitated without the perpetrator having the right to do it, and with the purpose of deceiving or defrauding. Such rights are legally enshrined in patents (linked with inventions), copyright (which covers literary, musical and artistic works, and software), trademarks (which include words, pictures and symbols), industrial designs and other forms of intellectual-property protection.
Counterfeits come in many shapes and sizes. They range from the cheap look-alike Rolex, bought knowingly by a happy customer, to the counterfeit, sub-standard brakes on an unsuspecting drivers car.
Counterfeiting is not a victimless crime. For a start, legitimate businesses lose sales because of competition from counterfeiters. Counterfeiting of clothing, cosmetics, toys, sports equipment and pharmaceuticals within the European Union cost the region 17,120 jobs, and reduced GDP by €8 billion ($7.4 billion) a year. As counterfeiters rarely pay duties or taxes, governments lose further revenue. And countries with endemic counterfeiting may sacrifice foreign investment too.
Big business is keen that consumers should feel as strongly about counterfeiting as it does. But most customers, in the developed world at any rate, are relatively unconcerned. Some argue that counterfeiting benefits consumers, particularly in developing countries, by giving them access to lower-price goods, such as software, that they might not otherwise be able to afford. And they claim that counterfeits occasionally push brand holders into innovating in their customers interests.
Nevertheless, the costs of counterfeiting far outweigh the benefits. The World Health Organisation reckons that 5-7% of pharmaceutical worldwide may be counterfeit with too few active ingredients, too many contaminants, fake labels or recycled packaging that covers up expiry dates. This problem is most acute in developing countries.
At least as hazardous is the trade in counterfeit car parts. Even more worrying is the thriving trade in reconditioned aircraft components, passed off as genuine parts along with fake certificates of authentication.
Exercise 11. Complete the outline by filling in the words from the list below:
Afford; benefit; brand; business; caused; competitive; consumers; cost; counterfeit; counterfeits; developing; expiry; genuine; investments; legitimate; reconditioned; revenue; trade.
______ businesses lose sales because their brands are confused with shoddy imitations (made by the copycats).
In addition, firms have to bear the ______ of anti-counterfeiting measures.
______ owners are also concerned about legal liability.
In some cases customers, dissatisfied with fake products, claimed that brand owners should have taken precautions against ______.
As counterfeiters rarely pay duties or taxes governments lose ______.
Endemic (full-scale) counterfeiting makes countries less attractive for foreign ______.
Big ______ feels strongly about counterfeiting, but most customers are relatively unconcerned.
Some argue that counterfeiting benefits ______ in developing countries.
Thanks to counterfeiting they can get access to software that they might not otherwise be able to ______.
Sometimes counterfeits get brand holders introduce new models and sell them at ______ prices with their fakes.
Nevertheless, the costs of counterfeiting far outweigh the ______.
The problem of counterfeit pharmaceuticals is most acute in ______ countries.
Counterfeit pharmaceuticals is most acute, with too few active ingredients, too many contaminants, fake labels that cover up ______ dates are dangerous / harmful to health.
The ______ in counterfeit car parts is thriving too.
Authorities worry about the trade in ______aircraft components.
The cases when reconditioned aircraft components are passed off as ______ parts along with fake certificates of authentication are becoming more common.
______ aircraft components can kill.
Several air crashes may have been ______ by the failure of counterfeit substandard parts.
Exercise 12. Render the gist of Text 2 in a few sentences.
Exercise 13. Translate into Russian.
Stolen Cultural Heritage
The illicit traffic in cultural property constitutes a global crime against heritage.
The plundering of cultural property is one of the oldest forms of organized- cross border crime and has become a world-wide phenomenon that transcends frontiers. As widely recognized, the border still offers the best opportunity to intercept stolen cultural artifacts, and to that end Customs plays a fundamental role in the fight against the unauthorized export of cultural property.
With a view to protecting cultural heritage, the WCO is encouraging effective co-operation and partnership with other international organization and law enforcement agencies such as ICOM, UNESCO and Interpol, aimed at exchanging information and stemming this illegal activity.
To accomplish this mission the WCO relies on the competencies and daily efforts of Member Customs administrations, as well as on its Regional Intelligence Liaison Offices RILO Network.
Exercise 14. Read the Text 3 to answer the following questions:
What is Customs enforcement and compliance?
What activities are Customs enforcement services involved in?
What is the aim of enforcement activities of the Regional Customs Administrations?
How to improve the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts and achieve a balance between control and facilitation?
Text 3
What is Customs Enforcement and Compliance?
Customs enforcement is concerned with the protection of society and fighting trans-national organized crime based on the principles of risk management. In discharging this mandate, Customs enforcement services are involved in a wide range of activities relating to information and intelligence exchange, combating commercial fraud, counterfeiting, the smuggling of highly taxed goods (especially cigarettes and alcohol), drug trafficking, stolen motor vehicles, money laundering, electronic crime, smuggling of arms, nuclear materials, toxic waste and weapons of mass destruction. Enforcement activities also aim to protect intellectual and cultural property and endangered species of plants and animals.
Exercise 15. Translate into English:
контрабанда оружия; управление рисками; правоохранительная деятельность; интеллектуальная собственность; контрафакция; коммерческое мошенничество; оружие массового уничтожения; виды растений и животных, находящихся под угрозой исчезновения; обмен разведывательной информацией; высокотоксичные отходы; торговля наркотиками; украденные (угнанные) автомобили; отмывание денег.
Exercise 16. Render the text below in 3-5 sentences.
Use the following:
Law enforcement function of the Customs; operative search activities; investigation; Customs violations; state control; controlled delivery; to include fight against smuggling; to detect, suppress and prevent Customs offences (violations).
Правоохранительная деятельность таможенных органов – одна из важнейших форм государственного контроля. Она включает непосредственную борьбу с контрабандой и иными преступлениями в таможенной сфере.
Правоохранительная деятельность осуществляется в следующих формах: дознание, проведение оперативно-розыскных мероприятий, контролируемые поставки наркотических средств и психотропных веществ, производство по делам о нарушениях таможенных правил и их рассмотрение.
Региональные таможенные управления: обеспечивают единообразное применение и осуществляют контроль над исполнением в регионе законодательства, за организацией борьбы с контрабандой и иными таможенными преступлениями.
Exercise 17. Translate the following into Russian in writing:
Violations of Customs Regulations
There are different Customs violations. The most usual are: the smuggling of merchandise, narcotics, arms and ammunition and other contraband, commercial fraud, currency violations and money laundering, internal corruption, revenue offences, which are committed when a person imports goods with the intent to evade all or part of the duty, etc.


Exercise 18. Agree or disagree:
A counterfeit is something that is illegally forged or copied or with the purpose of deceiving or defrauding.
New technology has broadened the range of goods that are vulnerable to copying.
Counterfeiting is a diverse legal business.
The World Customs Organisation is now working on new ways of monitoring and controlling.
Commercial fraud involves the evasion of appropriate licensing requirements on imported or exported goods.
Exercise 19. Express your attitude to the phrase:
Customs have to stay one step ahead of counterfeiters.
Exercise 20. Work with a partner. Act out the conversation about the problem of fraud and counterfeiting in the world.
Exercise 21. Field work. Find information on the Internet to prove the following statements:
counterfeits come in many shapes and sizes;
companies suffer losses due to counterfeit products;
there are several countries notorious for being counterfeiting and piracy hotspots.
Exercise 22. Review the articles you have read so far.
Exercise 23. In small groups, role-play the panel discussion of the anti-counterfeiting measures.
 Hints:
Panel discussion is a discussion of a subject of public interest by a group of persons forming a panel, often before an audience.
The panel discussion includes introduction first, arguing for and against next and finally the conclusion.
Introduction:
The topic for discussion is...; Id like to present to your attention...;
Arguing for and against
How to express your opinion:
As for me I think...;
As far as I know...;
There is no doubt...;
It is quite obvious / evident...;
It is common knowledge that...;
In my opinion...;
To my mind...;
Questions for discussion:
Whats your opinion on...? / What do you think about...? / May I put a word in?
Conclusion:
To summarize all...;
Ive made to the conclusion that....

Exercise 24. Translate into Russian paying attention to Participles I-II.
The penalties applied vary according to the seriousness or the importance of the offences.
Only Customs offences being regarded as relatively serious are brought before the administrative tribunals or courts of law.
Certain items must be declared on a Customs form when entering the country.
There are some necessary precautionary measures taken by the Customs authorities.
Having found that all his money was gone, he had a nervous breakdown.
The rules for passengers going abroad are similar in most countries.
Tourists attending the British Museum want to see its magnificent collection of fine and applied arts.
To support domestic businesses, governments impose tariffs, also called duty, on foreign goods coming into the country.
Endangered species of wildlife, and products made from them, generally may not be imported or exported.
Exercise 25. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
He doesnt like to complain. He is against (complain).
He left without (say) a word.
He was accused of (steal) the money.
We relied on your (help) us.
They objected to the conference (hold) in May.
Exercise 26. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to grammar constructions in bold.
Fraud relating to the value declared to Customs for imported and exported goods is prejudicial to the economic and fiscal interest of states.
When leaving the country every passenger should fill in his exit declaration.
All goods entering the country should be classified by use of the established numerical coding system.
Cargo shipments entering the country are to be supplied with the necessary documents.
Customs Service will be expected to meet the increased workload and the increased enforcement problem by better organization, modernization and improved techniques including computerization and new technology.
A country wishing to limit its population may discourage immigration and encourage emigration.
Increasing concern has been expressed about the continued growth of drug abusing.
The information obtained by the Customs officers is very valuable.
Passengers filling in their declarations were at the Customs control zone.
Having lost the key, he couldnt get into the house.
The dual-channel system provides a simplified Customs control.
А canine officer spends his days working to uphold the law with the help of a trained dog.
At Miami International Airport Customs officials discovered a laptop originating in Colombia that contained five packets of heroin in the computer and six packets concealed in the power supply.
Types of concealment are as varied as the goods or the containers used to transport them.
After sending the electronic declaration, the declarant receives electronic notifications concerning all the stages of the declaration movement.
Exercise 27. Use Participles instead of the subordinate clauses.
Example: Since they had come to Regent Park, they decided to make a trip on a river-bus. Having come to Regent Park they decided to make a trip on a river-bus.
As we wished to see as much of the bill, I found that I had been cheated.
When he found that all his money was gone, he had a nervous breakdown.
Thousands of tourists attend the British Museum, because they want to see its magnificent collection of fine and applied arts.
As the Customs officer had discovered that the passenger had prohibited articles, he called an expert.
As they wanted to see as many sights of London as possible, they decided to start with the Tower.
As she heard some strange noise in the corridor she opened the door and looked out of the bedroom.
As I had so much work to do I couldnt go to the party.
When he arrived at the railway station, he bought a ticket, walked to the platform and boarded the train.
Students should always be attentive when they are listening to the lecturer.
The electronic Customs declaration of goods, which is submitted to the Customs office in electronic form, is widely practiced in the world today.
Exercise 28. Translate into English using ing forms.
Взимая налоги, таможня увеличивает федеральный бюджет страны.
Пассажирам разрешается беспошлинно провезти определенное количество товаров, облагаемых пошлиной.
Обучение включает оценку и взимание таможенных пошлин, тестирование анализ на определение наркотиков, задержание запрещенных и ограниченных к ввозу / вывозу товаров и т.д.
Контроль пассажиров и груза, прибывающих в страну, осуществляется для взимания таможенных пошлин и с целью предотвращения контрабанды.
Специально обученные собаки должны использоваться для обнаружения наркотиков, спрятанных в транспортных средствах, багаже, грузах.
Предотвращение транспортировки контрабандных товаров – одна из основных задач таможни.
Дежурный офицер опечатал помещения, содержащие запрещенные товары.
GLOSSARY
access
acute
confused
consequences
contaminant
defrauding
endemic
essential
exclusive
evasion
forged
heritage
implication
legitimate
outflow
perpetrator
plunder
scope
shipment
unauthorized
victim
to advocate
to avoid
to champion
to discharge
to discourage
to disrupt
to enhance
to enshrine
to execute
to intercept
to implement
to keep abreast
to outweigh
to reckon
to suspectдоступ
острый
спутанный, беспорядочный
последствия
загрязнитель
обманный
эндемический
существенный
эксклюзивный
уклонение
поддельный, сфабрикованный
наследие
вывод, смысл, подтекст
законный
отток
преступник
грабеж, хищение
рамки, масштаб, возможности
отгрузка
несанкционированный
жертва
защищать, поддерживать, пропагандировать избегать, уклоняться
отстаивать, бороться
выпускать, разгружать, освобождать
препятствовать, отговаривать
разрушать, подрывать
повышать, увеличивать
хранить; закреплять
выполнять, осуществлять, исполнять
перехватывать, задерживать
осуществлять, выполнять
быть в курсе
перевешивать, превосходить
считать, рассчитывать, полагать
подозревать


Module 6. Customs SERVICE: MISSION, OBJECTIVES, FUTURE AIMS
Unit 6.1 Customs Agency of the FUture

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In this Unit, you learn how to:
talk about mission of Customs agencies
describe principal role of Customs Administration
Grammar: The Infinitive; -ing forms;
Revision: If-sentences 


Exercise 1. Find the dictionary definitions of the following words:

deliveryable to change to suit new conditions or situations;agencya way of doing or thinking about something such as a problem or a task;staffthe line that divides two countries or areas; the land near this line;borderall the workers employed in an organization considered as a group;flexiblethe act of taking goods, letters, etc. to the people they have been sent to;approacha business or an organization that provides a particular service especially on behalf of other businesses or organizations.
Exercise 2. Look through the text and find the words synonymous to:
transform, mix, up-to-date, cost, facilitation, core, protection, equip, knowledge, emotional, imperative, competent, understand, performance, shape.
Consult the dictionary (Synonym.com).
Exercise 3. Form new parts of speech with the help of the suffixes, prefixes and endings. Consult the dictionary.
Example: facilitate facilitation; carry carriage; legal illegal;
collaborate, systematic, crime, secure, differ, deep, modernize, effect, protect, govern, know, emotion, develop, vary, leader, achieve, competent.
Exercise 4. Find in Text 1 the words which follow the verbs below:
adopt, shape, provide, improve, analyze, share, reduce, apply, achieve, transform.



Exercise 5. Read the text below for general understanding.
Text 1
Building the Customs Agency of the Future
Customs is an industry defined by change; it must work toward improving trade facilitation and protection. Preparing for the future means adopting new approaches and Customs solutions that transform delivery.
The right mix of Customs technology and people can shape next-generation Customs agencies. Three core components will shape and equip next generation Customs agencies:
Intelligent operating models
Introducing new technologies
Competent staffing
Customs agency of the future must analyze and provide up-to-date and deep information that can be easily analyzed. Customs officers will understand how traders and criminals operate. Agencies of the future will continuously review and respond to developments in the trading environment.
They will be equipped to share information electronically, automatically, securely, systematically and in real time. By sharing this information, Customs officers can work in new, more effective ways.
Collaborative border management will enable trade, improve security and reduce costs for both government and trade. The Customs agency of the future will be able to deliver the right capabilities, in the right place at the right time.
The staffing model must be flexible with skilled people working in different locations at different times. Staff will also be increasingly mobile in the roles they fulfill, changing as necessary to deliver competencies on demand.
To support this new staffing approach, the agency of the future will need world-class knowledge management. The workforce will need in-depth Customs knowledge, but also soft skills, such as emotional intelligence, collaboration skills and leadership, which can be applied to various roles and responsibilities.
Becoming an agency of the future is no longer just a goal its an imperative. The right mix of modernization and improvement approaches will allow agencies to achieve high performance long into the future.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:
How can the Customs agencies successfully deliver in the future Customs environment?
What capabilities must the organization add to be an effective agency?
How can agencies develop capabilities through new staffing approaches?
Exercise 7. Read the text once more for certain true / false information.

1. Customs officers need collaboration and leadership skills.
2. Sharing information is not imperative for the work of a Customs officer.
3. Customs officers should be forward-looking.
4. The staff should not prefer to work in a team.
Exercise 8. In pairs, translate into English the following word-combinations. Learn them by heart.
использовать новые подходы; содействие торговле; обеспечивать доставку; формировать агентство; основные компоненты; современная информация; реагировать на события; обмениваться информацией в электронном виде; работать эффективно; координированное управление границами; повысить безопасность; сократить расходы; обеспечивать необходимые условия; квалифицированные сотрудники; новая подход к отбору кадров; навыки совместной работы; проявлять при необходимости компетентность.
Exercise 9. Write out the key-words and draw up a plan / a short summary on the topic Customs agencies of the future. Start with:
Core components of the Customs agency.
Responsibilities of the Customs officers.
...............etc.
Exercise 10. Use the following word-combinations in the sentences of your own:
to improve trade facilitation, core components, provide up-to-date and deep information, improve security, staffing approach, various roles, deliver competencies.
Exercise 11. Read only the title of Text 2. Predict and write down at least five key words which you expect to see in the text.
Exercise 12. Skim the text quickly (maximum one minute), looking for key words in the text. Now write down the main theme of the text.
Text 2
The Customs of the Future
In the future, any physical inspection of cross-border goods will only affect a small minority of consignments. Their selection will be based on risk analysis techniques and information from legitimate traders. Customs administrations will have to re-engineer their business processes to become more efficient and effective and to have proper regard to the impact on the trading community. As revenue collection becomes more effective the countries income will increase enabling them to reduce duty rates.
The principal role of Customs administrations will change from revenue collection to that of monitoring compliance with international trade agreements, the enforcement of transnational crime, and the efficient collection of accurate information about international trade.
Exercise 13. Match the beginning and ending of the following sentences.

In the future, any physical inspection
Customs control
Revenue collection
Countries
The principal role of Customs
Customs administrationswill be based on risk analysis techniques
will re-engineer their business processes.
.will become more effective.
will affect a small minority of consignments.
will reduce duty rates.
will change from revenue collection to collection of information about international trade.

Exercise 14. As you read Text 3, focus on four top priorities in the work of Customs.

Text 3
Customs Role and Priorities in the 21st Century
It is difficult to predict the future role of any institution, and there is no one universally applicable response to anticipated trends in Customs. Nevertheless, every country will respond in ways that are best suited to its needs, operating environment, national priorities, and cultural heritage.
However, some general issues or themes are emerging that suggest the future role and priorities of Customs.
First, the revenue mobilization and control functions of Customs are likely to remain substantial.
Second, in all countries, Customs will continue to collect trade data for statistical and regulatory purposes.
Third, Customs will continue to be responsible for effective and efficient border management to facilitate trade. It is a major contributor to the international competitiveness of nations. As such, harmonizing, simplifying, and effectively coordinating all national border management requirements and commitments will remain priority responsibilities of Customs.
Fourth, governments will require that Customs administrations take on a larger role in ensuring national security and law enforcement.
To that effect, Customs administrations are likely to institute a range of changes to systems, procedures, and even administrative responsibilities to increase confidence in the level of control exercised over both imports and exports.
All regulatory information is likely to be exchanged electronically, and decisions on treatment of imports and exports will be made on a risk assessment basis. Customs will increasingly rely on the intensive use of modern information technology to provide transmission of data to all interested members of the trading community.
In the future, most Customs administrations will rely on electronic submission of manifests before cargo arrival, on direct trader input of import and export declarations, and on electronic payment of duties and taxes. This will speed up the granting of regulatory permissions and enable the collection of statistics.
Many countries are already members of regional groups, a trend that might accelerate in coming years. Such regional groups might promote harmonization and simplification of Customs procedures in accordance with international best practice standards.
Border Management
The keen interest of many developing countries in harmonizing, streamlining, and simplifying border management systems and procedures has led to such initiatives as:
Coordinated border management. This can include information sharing, co-located facilities, close interagency cooperation and the delegation of administrative authority.
One stop border posts. Neighboring countries coordinate import, export, and transit processes, so that traders need not duplicate regulatory formalities on both sides of a border.
Single window systems. Traders can submit all import, export and transit information required by regulatory agencies at one time through a single electronic gateway rather than submit essentially the same information repeatedly to various government entities.
Exercise 15. Explain the meaning of the following notions:
Coordinated border management means
One stop border posts means
Single window system means
Use the following websites as a help:
 HYPERLINK "http://www.worldcustomsjournal.org/media/wcj/-2010/1/Kieck.pdf" http://www.worldCustomsjournal.org/media/wcj/-2010/1/Kieck.pdf
 HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-window_system" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-window_system
Exercise 16. Ask and answer the questions on pairs.
Can you forecast trends in the work of Customs agencies of the future?
What functions of the Customs administrations will remain constant?
What are interconnections between border management and trade facilitation?
What key factors will enable Customs administrations to facilitate global trade?
What new border management systems maximize the harmonization of border control functions?
Exercise 17. Say what you have learned from the texts about:
Customs agencies in future;
mission of the Customs Service for the society;
the flexibility of the staff.


Exercise 18. Class discussion. How effective do you think Customs agencies work? Use the following multiple survey to answer your partners questions.
Multiple Survey

Questions1234Person APerson BPerson CPerson D
Summary of the opinions expressed _____________________________________.

Exercise 19. Express your attitude to the phrase:
The right mix of modernization will allow agencies to achieve high performance long into the future.
Exercise 20. Write a review on one of the topics:
improvement in the performance of the Customs Service;
the Customs of the future;
introduction of new technology.

Exercise 21. Translate the following text into English. Use the following phrases: adoption of the Code; application of modern information technology; Customs clearance; assign a part to; public domain network; remote release of goods; the main component; to improve Customs administration; to create an effective system; simultaneous simplification of Customs procedures; acceleration of Customs operations.
Электронное декларирование – еще один шаг к проекту Таможня будущего
С принятием Таможенного кодекса Таможенного союза важную роль играет применение современных информационных таможенных технологий при таможенном оформлении и таможенном контроле товаров и транспортных средств. Особая роль при этом отводится электронному декларированию с использованием сетей общего пользования Интернет (ЭД 2) и технологии удаленного выпуска товаров.
Центры электронного декларирования рассматриваются как основная составляющая модели таможни ближайшего будущего, где совершенствуется таможенное администрирование. На их основе возможно создание эффективной системы таможенного контроля при одновременном упрощении таможенных процедур и ускорении таможенных операций.
Exercise 22. Define the form of the Infinitive:
to manage; to be informed; to be improving; to have been shaping; to be investigated; must be trained; shall discuss; to have been taken; to be provided, must be facilitated; to have been introduced; is to be modernized.
Exercise 23. Form verbs using the suffix -en:
threat, wide, deep, broad, strength, length, sharp.
Exercise 24. Form verbs from the following nouns using the suffix -ize:
modern, system, victim, sympathy, patron, character, organ.
Exercise 25. Read and translate the following sentences form the text. Pay attention to the underlined words.
It must work toward improving trade facilitation.
Preparing for the future means adopting new approaches.
Agencies will continuously develop in the trading environment.
By sharing this information, Customs officers can work in more effective ways.
The staffing model must be flexible.
Becoming an agency of the future is an imperative.
Exercise 26. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to non-finite forms of the verb.
Priority is now given to improving the quality of medical services.
The organization of rest and leisure, tourism, and excursion services will continue to be developed and improved.
Work is the main sphere of human activity and it is important to go on enriching its content and making it more creative.
We can put into effect the vast and multifaceted programme for improving the peoples well-being only by expanding material production and making it more effective.
The principal factor in economic growth is increasing labour productivity.
It is necessary to ensure much higher growth.
Exercise 27. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to non-finite forms of the verb.
This question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Moscow.
The problem is too difficult to be settled without further consultation.
It is an important task to be done immediately.
It is a rule to be remembered.
He made the engine work at full speed.
Ive just heard him say that it won't take them long to complete the work.
We expected him to publish his new book soon.
These baggage scanners are considered to be very effective.
She expected us to join this excursion.
Would you like them to carry your luggage upstairs?
We saw him come into the Customs hall.
Customs officers noticed them hide something in the suitcase.
They expect everybody to be ready by seven oclock.
He saw the British tourists going through the Customs examination.
Customs officials watched passengers putting their baggage into X-ray scanner.
Exercise 28. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to non-finite forms of the verb.
I spent about ten minutes filling in the points of declaration.
Having looked through my declaration, the Customs officer asked me to show him my cash.
The Customs officer kept watch on passengers arriving from Bangkok.
He was arrested and identified as a smuggler from Ghana going to Amsterdam.
Being intoxicated he was unable to drive his car safely.
The man suspected of smuggling was travelling from Colombia to Barcelona.
A detector dog used in the seizure proved to be of much help.
The money not declared and therefore concealed is liable to confiscation.
A well-trained Customs officer doesnt need to see labels to know where garments originate.
The passenger showed me the pictures bought at a souvenir shop and presented a special permit.
We were tired and thirsty having been on duty since early morning, and it was a hot day.
The Customs officer looked at the bottom of the suitcase as though suspecting something.
Not knowing English well enough the passenger asked the Customs officer to help him.
(While) examining the imported car the Customs officer found 2 kg of amphetamine concealed in the door panels of the car.
Conducting mutual consultations and rendering mutual assistance with the aim of prevention of contraband is widely spread.
Exercise 29. Complete the sentences by adding if - clauses.
1. The Customs officers will be effective if ___________.
2. The staff will also be increasingly mobile if ___________.
3. Customs border management will improve security if ___________.
4. The right mix of modernization will allow agencies to achieve high performance if ___________.
GLOSSARY

applicable
approach
collaboration
commitment
confidence
contributor
core
demand
entity
goal
heritage
imperative
flexible
performance
streamline
submission
substantial
treatment
various
workforce
to achieve
to adopt
to anticipate
to enable
to facilitate
to institute
to predict
to reduce
to rely on
to respond
to shape
to shareприменимый
подход, подступ
сотрудничество; участие, совместная работа
обязательство
уверенность
участник, вкладчик, соучастник
глубинная, внутренняя часть; суть, сущность
вопрос, запрос, потребность
организация, лицо, объект
задача, цель
наследие
настоятельный, срочный; обязательный
гибкий; мягкий, эластичный
исполнение, выполнение; свершение
направление
представление
существенный
обработка
различный, разный, разнообразный
рабочая сила
добиваться, достигать
принимать, усваивать
предвидеть
давать возможность или право что-либо сделать
облегчать, упрощать; содействовать
учреждать
прогнозировать
ослаблять, понижать, сокращать, уменьшать
надеяться, полагаться на кого / что-либо
реагировать, отзываться
формировать; делать по какому-либо образцу
делить, распределять; делиться


Unit 6.2 Changing Customs



In this Unit, you learn how to:
talk about Customs modernization
discuss advantages of biometric system at the Customs control
describe modern Customs technologies
Grammar: The Infinitive
Revision: -ing forms

Exercise 1. Which words from column A go with the words from column B?

ABidentity cards
range of services
call centers
employee
free up
measure
surface area
increase
input
issueплощадь поверхности
увеличивать; усиливать
вводить информацию в компьютер
выпускать, выдавать; издавать (газеты, книги)
удостоверение личности
ассортимент услуг
центр телефонного обслуживания
служащий; работающий по найму
измерять, мерить; отмерять
освобождать


Exercise 2. Give the opposites to the following words:
speedy, modern, sensitive, accurate, reduce, increased, recent, future, better, actively, more, faster, secure, input, inexpensive, thick, wide, long, available.
Consult the dictionary, if necessary (Antonym.com).
Exercise 3. Match the adjectives on the left to the nouns on the right. Consult the text.
modern
electronic
speedy
biometric
increased
preliminary
Internet-based
value-added
crime declaring
identification
prevention
informing
technologies
attention
identity cards
service
work
Exercise 4. Choose the phrases with the word biometric. Make the sentences of your own.


Exercise 5. Scan Text 1 for certain true/false information.
1. Process of modernization of Customs agencies provides slower service for travelers.
2. Biometrics increases security at airports.
3. Recognition via fingerprints is not accurate.
4. Iris recognition systems damage the eye.
5. Automated iris recognition systems were issued in 1998.
Exercise 6. Skim the text below to answer the following questions:
1. How do Customs Services help do business?
2. How can modern Customs technologies help Customs management?
3. What are examples of modernization of Customs agencies?
4. What is biometrics?
5. How can biometric technology improve Customs control?
6. Does the ePassport contain biometric information such as an iris scan or fingerprints?
7. Does the ePassport make border crossings faster?
Text 1
The Customs Modernization
Change is a continuous process, but in the last years the pace of change has led to extensive reform and modernization in the Customs community. Development of efficient and transparent Customs Services are among the important tools for reducing barriers to doing business.
Customs administrations extended their use of technology to include items such as artificial intelligence, bar coding, document imaging.
Modern Customs technologies, electronic and Internet-based declaring, as well as preliminary informing are also actively developing. Thanks to the process of modernization of Customs agencies travelers receive better, speedier service.
Examples include:
E-passports and e-visas using one or more forms of biometric identification (e.g., fingerprint, iris or face scanning) for easier travel.
Electronic identity cards using one or more forms of biometric identification for a range of services, plus crime prevention.
Call centers using voice recognition to increase the level of security in relation to the sensitivity of the transactions being handled.
In future biometric technologies at the Customs such as fingerprint identification, iris scanning and face recognition systems will play an increasing role in protecting citizens, customers and travelers. Identification becomes faster and more accurate, freeing up employees to do value-added work and reducing costs.
Biometrics has received increased attention since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. Governments around the world are increasingly turning to biometrics in an attempt to increase security at airports and border crossings, and to produce more secure identity documents.
It operates on three levels:
- a sensor takes an observation of the biometric characteristic;
- the system describes the observation mathematically and produces a biometric signature;
- the computer inputs the biometric signature into an algorithm and compares it to one or more biometric signatures stored in the systems database.
Recognition via fingerprints is highly accurate and generally inexpensive. Hand geometry biometric recognition systems have been on the market since the 1980s, and are in use in hundreds of locations around the world. These systems measure and record the length, width, thickness, and surface area of an individuals hand.
Automated iris recognition systems are relatively recent the first patent for the algorithm was issued in 1994, and the first commercial products became available in 1995. One of the drawbacks of iris recognition systems is that they are not widely accepted by the public as a recognition tool largely because of fears that infrared light can damage the eye.
Exercise 7. Translate into English the following words and word-combinations:
распознавание; защищать граждан; попытки обеспечить безопасность; инструмент контроля; храниться в базе данных; чувствительный датчик; быть одобренным общественностью; более значительная роль; пересечение границы; расширять использование технологий; инфракрасные лучи; электронный паспорт; уровень; обращаться к; определение местоположения.
Exercise 8. Prepare 10 – 15 questions covering the information of Text 1.
Exercise 9. Scan Text 2 and comment on the goodness and weakness of the current technology at the Customs. Use this chart to structure your notes.
TechnologyAdvantagesDisadvantagesFacial Recognitioncheap technologyrequires camera equipment for user identificationFingerprintvery high accuracy, verification time is generally less than 5 secondsrequires a lot of memory for the data to be stored, very expensiveHand Geometrycan be easily integrated into other devices or systemsis not valid for arthritic person, since they cannot put the hand on the scanner properlyPassword methodSmart CardsThe Digital SignatureBiometrics
Text 2
Advantages and Disadvantages of Technologies

When a new technology is implanted, it is essential to remember about simplicity, price and efficiency, as well as social acceptability.
The Password method is the cheapest and simplest technology, because it only requires elementary software resources.
On the other hand, this system is easily attackable, since it is quite simple to obtain the data from a person, either extracting the information to the person itself using deceits, or attacking the software of the system.
It can be easily installed in the computer, a program that simulates the user name and password window, so that when the user introduces his data in that window, that will be collected by the Spy program.
The Smart Cards are very useful since they can be easily combined with other systems, serving as storage system and they are resistant to attack. But their small size and bend requirements (which are designed to protect the card physically), limits the memory and processing resources.
The Digital Signature is very difficult to falsify, since is encrypted by complicated mathematic operations. It is considered that is even less falsifiable than the manual signature recognition.
Biometrics is unique method for each individual, very effective and safe. The advantages of e-learning security are: authentication, privacy (data confidentiality), access control, data integrity and non-repudiation.
Although biometrics is very difficult to falsify, we have to bear in mind its disadvantages, for example, that since it is a relative new technology, it is not still integrated in PC, so IT departments need to make a conscious decision before making the purchase and change its structure.
Exercise 10. Read Text 3 to match left and right:
1) data capturing and processing capabilitiesa) биометрическая (трёхмерная) система идентификации личности

2) biometric template
b) двухмерное цветное изображение

3) facial measurements
c) возможности считывания и обработки данных

4) 3D face recognition technology
d) постоянная (неизменная) проекция

5) advanced optical technology
e) реконструкция лица

6) invariance to angles
f) биометрический образ (образец)

7) 2D colour image
g) современные (передовые) оптические технологии


Text 3
3D Face Recognition Technology
BQT Solutions Ltd partners A.4 Vision with their advanced identification solutions began using breakthrough 3D face recognition technology. Through innovations in 3D data capturing and processing capabilities, these systems permit industry-leading accuracy in real-time facial recognition and tracking.
The Enrollment Station (ES) is used to perform enrollment and the building of biometric 3D face templates. The device is designed with A4 Visions advanced optical technology, structured light, and algorithms, utilizing a special projector and digital camera. The output of this equipment is both a 3D biometric template and a standard 2D colour image of the subject.
3D Technological Advantages
Invariance to angles: Real-time video feed exploits the richness of 3D parameters, performing recognition with full head motion of up to 30 degrees each direction. 3D Image Uniqueness: The richness of extracted facial measurements and data points is sufficient to distinguish between identical twins. Real-time video 3D face capture allows for extremely low False Rejection Rates (FRR).
NOTES:
BQT Solutions is a Global Leader in the development and production of Mifare Contactless Smart Card and Biometric Access Control Solutions, Personal Identification and Data Encryption technology, providing high security through the use of non-proprietary formats.
All BQT Solutions manufactured products are designed and developed in Australia to high quality and reliability standards by experts in Smart Card and Biometrics technology. BQT Solutions is wholly owned by MaxSec Group Limited, a company listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.
Enrollment Station – устройство биометрической системы идентификации личности, обеспечивающее очень высокую точность распознавания.
Exercise 11. Answer the following questions:
What innovations have been done by A.4 Vision Company?
What is the Enrollment Station used to?
What is the output of this equipment?
Exercise 12. Complete the sentences using the text.
Through innovations in 3D data capturing and processing capabilities, these systems permit _____.
The Enrollment Station (ES) is used to _____.
The richness of extracted facial measurements and data points is sufficient to ______.

Exercise 13. Interpret the phrase: Development of efficient and transparent Customs Services are among the important tools for reducing barriers to doing business.
Exercise 14. Make up short dialogues about extensive reform in the Customs community.
 Hints
Use the following phrases:
1. Id like to ask you about;
2. If I understand you correctly you are saying that ;
3. I mean that;
4. What exactly do you mean by that ;
5. I have a question about ;
6. As I said before ;
7. For example;
8. Let me add immediately ;
9. I would agree to you up to the point;
10. To sum up.Exercise 15. Work with a partner. Choose one of the methods used at the Customs to make a short talk about an e-Passport, electronic identity card, 3D face Recognition technology.
Use the language box to help you.
An e-Passport
a biometric passport; an electronic chip; a digital picture of the bearers face;
to increase security; to provide greater protection; to reduce the risk of fraud; facial recognition; to authenticate the identity of travelers; international standard; to avoid inconveniences at airports; to provide protection against identity theft; to protect privacy.
An Electronic Identity Card
important identity document; graphic security elements; a microchip and an optical stripe; a zone for personal data; a photo of the holder; security hologram; laser engraving; guard against licence fraud; a secure document for the citizen; a new way of thinking; check the validity of the electronic ID cards.

3D Face Recognition Technology.
facial recognition; reliable and efficient; systems installed in airports; accurate; to perform passive identification in a one to a simplified process; automated process; the biometric gate; digital camera; completely automated process; SmartGate kiosks; most sophisticated biometric identification; real-time identification of individuals; border control environment; data capturing and processing capabilities; advanced optical technology. 
Exercise 16. Fieldwork. Report to the class on Customs technologies which help considerably to accomplish various tasks.


Exercise 17. Translate the following word-combinations from the texts into Russian. Pay attention to Gerunds and Participles.
tools for reducing barriers, barriers to doing business, preliminary informing, document imaging, call centers using voice recognition, an increasing role in protecting citizens, identification becomes faster reducing costs, Biometrics has received increased attention, extracting the information to the person, attacking the software of the system, processing resources, decision before making the purchase.
☺☺☺Find the corresponding sentences in the texts and translate them.
Exercise 18. Translate the following word combinations from the texts into Russian. Pay attention to Infinitives.
call centers use voice recognition to increase the level of security, voice recognition to increase the level of security, in an attempt to increase security, it is essential to remember about simplicity, is quite simple to obtain the data, they are resistant to attack, the Digital Signature is very difficult to falsify, biometrics is very difficult to falsify, IT departments need to make a conscious decision.
Exercise 19. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive as an Attribute:
There is one more technology to be introduced into the work of the Customs officers.
The electronic data to be analyzed involve knowledge of PC.
The traditional role of Customs is to prevent smuggling and make people safer.
All the attempts to calm down the passenger have failed.
The stewardess gave the passenger a list of magazines to be read.
Exercise 20. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the Infinitive as an Adverbial Modifier:
Laws were not made to be broken; laws were made to stay within.
Sometimes you retreat in order to advance.
The inspector was too busy to see anyone.
He was as tired as to unable to work.
The executives found the problem too difficult to solve.
Its still too early to speak about the efficiency of this method.
Exercise 21. Fill in the blanks with one of the following verbs (from the box) in the form of the Infinitive:
Allow, be, increase, enter, decrease, answer, present
One of the most frustrating parts of international travel is the long line-ups. International airports have collaborated ____ wait times and ____ customer experience when crossing the border. By implementing 12 Automated Passport Control kiosks in the U.S. Customs hall, transit time will soon _____ less than 20 minutes, even during peak periods. The self-service kiosks will __ eligible travelers _____ their own passport and identification information ____ a few questions on the screen, and then ____ documents to a border patrol officer.
Exercise 22. Express the following using simple sentences with Complex Subject:
It is known that the new Customs vision device is tested by practice.
It seems that this approach ignores the objective conditions.
It is said that you know the electronic data very well.
It is understood that the seller will help us to choose the necessary goods.
It is known that Customs clearance and control of goods involve the Red and the Green corridors.
It is believed that passengers who have nothing to declare should take the Green corridor.
Exercise 23. Transform the sentences using Complex Subject and the words in brackets:
Example: He has lost his baggage (seem). He seems to lose his baggage.
You know a lot of our customers (seem).
The Customs control is getting simpler (appear).
That parcel has been damaged (appear).
Our executing officer forgets things (tend).
They have solved the problem of variable expenses (claim).
The situation in this warehouse is more difficult than we thought (seem).
Exercise 24. Make up your own sentences with the Infinitive:
to cut a long story short короче говоря;
to tell (you) the truth – сказать (вам) по правде;
to say nothing of – не говоря уже о...;
to put it mildly – мягко выражаясь;
to say the least of it – по меньшей мере;
to begin with – начнем с того, что;
to leave much to be desired – (что) оставляет желать лучшего;
to be difficult to deal with – (с кем) трудно иметь дело;
to be hard to please – (кому) трудно угодить;
to be pleasant to look at – (на кого / что) приятно смотреть.
Exercise 25. Find Infinitive forms in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
Russia has the worlds largest border to police.
To provide the income to the federal budget the Customs Service collects Customs duties and taxes.
After finishing our Customs Academy I would like to work at the Customs.
All the travelers arriving into the UK by sea or by air must be cleared by Customs immediately on arrival.
The first duty in the control of ships, arriving in the UK is to prevent smuggling.
The UK Customs will have to reconsider its regulations.
To be a success a Customs organization needs well-trained personnel, simplified Customs procedures and up-to-date Customs technology.
I was interested to hear that Diane has got a new job.
He was very careful because he was afraid of being revealed.
Its impossible to translate some words into English.
The President has a team of bodyguards to protect him.
They shouted to warn everybody of the danger.
Exercise 26. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the underlined words.
I saw him putting his luggage into the X-ray machine.
I heard my colleague explaining the Customs Regulations to the old lady travelling with her dog.
The Customs officer found the drug being hidden in a cavity of a souvenir made of wood.
I expected the company manager knowing the Customs Rules on importing raw materials.
The Customs officers considered this route frequently used by drug courier.
Import taxes being unpaid the importer was charged with penalties.
The man being involved in the fraud, he was arrested and taken to Court.
A new law being introduced, employers who knowingly hired illegal aliens were punished.
The documents being checked, the Customs officers started to rummage the ship.
Exercise 27. Translate the sentences into English.
Она видела, как пассажиры оформляются на рейс в Лондон.
Я хотела бы, чтобы вы были более внимательны во время таможенного досмотра.
Таможенник наблюдал, как пассажиры заполняли декларацию.
Они ожидали, что мы примем участие в обсуждении проекта.
Преподаватели хотят, чтобы студенты были более активными на занятиях.
Его выступление на семинаре оставляет желать лучшего.
Чтобы получить хорошую оценку на экзамене, вы должны упорно поработать.
На этого человека приятно смотреть.
Я бы хотела, чтобы вы хорошо подготовились к экзамену по английскому языку.
Мы не предполагали, что он уедет в командировку в конце недели.
Фильм оставляет желать лучшего.
Чтобы успеть на этот поезд, мы должны поторопиться.
Они не ожидали, что мы приедем так скоро.

GLOSSARY

acceptability
access
artificial
authentication
damage
deceit
drawback
complicated
conscious
essential
extensive
falsifiable
integrity
iris
issue
line-up
manual
measure
preliminary
prevention
purchase
recognition
relative
repudiation
resistant
signature
transparent
to consider
to encrypt
to extract
to falsify
to handle
to implant
to install
to obtain
to simulateприемлемость
доступ
искусственный, ненатуральный
идентификация, опознание, отождествление
вред; повреждение
обман
препятствие; помеха, преграда
запутанный; замысловатый
сознательный, осознанный
существенный, неотъемлемый
пространственный, громадный, большой
фальсифицируемый
целостность; полнота, цельность
радужная оболочка (глаза)
выход, публикация
опознание; идентификация
руководство по эксплуатации, справочник; ручной
мера; единица измерения
предварительный
предотвращение, предохранение
приобретение, покупка
осознание, понимание
относительный; сравнительный
отказ от чего-либо; отрицание, отречение
сопротивляющийся; прочный, стойкий
подпись
прозрачный, просвечивающий
рассматривать, обсуждать
шифровать
вытаскивать, извлекать
искажать, представлять в ложном свете
обходиться, обращаться; обрабатывать
насаждать; вводить, внедрять
устанавливать; монтировать; собирать
получать; добывать; приобретать
имитировать, копировать


ADDITIONAL Reading
Module 1
Exercise 1. As you read Text I, focus on the meaning of the term contraband and its usage in the context.
Text 1
Contraband
Contraband is a blanket term for goods which are illegal to import or export. Goods which are illegal to possess, such as stolen materials, are also called contraband. Typically, contraband will be confiscated without compensation if it is found by representatives of the law. Most nations have clear laws governing contraband, in the interest of free trade and public safety. Since contraband must be brought into or out of a nation by stealth, smuggling is often involved in the trade of contraband goods.
The term is derived from the Latin contra, or against for a legal and public proclamation. The term was turned into contraband in medieval French, and was borrowed by the English in 1529. Examples of contraband include illegal goods such as weapons, drugs, and other substances which may be banned by law.
In the legal world, the word contraband may also be used to discuss goods which have been obtained in an illegal way, although the goods themselves are not illegal. Stolen goods, for example, are considered contraband, and just like smuggled contraband they will be confiscated and held by authorities. The results of fraud and forgery are also termed contraband, as in the case of someone who uses money from fraudulent activity to purchase things like houses and cars.
Drug trafficking is a major source of crime worldwide. Not only is there physical danger inherent in the use of illegal drugs, but drug smuggling is also frequently accompanied by other crimes such as murder, kidnapping, prostitution and assault.
Authorities work full time all over the world to prevent the use and sale of illegal drugs, as both represent enormous dangers to society. In some countries, such as China, drug sales may be punishable by death. In certain jurisdictions, when people are caught smuggling or selling drugs, individuals will sometimes hire a drug trafficking lawyer who specializes in defending individuals accused of such crimes.
Even with legal counsel, however, drug trafficking laws designed to deter people from producing and selling drugs are strictly applied. Only governments can tackle smuggling effectively. No international business operating through distributors can control every subsequent link in diverse and myriad secondary supply-chains.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions:
Where is the term contraband derived?
Why is drug trafficking a major source of crime?
What measures are required to prevent smuggling?
Exercise 3. As you read Text 2, underline the main ideas and supporting information in reference to illegal drug trafficking.
Text 2
Advanced Drug Smuggling Methods
Its not a problem to make a jacket or a suit out of cocaine with the development of the chemical industry and the fantasy of drug barons who, according to Interpol, are getting more and more profits. It seems that the transportation of heavy drugs in briquettes from Latin America is an outdated technology.
A new technology makes it possible to make a product from cocaine for any department of a supermarket, including paper, clothes or plastic. The culprits have learned to process cocaine powder so that it cannot be detected and hide it in the most secret corners of a postal parcel and large consignments of food. The development of technology has presented new possibilities.
Consequently, at present, cocaine can be turned into any product, say paper, oil, adhesive, sealants, alcohol or plastic. These products are transported in large consignments or in parcels by mail to leading companies which are simply unable to check each and every parcel to find whether it contains drugs or not. The more successful the efforts made by anti-drug services, the better the fantasy of the adventurous culprits.
Russian special service is one of the most effective, if not the most effective service in fighting drug trafficking. Its very difficult to find suppliers and buy drugs in rich and big cities in Russia because police arrest them regularly. In these circumstances, the price of drugs is consistently growing. As a result, the conclusion is that the more effective the fight against drug business by law enforcement agencies, the more the income of the drug business.
Drug barons invest some of their income from the illegal business in storing and transporting drugs. This money is sufficient to buy, for example, submarines to store a consignment of cocaine. Several years ago, two submarines that were used to transport cocaine to the U.S. were discovered in Colombia.
In short, drug curtails in Latin America have large sums of money. Their task is to promote drugs on the new markets such as South-East Asia, China, Russia and European countries. In short, they are targeting countries with large populations, where there is a potential market of rich young people. In these circumstances, the invention of new and unusual methods of transportation of cocaine is natural.
Cocaine is the oldest and the most dangerous drug. In the middle of the 19th century, physicians and public figures actively advertised it and even included in courses of treatments and popular soft drinks. Mankind understood the destructive effect of coca leaves in the early 20th century.
In fact, no matter that drug barons use advanced technology for their revival, law is one for all, and they are severely punished for violating it. In short, the Nobel Prize will not be awarded for inventing a cocaine suit, but jail terms including life sentence are guaranteed.
(M. Bogatova. The Voice of Russia)
Exercise 4. Answer the questions:
What are the effective measures to prevent smuggling?
Is it easy to buy drugs in big cities in Russia?
Why are submarines used for drug trafficking?
What do drug barons use to revive their business?
Module 2
Exercise 1. Answer the questions about the information in the text.
What is the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)?
What is the status of the GSP?
What are the benefits of GSP?
What countries benefit from GSP scheme?
Text 1
Generalized System of Preferences
The principle of GSP was agreed at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and is a facility granted to developing countries (beneficiary countries) by certain developed countries (donor countries). It is not negotiated with them: the preferential treatment is non-reciprocal.
The GSP schemes offered by the various donor countries and their rules of origin differ fundamentally. Goods complying with the conditions of the GSP of the USA, for example, will not necessarily comply with the EU GSP.
Special arrangements have been established in order to address the special needs of the least developed countries.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) sets a global trading framework for its 153 member countries, two-thirds of which are developing countries. The WTOs open market policies have led to changes in the EUs main trade and aid agreement with 79 developing countries the Cotonou Agreement. The WTO has also recognized the need to make greater provision for developing countries and also for small business.
The WTO has reached several agreements to reduce and eliminate barriers to global trade, including:
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT goods);
the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS);
the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) dispute resolution between member governments specific product/service and exporter/importer agreements.
The WTO also allows developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs) to adapt more slowly to free trade.
There are 50 LDCs as defined by the UN - 32 of which are WTO members.
These include self-defined developing countries, and two of the worlds largest economies China and India.
These developing countries have successfully agreed certain changes in WTO agreements, including:
a programme of Technical Assistance and Capacity Building for which the UK has pledged 45 million;
a change in the TRIPS rules on patented medicines to allow developing countries to use cheaper medicines under certain circumstances.
There are also other changes being considered by the WTO that would benefit developing countries, such as:
special measures for LDCs and small economies;
changes to the relationship between trade, debt and finance;
the possibility of technology transfers;
the relationship between patents and development.
WTO agreements and their changes have created a vast range of new business opportunities. Rules preventing special help for small business in public procurement including development aid contracts have been effectively removed in the EU and other developed countries, allowing many opportunities in these markets.
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) are development friendly trade agreements between the EU, its member states andAfrican, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACPs). EPAs are reciprocal Free Trade Agreements building on the Cotonou Agreement to enable a type of agreement that is compatible with the World Trade Organization trade agreement principles. They provide:
duty and quota free access to EU markets;
long transition periods for developing countries to open up their markets safeguards that allow countries to protect vital products.
EPAs also encourage regional integration by reducing trade barriers within the ACP regions.
The following countries currently benefit from duty-free, quota-free access for ACP exports into EU markets:
Caribbean Forum of Caribbean States (CARIFORUM): Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa - COMESA: Burundi, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
East African Community: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi
East and Southern Africa - ESA: Zimbabwe, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Zambia and Madagascar.
Southern African Development Community - SADC: Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Pacific Islands Forum - PIF: 14 island states, the biggest of which are Papua New Guinea and Fiji.
West Africa: All 15 members of ECOWAS - the Economic Community of West African States, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Central Africa: All members of ECCAS - the Economic Community of Central African States as well as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe, Cameroon.
The GSP is set by the EU and provides 176 developing countries with a reduction in EU import tariffs. These developing countries are not expected to offer the EU tariff reductions in return.
Module 3
Exercise 1. Translate the text into Russian.
Text 1
Silk Road: Spreading Ideas and Innovations
The Silk Road is a name given to the many trade routes that connected Europe and the Mediterranean with the Asian world. The route is over 6,500 km long and got its name because the early Chinese traded silk along it. Although silk was the main trading item there were many other goods that travelled along the Silk Road between Eastern Asia and Europe. In the course of time, medicine, perfumes, spices and livestock found their way between continents. It was also a transmitter of people, goods, ideas, beliefs and inventions.
Centuries have passed and Kazakhstan has launched a new transit railway linking China to Europe, aiming to beat rival routes for journey time in the competition to handle a growing flow of goods along the ancient Silk Road trade route.
Centuries ago, it would take months for caravans of camels and horses from China to reach Europe across the sun-scorched steppes and deserts of Central Asia to exchange silk for medicines, perfumes and precious stones.
Now it takes just 15 days for trains carrying containers with electronic goods, construction materials and other cargo to cover the 6,750 mile route from Chongqing in southwest China to Duisburg in Germanys industrial Ruhr region.
Late last year, Kazakhstan completed construction of a 183-mile stretch from Zhetygen to Korgas at the Chinese border, looping it in to the existing national railway network and opening the second China-Europe link across its territory.
All railways, as well as Customs and border guards, are ready to assist fast passage of cargo across their territories.
Europe-bound trains from China cross from Kazakhstan into Russia. Then they go via Belarus and Poland before reaching Duisburg in Germany.
Exercise 2. Read the text below and write an abstract in English.
 Hints
Use the following clichs:
The text is headlined; the main idea of the text is; the aim of the text is to provide; the reader with some data on ; the text is divided into parts ; the first part deals with ; the second part tells of; the third part touches upon ; in conclusion the text reads; I found the text interesting/ important/ boring/ of
no value ; it is easy/hard to understand.
Text 2
Новым источником роста экономики России может стать трансконтинентальный транспортный коридор Европа – Западный Китай. Около 2200 км дорог пройдет через Россию, в том числе через Республику Татарстан.
Торговый оборот между Европой и Азией растет лавинообразно. По данным таможенного советника Посольства КНР в РФ Чжан Цзяня, если в 2010 году товарооборот между Китаем и Россией составил 59,3 млрд. долл., то, как ожидается, к 2016 году он увеличится до 100 млрд., а к 2020 году достигнет 200 млрд. Такой рост требует новых подходов к организации транспортного сообщения между нашими странами. До сих пор 85–90% товарооборота между Европой и Азией осуществлялось морем благодаря низкой стоимости и сложившейся логистической инфраструктуре. Однако у морских грузоперевозок есть один минус: товар идет до полутора месяцев, в то время как сушей – в 2-3 раза быстрее.
В этом смысле стратегически важным можно считать территорию Приволжского федерального округа, в частности, Республику Татарстан, где пересекаются международные транспортные коридоры Запад – Восток (Транссибирская магистраль) и Север – Юг (река Волга, соединяющая Балтийское и Каспийское моря). Поэтому неслучайно именно через территорию Татарстана проходит отрезок трансконтинентального коридора Европа – Западный Китай.
В окончательном виде идея стала известна как коридор Европа – Западный Китай. Согласно официальным документам длина трассы составит 8400 км, она соединит Санкт-Петербург, Москву, Нижний Новгород, Казань, Оренбург, Актобе, Кызылорду, Алма-Ату, Хоргос, Урумчи, Ланьчжоу, Чжэнчжоу и Ляньюнган. По территории России пройдет около 2200 км дороги, Казахстана – 2800 км, Китая – 3400 км.
По территории Приволжья проходят около 7000 км федеральных и 103 тыс. км региональных автомобильных дорог общего пользования и более 14 тыс. км железнодорожных линий. Однако существующая сеть не соответствует потребностям, как по пропускной способности, так и по техническому состоянию, а железная дорога в целом исчерпала свой потенциал.
Инфраструктура воздушного транспорта также устарела: большинство региональных компаний работают только на подвоз пассажиров до Москвы, и две трети авиаперевозок идет через столицу. В этом смысле транспортный коридор Европа – Западный Китай обеспечит межрегиональное сообщение, позволит объединить разобщенную дорожную сеть отдельных областей в единую транспортную артерию.
Возможности трансазиатского коридора огромны, так как создают возможности для интеграции национальных транспортных систем, гармонизации национальных законодательств, а также проведения согласованной инвестиционной политики по развитию приоритетных проектов для реализации транзитного потенциала.
Module 4
Exercise 1. Before reading, take a few minutes to preview the text. Briefly answer the following questions:
What does TIR mean on the back of a lorry?
What is history and mission of IRU?
What are Customs guarantee under TIR carnet?
What can you tell about TIR system today?
Text 1
The TIR Carnet
The TIR Carnet is a Customs transit document used to prove the existence of the international guarantee for duties and taxes for the goods transported under the TIR system, within the limit of the amounts specified by the contracting parties and under conditions stipulated in the TIR Convention.
The TIR System was created to facilitate trade and transport whilst implementing an international harmonized system of Customs control that effectively protects the revenue of each Country through which goods are carried.
At the beginning of the 1990s, geopolitical changes, a tremendous increase in trade volumes and in the number of road haulers performing TIR transports caused an increase in the risk of fraud perpetrated by organized crime.
Access to the TIR system was therefore strictly controlled, and the Administrative Committee for the TIR Convention adopted a Recommendation on 20 October 1995 which set out an electronic control system for TIR Carnets.This control system was included in the TIR Convention as Annex 10 on 12 August 2006, and is commonly referred to as the SafeTIR system.
Each TIR Carnet has a unique reference number. A TIR Carnet may have 4, 6, 14, or 20 vouchers, as one pair of vouchers is used per country; the number of vouchers indicates the number of countries that can be transited, including the countries of departure and destination, under cover of this type of Carnet, e.g. a 20-voucher Carnet may be used for a TIR transport through up to 10 countries.
Each individual TIR Carnet can be used for only one TIR transport. Once the TIR transport has been terminated at the Customs office of destination of the goods, the driver is handed back the TIR Carnet duly endorsed by the Customs authorities of destination. Customs authorities must immediately confirm the termination of the TIR transport electronically via SafeTIR. The TIR Carnet is returned to the Association and shipped to the IRU for final control and archiving.

IRU- International Road Transport Union
The IRU Training team provides services that are designed to build the necessary expertise in order for the actors involved in the TIR System to perform their tasks at the required security standards. These resources vary from instructor-led trainings to distance learning, to brochures.
The TIR Convention today numbers 68 Contracting Parties worldwide. The TIR System is operational in 58 countries, one country is in admission process while three others have entered the negotiation phase and six countries have demonstrated interest in joining.
The IRU is involved in activities which include, but are not limited to:
partnership among all its active and associate members and with related organisations and industries to define, develop and promote policies of common interest;
monitoring all activities, legislation, policies and events that impact the road transport industry, responding to and cooperating with all actors involved;
strategic reflection on global challenges of energy, competition and social responsibility, drawing on the strengths and expertise of its members channeled through the IRU Commissions and Working Parties;
dialogue with intergovernmental bodies, international organisations and all other stakeholders concerned by the road transport industry, including the public at large;
cooperation with policy makers, legislators and opinion-makers, in order to contribute to informed and effective legislation, striking the right balance between the needs and interests of all;
public-private partnerships with relevant authorities to implement legal instruments such as the TIR Convention under UN mandate or concrete transnational projects such as the reopening of the Silk Road;
communicationof the role and importance of the road transport industry, of its position on various issues and of reliable data and information;
provision of practical services and information, to road transport operators, such as the latest fuel prices, waiting times at borders, secure parking areas, professional training, legislative developments, legal assistance, etc.

Text 2

Exercise 2. Review the text in English. Use words and word-combinations from the box:
Reliable, key procedures, features of the procedure, to provide system, haulage, comprise, to aim at, within the Eurasian Customs Union, application of the procedure, agreed-upon procedures, sustainable trade, transportation costs, mutual recognition, calling card, Customs officials, transport operators, easily achievable.


Автомобильный транспорт обуславливает торговое и экономическое развитие. Эффективные, надежные, современные и автоматизированные процедуры транзита являются ключевыми для дальнейшего упрощения процедур торговли.
Система МДП является единственной глобальной системой таможенного транзита, которая оказалась чрезвычайно успешной. Ее популярность можно объяснить особенностями режима МДП, который предоставляет транспортным операторам и таможенным органам простую, гибкую, экономически выгодную и надежную систему для международных перевозок грузов через границы.
Конвенция МДП насчитывает 68 договаривающихся сторон. Применение процедуры МДП в рамках Евразийского экономического союза предоставляет согласованные процедуры контроля и документацию для торговых и транзитных процедур, обеспечивает безопасность и устойчивость торговли, сокращает транспортные расходы, формальности и задержки благодаря взаимному признанию таможенного контроля и наличию эффективной гарантии.
Книжки МДП – визитная карточка системы МДП – известна сотрудникам таможенных органов Таможенного союза на протяжении десятилетий и облегчает формальности, связанные с транзитом, делая процедуры для должностных лиц таможенных органов быстрыми и легко выполнимыми.
Module 5
Exercise 1. While reading the text point out the threat of counterfeiting and pirated goods. Write a short summary of the text. Add some more information concerning fakes using the Internet.
Text 1
Counterfeit Goods
The production of counterfeit and pirated products continues to grow at an alarming rate and has reached intolerable proportions. In fact the array of fake goods is staggering. This scourge which has visible negative consequences for international trade, economic development, business confidence, and the health and safety of citizens around the world has to be stopped as a matter of priority. Counterfeiting is not a victimless crime. For a start, legitimate businesses lose sales because of competition from counterfeiters.
The fight against counterfeiting has the main objective of informing the consumer about the real dangers of these products and to raise their awareness about the criminal industry that is so heavily involved in this illegal trade. These efforts engender a sense of responsibility and mobilize support to combat this empire of fraud, illusion, and deceit which places human lives at risk and wrecks initiatives designed to promote economic and social prosperity.
Today, counterfeit goods cross several borders, or even several continents, passing from port to port and from airport to airport, changing ships or changing planes, using free zones and sometimes even switching transport documents or containers.
All this subterfuge has one main priority: to conceal the true origin of the goods and thereby avoid attracting the attention of Customs and other border control services. This technique, commonly known as transshipment or break-bulk transit, is very widespread nowadays, and Customs services have had to adapt their control methods, shifting their focus away from the origin of the suspect goods to the point of dispatch and, in more general terms, the itinerary followed.
Protecting consumer health and safety is a vital mission for Customs administrations across the globe and it is important that WCO Members equip themselves with new laws and enhanced operational instruments offering practical responses which are commensurate with the risk that counterfeit and pirated products pose.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions:
What is counterfeit?
What does counterfeiting mean to most people?
How much do governments lose because of counterfeiting?
Exercise 3. Render the gist of Text 2 in a few sentences.
Text 2

The Museum of Counterfeiting, Paris

If you have seen the Eiffel Tower, floated down the Seine and visited the Louvre, its high time to visit compact and beautifully housed Museum of Counterfeiting.
The Museum of Counterfeiting was created in 1951; it is located in a private mansion, on the ground floor of an elegant, 19th century building in Paris. It is didactic and allows visitors to get information about counterfeiting and its impact on the international economy; it makes them aware about the importance of intellectual property and explains the legal sanctions that exist.
It is a unique museum which shows a large range of fake and authentic items so that visitor can learn how to detect imitations: bronzes of Rodins, perfumes, tobacco, dictionaries, software, CDs and DVDs, toys, spare parts, household electrical appliances, cleaning products, textile, tanning, fake sunglasses dishes, pens, products to USB keys, sporting goods and pharmaceuticals even including bottled water, tomato ketchup and liquid gas. The Museum offers a wide-ranging, intriguing and rather disturbing display of the enormous extent of counterfeiting.
Visitors quickly learn that crooks, and counterfeiting, have been around for a long time. The oldest counterfeit products on display, dating from around 200 BC, are stoppers used to seal amphorae filled with wine being transported from Italy to Gaul. A genuine stopper, with the wine merchants mark, is shown next to its counterfeit used by an ancient Roman free-rider hoping to cash in on someone elses market success. Over 2,000 years later, the problem is still with us. It is estimated1 that 7 to 10 percent of global trade derives from counterfeits, costing the world economy around US$ 492 billion a year.
Throughout the Museum, authentic goods are displayed with their corresponding imitations obtained following customs seizures or court judgments or settlements to highlight the differences between genuine products and their illegal and sub-standard doppelgangers.
The Museums message underscores the negative, widespread and potentially dangerous impact of counterfeiting on producers, consumers and the economy: not only discouraging innovation, depriving right holders of income and supporting organized crime, but also threatening health and safety.
It notes that badly made counterfeit toys are, at best, soon damaged (False Barbies one captions warns, quickly go bald); at worst, they incorporate inflammable materials or toxic substances, such as lead paint, or have small breakable parts that present a choking hazard.
The dangers are many and varied, counterfeit products by their nature elude any health or safety controls. The Museum runs the gamut, from that do not adequately protect the eyes to counterfeit car and airplane parts that risk failing with disastrous consequences, and sub-standard electrical appliances that present myriad domestic dangers. Fake medicines are a particularly pernicious and perennial problem, often containing no, or insufficient, active ingredients or even incorporating toxic elements. It is estimated that they make up from 10 to over 30 percent of the market in developing countries.
The Museum recently opened a new wing, dedicated to copyright crime. Its exhibits range from fake statuettes of Rodin, Dali and Giacometti often showing counterfeiting techniques, such as the application of acid followed by tinted wax to give bronze a quick patina to pirated DVDs and CDs. It also highlights the dramatic escalation in IP crime fuelled by the Internet, and its profound effect on the creative industries.
One of the Museum displays notes that an estimated 40 million counterfeit Swiss watches are produced each year twice the number of genuine watches made in Switzerland annually.
The museum aims to raise awareness and stresses the need forindustrial protection.
Exercise 4. Read the text again and write its summary using the following plan:
The location of the museum.
Goods displayed in the museum.
Copyright infringement.
Counterfeit watch.
Threats of the fakes.
How not to mistake a fake.
Protecting intellectual property rights.
Exercise 5. Read Text 3 to answer the questions:
What does the abbreviation IPR stand for?
What does the abbreviation TRIPS stand for?
How has the change in technology affected the everyday practice of counterfeiting and IPR?
What legislative measures on IPR enforcement are underway in the world?
What kind of organization is CAP?
What is economic impact of counterfeiting on the global economy?
Customs is on front line in combating counterfeiting, isnt it? What facts prove this point?
What programs has the WCO developed?
Text 3
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) offences now affect everything that is manufactured and has a commercial value, touching all sectors from horticulture to the auto industry to pharmaceuticals.
The offenders keep pace with the latest technology and with trends in the global market. The objectives are profit at any price and maximum cost-effectiveness, with total disregard for humanitarian considerations, an objective perfectly in keeping with the criminal and terrorist organizations which use the highly lucrative counterfeiting and piracy industry to finance their activities.
Nowadays, the means of production used by counterfeiters are equivalent to those employed in the licit product market, and are based on the latest technology. The counterfeiters adopt an industrial approach, enabling them to improve both the quality and the quantity of counterfeit goods.
In the past, the distribution of counterfeit goods was confined to fly-by-night networks, street-corner vendors, street stalls, etc., with no real organization.
This distribution model limited the market penetration of counterfeit goods.
Distribution has now been diversified. Technical advances such as the Internet offer traffickers new distribution opportunities and make their illicit products accessible to the global marketplace. E-commerce has led to a huge increase in the number of transactions for which it is difficult to identify the vendors, who are able to hide behind pseudonyms. The distribution network involves large numbers of intermediaries, and increasingly innovative methods are being used to disseminate the goods.
Economic impact
The impact of the counterfeit goods traffic on the global economy is becoming greater every year, and is affecting all those involved in international trade. Counterfeiting causes serious economic and social damage to countries, in particular by discouraging inward investment.
Manufacturers, distributors and entrepreneurs are looking for a fair trading environment in which their products or trademarks will receive adequate protection against unfair competition. International companies are tending to reduce the number of their manufacturing and distribution sites, with the result that they are extremely selective about which countries they eventually invest in.
The role of Customs in combating counterfeiting
Customs carries out an essential function in the fiscal area, but as import duties fall its mission of protecting society and ensuring compliance with trade rules, and its role in achieving a fair and equitable international market, are assuming increasing significance.
As a result of its position at land, sea and air borders, Customs is the public service which is best placed to protect the external borders. The Customs officers of today have to deal with a very wide range of offences and frauds in relation to, in particular, illicit drugs, endangered species, nuclear materials and hazardous goods, cultural heritage items, and goods whose importation, exportation and carriage contravene intellectual property rights (IPR) legislation.
TRIPS Agreement
In the framework of the negotiations and of the Convention establishing the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) was signed on 15 April 1994. Part III, Section 4 of the TRIPS Agreement describes the role and responsibilities that Customs administrations are called upon to assume with regard to the application of the IPR regulations. Many Customs administrations of developing countries which have joined the WTO are therefore required to implement the TRIPS Agreement in full.
Training
The WCO has developed a joint Customs/business training programme on IPR. This is an innovative partnership operating with due regard for economic necessities.
The WCOs basic policy involves helping Member administrations to enhance their effectiveness so that they can progress at their own pace towards the development and implementation of an operational set-up which suits their environment.
The WCO has now established a Counterfeiting and Piracy Group (CAP) to provide a platform for its members to exchange best practices and discuss their views and experiences on IPR related issues.
Module 6
Exercise 1. Scan the text to speak about core components that will shape the Customs agencies of the future.
Text 1
Customs Agencies of the Next Generations
Customs is an industry defined by change from shifting trade and supply-chain trends to complex economic, social and political realities in the interconnected world.
Customs must work toward improving trade facilitation and protection. In future agencies will need to enhance capabilities of technology to work more efficiently and effectively.
There are three key components which describe the Customs of the future:
Intelligent operating models;
New technologies;
New type of Customs professionals.
When combined these components equip the Customs of the future with intelligent operational, organizational and staffing models.
Customs staff demonstrates a high level of commitment to ensure the integrity of information, security and operations. It will speed up the flow of goods and improve readiness for goods delivery.
As an example, the Australian Customs and Border Protection Services vision for the future of travel is based around a seamless travel experience backed up by technology.
Another secret to touch-free travel is giving passengers the power to complete many of the usual airport processes before they even enter the terminal, such as filling out a departure card online or via a mobile app, and searching a database to find out what they can and cannot carry into Australia.
Text 2
Exercise 2. Render the text in English. Use words and word-combinations from the box:
participants of foreign economic activity; increase in efficiency; technology of remote release; reduce paper circulation; preliminary information; special portal; speed up procedures; to implement; presentation of information; capacity; movement of goods and people; to agree; high costs; whimsy; severe need; allocate a significant budget; funding; development; implementation; improvement; development; circulation of documents
Перспективные технологии таможни
Электронное декларирование товаров упрощает работу и предприятий-участников внешнеэкономической деятельности (ВЭД). Оно в первую очередь нацелено на повышение эффективности таможенного контроля.
Внедрение и совершенствование электронного декларирования требует внедрение комплекса технологических мероприятий основными задачами, которых являются сокращение бумажного документооборота и времени на проведение таможенных процедур. Продолжением развития электронного декларирования является внедрение технологии удаленного выпуска. Это – удобный рабочий инструмент, в основе которого заложен принцип разделения таможенных процедур на документальный и фактический контроль.
Перспективные технологии таможенного оформления и контроля активно внедряются в жизнь. С 2014 года на таможенных постах России используется только электронное декларирование для подачи деклараций на товары, письменная форма применяется в исключительных случаях. Для ускорения процедур на границе участники ВЭД всё чаще подают предварительную информацию о товаре через специальный портал электронного представления сведений ФТС России.
В настоящее время создаются условия для увеличения пропускной способности базового аэропорта, более быстрого и комфортного прохождения всех видов контроля при перемещении товаров и физических лиц через таможенную границу Таможенного Союза.
Руководители таможенных служб многих стран мира сходятся во мнении, что внедрение ИТ-технологий, несмотря на высокий уровень затрат, не является прихотью, а представляет собой суровую необходимость. В настоящий момент правительства выделяют значительные бюджетные средства на финансирование мероприятий, связанных с разработкой, внедрением, совершенствованием, развитием ИТ-технологий в органах государственной власти.
Exercise 3. Prepare a report on the modernization of Customs Services around the world.
TESTS
Test 1
Smuggling
Grammar: Conditionals of the 2nd type
Click the right answer:
1. ___________is one of the main missions of the Russian Customs Service.
Prevention of payments
Transportation of goods
Interdiction of smuggled items traffic
2. Smuggled goods can enter the country together with passengers, cargo or with a __________.
means of payment
means of conveyance
means of interrogation
3. If the passenger _______Customs rules, he will be able to fill in a declaration form.
will know
know
knows
4. The unlawful bringing in or taking out of the country of ____________is considered contraband.
articles under supervision
forbidden or restricted articles
lost or missing articles
5. If the passenger ________ too nervous, his luggage wont be checked at the Customs very carefully.
wouldnt be
isnt
wont be
6. He wont have any difficulties at the Customs control if he ________his baggage for inspection.
will present
present
presents
7. To be effective in ________against smuggling Customs Services all over the world have to cooperate together.
combating
flowing
levying
8. If you ______your luggage, you _______to the clerk of the airport.
would lose; apply
lost; will applying
lost; would apply
9. Drug __________efforts are very important part of the Customs activities nowadays.
interference
presumption
prevention
10. The problem of ________among young people is very difficult to be solved.
drug addiction
endangered species
personal stamps
11. The _________ traffic in cultural objects was one of issues addressed by the Nairobi Convention of 1977.
unbelievable
unlawful
unbroken
12. If the tourist had his baggage claim receipt, he ________his suit-case back immediately on arrival.
take
would take
will take
13. Everyone will be detained, if he ________smuggled items.
will be carrying
carry
carries
14. If a person was found guilty of smuggling, he ________by a fine or taken to court.
would be punished
will punish
punished
15.__________goods such as fakes of popular brands of perfume are often smuggled into Russia.
Countable
Commercial
Counterfeit
16. To prevent the traffic of smuggling Customs officers should more often use specially trained dogs and new __________.
sophisticated equipment
dangerous substances
goods classification
17. Valuable items will be considered smuggled if they _______into the country without a special permit.
will be brought
are brought
brought
18. The Customs Service has to develop more effective ways of _________contraband.
differing
delivering
detecting
19. Smuggled articles such as drugs, explosives, antiques and weapon are liable to __________.
consumption
confiscation
contribution
20. If a passenger _______with the Customs rules, he ________subject to prosecution.
wouldnt comply; were
didnt comply; would be
not comply; will be
21. Smuggling sometimes takes the form of running crossing a national boundary ____________.
with paying Customs duties
without going through Customs
from disturbing Customs officials
22. If the border control ________weak and inefficient, smugglers ________through formalities more easily.
are; can pass
will be; could pass
were; could pass
23. If the passengers tried to hide some items, they ________at the security control.
will detain
were detained
would be detained
24. ___________is regarded as the most serious challenge for Russian border security.

Freight traffic
Drug-trafficking
Vocational training
25. The most effective means ___________are sustained actions against smugglers by all the law enforcement agencies.
to suppress smuggling
to promote employees
to develop tourism
Test 2
Customs Payments
Grammar: Conditionals of the 3rd type
Click the right answer:
1. Customs duty is a _________or tax on the import or export of goods.
credit
invoice
tariff
2. If the British passenger _______a duty for excess luggage then, he would have had difficulties at the Customs.
hadnt paid
wouldnt pay
didnt pay
3. __________should always be included in the Customs value.
Fiscal fraud
Freight charges
Cash commodities
The _______of import duties and taxes is a keystone in every Customs organization.
regulation
assessment
examination
If the excess baggage charge _________ according to the Customs rules, the goods ________ two days ago.
would be done; was released
was done; would be released
had been done; would have been released
Duty _______have been increased on different transport vehicles lately.
rates
raids
ranges
In every country import-export rates are supposed to provide the state budget with additional _________.
mineral resources
financial resources
staff resources
International trade would be facilitated now if countries ________the same valuation criteria then.
adopted
had adopted
would adopt
Customs _________also include value-added tax levied on the goods imported to the Customs territory of the Russian Federation.
privileges
principles
payments
The role of Customs in ________collection and in trade facilitation is very important.
revenue
provision
salary
If the passenger had stated the true value of the articles in his declaration, he _________by the fine yesterday.
havent been punished
wouldnt have been punished
wouldnt be punished
If you _________the currency regulation during your last trip, you would have been in trouble then.
broke
had broken
would break
The change of Customs tariffs is based on an objective necessity to protect local ________.
transport forwarders
false goods
commodity producers
If I ________him yesterday, I would have discussed the Customs payments with him.
saw
had seen
would see
The importer would have paid storage charges last week if the goods _________in a bonded warehouse.
would be stored
had stored
had been stored
If the passenger exceeded free baggage allowance, he would have to pay for _________.
excess luggage
hand luggage
empty luggage
The violation of currency regulations is the _________.
civil offence
unintentional offence
criminal offence
Relief from ________ in respect of some goods, for example, exhibition goods is granted.
Customs violations
Customs free zones
Customs duties
The taxes that must be paid on _________include Customs duties, value-added tax and some special import taxes.
inspection
importation
infringement
If the goods had been exported last month, the Customs duties would _________not later than the date of Customs declaration submission.
had paid
had been paid
have been paid
21.___________and protection of economic interests have always been the principal function of Customs.
Primary resources
Market research
Revenue collection
22. A __________is a tax on imports to protect an industry in the country by making the imported goods more expensive and less attractive to the consumer.
transit tariff
protective tariff
reduced tariff
23. If there ________ an agreement between the seller and the buyer then, the agent bank could have accepted the bill of exchange drawn by that seller on the agent bank.
had been
were
would be
24. Customs _________is a major feature of modern Customs tariff systems.
valuation
violation
verification
25. If goods _________released for free circulation at areduced or zero rate of duty, they __________under Customs supervision.
were; will remain
are; would remain
had been; would have remained
TEST 3
Customs Clearance of Goods
Grammar: Conditionals with I wish
Click the right answer:

1. Cargo shipments are to be inspected for __________and anti-smuggling purposes.
currency regulation
export distribution
duty collection
2. I wish the cargo _________ in damaged condition or deficient in quantity.
wont find
wasnt found
wouldnt found
3. The cargo is examined at the _________.
Customs Zone
Customs Code
Customs Service
4. The Customs officer is not responsible for any __________during unloading, unpacking or repacking.
examination of the cargo
damage of the cargo
replacement of the cargo
I wish the applicant _________ entertainment goods and foods separately.
would state
state
stated
Your goods may be seized and youll collect them from the _________ after you pay.
left-luggage office
goods wagon
warehouse
Cargo entry declarations, bills of parcels, _________, and insurance policies are checked before unloading the vehicle.
bills of lading
bills of credit
bills of sale
He has some problems at the Customs. I wish he ________for extra baggage then.
would pay
had paid
paid
__________ are goods which are not allowed to be brought in or taken out of the country.
Prohibited goods
Consumer goods
Household goods
The examination of the cargo is carried out in the presence of the owner of the goods if the cargo is found in __________.
perfect condition
damaged condition
weather conditions
I wish they _________ the necessary documents in authorized form.
would produce
produce
produced
Non-declared goods are usually _________ by Customs officials.
distributed
detained
defended
The Customs is responsible for _________of the cargo at the Customs zone.
ensuring security
removing seal
assessing revenue
I wish the goods _________from the Customs duties as soon as possible.
would be released
were released
released
I wish our goods ________duty free then.
were released
would be released
had been released
The cargo is examined to ensure that no __________may come along.
perishable or fragile goods
prohibited or restricted goods
high value or home-made goods
Only original documents are considered to be ________while going through the Customs clearance.
valid
false
insufficient
I wish the entertainment goods __________without delay.
would be delivered
delivered
were delivered
I wish the storage charges _________in full then.
were paid
would be paid
had been paid
I wish the cargo ________free of charge for some days.
would store
was stored
have stored
21. I wish you __________the trouble to me before so I could help you.
explained
would explain
had explained
22. __________is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet some requirements, for example, of customers or corporations..
Business
Logistics
Inventory

23. When shipping perishable goods, particular attention should be paid to ___________.
methods of repayment
shipping methods
tariff methods
24. Dangerous goods are also subject to the ____________regulations.
environment protection
data protection
intellectual property protection
25. Logistics is a channel of the __________ which adds the value of time and place utility.
supply chain
exchange payment
clearance papers
TEST 4
Customs Procedures. TIR Procedure
Grammar: The Gerund
Click the right answer:
1. Governments will require that Customs administrations take on a larger role in __________national security and law enforcement.
to ensure
ensuring
ensure
2. The Customs warehousing procedure can also be used to assist manufacturers in ________goods for export.
process
processing
being processed
3. One of the advantages of road transportation over the other means of conveyance is greater __________.
importation of bulky goods
origin of goods
safety of cargoes
4. The TIR Convention provides for the carriage of goods without ________.
reloading
reload
reloaded
5. The TIR Convention was signed to __________by road vehicles and the formalities at frontiers.
complicate the transportation of commodities
facilitate the issue of visas
simplify the international carriage of goods
6. Training in _________illegal commodity channels were held for the Customs officers.
identify
identifying
being identified
7. ___________has a number of advantages: higher maneuvering in choosing or changing the route and smaller packing expenses.
Road transportation
Rail transportation
Air interdiction programme
8. The TIR Convention provides for the carriage of goods without _________.
reload
reloaded
reloading
9. The abbreviation TIR stands for Customs Convention on the __________.
International Road Transport Union
International Transport of Goods
International Maritime Organization
10. Customs officers insisted on _________goods immediately.
inspecting
inspect
to inspect
11. Goods carried under the TIR procedure in sealed road vehicles are not, as a rule, subject to Customs __________.
valuation of goods
temporary admission
control on route
12. Customs officials have succeeded __________counterfeit goods lately.
at being detected
in detecting
on detect
13. _________is a special document facilitating transit by serving both as a Customs declaration and as a guarantee in countries that are a contracting party to the TIR Convention.
Customs Co-operation Group
CMR note
TIR Carnet
14. Customs officers are sure of __________the cargo shipment before.
inspecting
having inspected
being inspected
15. Entry may be refused if the Customs officer has any reason to suspect that the vehicle and goods may be means of introduction of ___________.
additional financial resources
intervention of imported goods
certain infectious diseases
16. They didnt like the idea of __________at the Customs.
being examined
examined
examining
17. All details of the route as well as the names of the consignor and the consignee are marked in the __________.
driving licences
shipping documents
personal identifications
18. He is against _________documents for the carriage of those bulky goods.
issued
issue
issuing
19. TIR procedure prevented goods in sealed road vehicles or containers __________at the Customs control.
for examining
from being examined
on having been examined
20. Nobody can accuse carriers __________goods without any grounds.
of damaging
for damage
from damaging
21. There are different ways of _______ the offenders.
prosecutes
prosecuting
to prosecute
22. The Customs officer is responsible for ___________the stores on board the vessel.
to control
controlling
to be controlled
23. There are several forms of ___________ the goods for shipment.
preparing
prepare
prepared
24. Customs was much more than a force for _____________contraband.
defending
increasing
keeping out
25. Customs __________include inward and outward processing, temporary admission, Customs transit, Customs warehousing, etc.
premises
procedures
payments
Test 5
Customs Offences
Grammar: Participles
Click the right answer:
1. One of the tasks of the Customs authorities is to investigate and establish any _________of the current Customs regulations.
bribe
branch
breach
2. Here is the declaration __________ by the British passenger yesterday.
fill in
filling in
filled in
3.The most usual Customs violations are the ___________, narcotics and other contraband, commercial fraud, currency violations and money laundering.
transportation of goods
replacement of goods
smuggling of goods
4. Smugglers usually hide __________articles in their baggage.
smuggled
smuggle
smuggling
5. The fines are normally based on the __________and not on the value of the goods.
deficient quantity of goods
amount of the duties and taxes
goods classification
6. There are some necessary precautionary measures __________the Customs authorities.
taken by
take from
taking on
7.____________are committed when a person imports goods with the intent to evade all or part of the duty.
Commercial fraud
Money laundering
Revenue offences
8. The penalties _________vary according to the seriousness or the importance of the offences.
applying
applied
apply
9. Some Customs offences are punishable only by a small fine if there is no question of __________.
commercial transaction
fraudulent intent
possible violation
10.___________that all his cash was gone, he had a nervous breakdown.
Finding
Being found
Having found
11. The possible penalties are fines, ___________and, where appropriate, confiscation of the means of transport.
seizure of the goods
carriage of the goods
damage of the goods
12.___________the passengers baggage, the Customs officer left the Customs hall.
Examining
Having examined
Being examined
13. Failure to produce information on the _________ can result in fines.
volume of passenger traffic
verdict of guilty
value of goods
14. Only Customs offences ___________as relatively serious are brought before the administrative tribunals or courts of law.
regarded
being regarded
regarding
15.___________the seriousness of the Customs offence, the Customs authorities may be empowered to detain the goods and means of transport.
Depended for
Being depended from
Depending on
16. Certain items must be declared on a Customs form when ______the country.
entering
enter
entered
17.___________the wrong entry declaration, the Customs official had to inspect the passengers carry-on baggage.
Being shown
Having been shown
Having shown
18. There will be a Customs ___________, if you import goods without a visa.
order
obligation
offence
19. The rules for passengers __________abroad are similar in most countries.
going
gone
being gone
20. Travellers should get certificate for all high-value items _________in Russia.
purchasing
purchased
purchase
21. The documents ___________exhibition goods must clearly state that these goods are coming for exhibition purposes only.
supporting
supported
support
22.___________ a person has a right to consult a solicitor.
to arrest
to be arrested
being arrested
23. Customs investigates the illegitimate movement of ___________goods such as drugs, weapons, etc.
prohibited or restricted
prohibiting or restricting
prohibit or restrict
24.___________his baggage before, the Customs official made the Act of Seizure of prohibited items.
Examined
Having examined
Examining
25. Customs enforcement is concerned with the protection of society and fighting trans-national _________crime.
organizing
to organize
organized
Test 6
Customs Agency of the Future
Grammar: The Infinitive
Click the right answer:
1. The principal role of Customs administrations will change from revenue collection to that of monitoring compliance with ____________.
international trade agreements
general business skills
selling consumer goods
2. When a new technology is implanted, it is essential __________about simplicity, price and efficiency.
remembering
remember
to remember
3. Customs agency of the future must ___________up-to-date and deep information that can be easily analyzed.
to analyze and provide
analyze and provide
analyzing and providing
4. Customs will continue to be the expert authority on the __________across the national boundaries.
assessment of duties
movement of goods
certificate of origin
5. Customs Services of different countries meet to __________their experiences.
exchange
control
deal
6. We saw our colleague _________into the Customs hall.
to come
come
came
7. These baggage scanners are considered __________very effective.
being
been
to be
8. Customs agencies of the future will continuously _____________to developments in the trading environment.
to review and respond
reviewing and responding
review and respond
9. In the future, any physical intervention ____________cross-border goods will only affect a small minority of consignments.
inspected
inspect
to inspect
10. The world class Customs organization of the future should be more effective and able to provide a __________.
large premise
better service
commercial system
11. This Customs inspector is difficult ___________.
deal with
dealing with
to deal with
12. Customs authorities are finding ways of carrying out their __________activities.
employment
equipment
enforcement
13. These annoyed passengers are hard __________.
to please
please
pleased
14. The Customs of the future cant work without ___________.
qualitative judgement
advanced electronic technology
launched trade initiatives
15. He __________one of the most experienced Customs officers lately.
know to be
is known to have been
knew to be
16. Continuous improvement and better methods can help ___________real quality at the Customs.
achieving
being achieved
achieve
17. Decreased offences through improved compliance should __________in the performance of the Customs Service of the future.
be considered
to be considered
being considered
18. Technology is currently used __________the Customs organization through such activity as electronic data interchange.
support
supporting
to support
19. Customs will __________vigorously, fight the increasing drug smuggling and also work with businesses.
to encourage corruption
pursue fraud
following compliance
20. One of the top priorities for Customs is ___________the professionalism of staff.
to increase
increase
increased
21. In order ___________smuggling modern methods and techniques are being developed at the Customs.
prevent
to prevent
preventing
22. The work of the Russian Customs Service __________to be effective.
knows
is known
are known
23. There is one more technology ___________into the work of the Customs officers.
were introduced
be introduced
to be introduced
24. The Customs officer is entitled to __________every piece of passengers baggage.
rummage
take
present
25. In future biometric technologies at the Customs will play an ___________citizens, customers and travelers.
efficient role in discouraging
increasing role in protecting
unimportant role in operating
Грамматический справочник
GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Hints:
When reading English texts look out for the grammar aspect you want to remember. Mark it and reflect on why it is used there.
To see whether you’re right about a rule, look up the topic in an English grammar reference, your English textbook.
The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
And the proof of the grammar is in the reading.


Модуль 1. Сослагательное наклонение. Условные предложения I, II типов.
Первый тип условных предложений в английском языке отвечает за реальное условие действия, представленного в предложении, относящегося к будущему времени. В условных предложениях используются такие союзы, как если – if; когда – when; как только – as soon as; до того как – before; до – till, untill; после – after и др.
If Rostov airport is clear of fog, we’ll land on time.
Если над Ростовским аэропортом будет ясная видимость, мы приземлимся вовремя.


Второй тип условных предложений в английском языке выражает маловероятное условие, которое может относиться как к настоящему, так и к будущему времени. Для того чтобы образовать такой тип условного предложения, необходимо в придаточном предложении употребить глагол в форме простого или длительного прошедшего времени (Past Indefinite/Past Continuous), а в главном предложении создать сложную форму сослагательного наклонения из глаголов should/would и простого инфинитива глагола без to. Если же в придаточном предложении стоит глагол to be, то его формой сослагательного наклонения будет were для всех лиц. В последнее время имеет место тенденция употребления was для 1, 3 лица ед. числа, для остальных лиц и чисел – were.
If I were (was) you, I would discuss this question with your boss.

If I lost my passport, I would apply to the police.
Если бы я был на твоем месте, я бы обсудил этот вопрос с твоим начальником.
Если бы я потерял паспорт, я бы обратился в полицию.


Модуль 2. Сослагательное наклонение. Условные предложения III типа.
Условные предложения третьего типа выражают предположения, которые относятся к прошедшему времени и поэтому являются невыполнимыми. Как и условные предложения второго типа, они соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (т. е. с глаголом в форме прошедшего времени с частицей бы).
If I had seen him yesterday,
Если бы я видел его вчера,

I would have asked him about it.
я спросил бы его об этом.

If he had known the news then, he would have solved that problem.
Если бы тогда он знал новости, он решил бы эту проблему.




Особое внимание нужно обратить на то, что в русском языке форма сослагательного наклонения не показывает, к какому периоду времени относится высказывание (сделал бы вчера, сделал бы сейчас, сделал бы завтра).
Модуль 3. Сослагательное наклонение. Конструкция “I wish”.
В дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависимых от глагола to wish, употребляется Past Subjunctive (совпадает по форме с Past Simple) и Past Perfect Subjunctive (совпадает по форме с Past Perfect)

I wish you were here.

Я бы хотел, чтобы ты был здесь.
Жаль, что ты не здесь. (Second Conditional)

I wish I had not told the truth.

Жаль, что я рассказал вам правду. Хорошо бы было, если бы я не рассказал вам правду. (Third Conditional)

Если в русском предложении после фразы Жаль, что... употребляется глагол в настоящем времени, следует переводить такое предложение, используя Past Subjunctive (совпадает по форме с Past Simple):
Жаль, что она не знает все новости.
I wish she knew the news.

Жаль, что он не решил тогда эту проблему.
I wish he had solved that problem then.


Модуль 4. Герундий
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая процесс действия и обладающая свойствами глагола и существительного. Герундий образуется от основы глагола с помощью суффикса -ing.
To translate - translating, to read – reading

Active
Passive

Indefinite
writing
being written

Perfect
having written
having been written


Подобной неличной формы глагола в русском языке нет. Как существительное герундий может выполнять в предложении функции подлежащего, дополнения, определения и обстоятельства с предлогом. Как глагол герундий может иметь после себя прямое дополнение и определяться наречием, иметь перфектную форму, категорию залога, а также выражать действие как процесс.
Формы герундия совпадают с формами Participle I и Perfect Participle. Однако, это разные формы глагола, отличающиеся и по значению и по синтаксическим функциям. Формы Indefinite Gerund обозначают действия, одновременные с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым.
He likes inviting friends to his place.
He likes being invited to his friends.
Он любит приглашать друзей к себе.
Он любит, когда его приглашают к себе его друзья.


Перфектные формы герундия (Perfect Gerund) обозначают действия, предшествующие действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.
He is proud of having invited this man to his place.
He was proud of having been invited to the party.
Он гордится тем, что пригласил этого человека к себе.
Он гордился тем, что его пригласили на вечер.

I don’t remember having been given any special instructions.
Я не помню, чтобы мне давали какие- то особые распоряжения.


В предложении герундий может быть:
Подлежащим
Smoking is not allowed here.
Курить (Курение) здесь не разрешается.


Implementing market reforms is a lengthy process.
Осуществление рыночных реформ – это длительный процесс.

Сравните с причастием:
Implementing market reforms it is necessary to keep in mind social needs of the population.

Осуществляя рыночные реформы, необходимо иметь в виду социальные потребности населения.


Определением
There are different ways of getting to the airport.
Существуют различные способы, как добраться до аэропорта.

Именной частью сказуемого
His hobby is driving a car.
Его хобби – вождение (водить) машину.

Прямым дополнением
The car needs repairing.

Would you mind showing us the whole process?
Машина нуждается в ремонте (Машину нужно ремонтировать).
Покажите нам, пожалуйста, весь процесс.


Герундий в функции прямого дополнения употребляется также после глаголов avoid (избегать), enjoy (нравиться), excuse (извинять), intend (собираться, намереваться), like (любить, нравиться), prefer (предпочитать), prevent (мешать, препятствовать), regret (сожалеть), try (пытаться, стараться), withstand (противостоять) и др.
Дополнением с предлогом
We have succeeded in maintaining productivity level over the whole period.
Нам удалось удержать уровень производительности в течение всего периода.


Герундий в функции предложного дополнения употребляется после следующих глаголов и глагольных словосочетаний с предлогами:
account for – объяснять
aid in – способствовать
aim at – стремиться, ставить целью
be capable of – быть способным, мочь
depend on (upon) – зависеть от, полагаться на
be fond of – любить, нравиться
insist on (upon) – настаивать на
be interested in – интересоваться
keep from – мешать
object to – возражать
prevent from – мешать; предохранять от; препятствовать
be responsible for – объяснять; являться причиной
result from – являться результатом (следствием); проистекать
result in – получать в результате; приводить к чему-либо
Обстоятельством
In establishing a refinance rate it is necessary to take into account a monthly inflation rate.
При установлении ставки рефинансировании необходимо учитывать месячный уровень инфляции.

Определением
There is little probability of financial assistance being provided this year.

Маловероятно, что финансовая помощь будет выделена в этом году.


Характерными признаками герундия, отличающими его от причастия, являются стоящие перед ним предлог, притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном или общем падеже.
On completing the experiment, we decided to consult the supervisor.


По окончании эксперимента (После того, как был закончен эксперимент), мы решили посоветоваться с руководителем.


Professor Johnson’s (His) presenting a paper at the conference was not announced until yesterday.
To, что профессор Джонсон (он) будет выступать с докладом на конференции, было объявлено только вчера.

Для выражения предшествующего действия употребляется Indefinite Gerund с предлогами after, on/upon – после.
After looking through his declaration the Customs officer asked the passenger to open his suitcase.
Просмотрев декларацию пассажира, таможенник попросил его открыть чемодан.

Герундиальные обороты переводятся придаточными предложениями, вводимыми союзами что, чтобы и т.д.
The Customs officer insisted on my things being unpacked and looked through.
We went there by car instead of going by train.
Таможенник настаивал на том, чтобы мои вещи были распакованы и просмотрены.
Мы отправились туда на машине, вместо того, чтобы поехать на поезде.

Герундий употребляется после следующих словосочетаний:
cannot help – не могу не:
I cannot help thinking about it.
Я не могу не думать об этом.

It is worth (it is worthwhile) – стоит (что-либо сделать):
This book is worth reading.
Эту книгу стоит прочитать.

It’is no use – бесполезно, не смысла:
It is no use waiting for him.
Нет смысла ждать его.


В список глаголов, после которых употребляется герундий, наряду с другими, входят глаголы, выражающие начало, продолжение и конец действия: start, begin, keep, continue, go on, finish, stop.
После некоторых глаголов может следовать либо инфинитив, либо герундий, при этом меняется смысл предложения:
1. I will remember to call her. (I will be sure to call her in the future.)
Compare:
I remember calling her. (I have the memory of calling her in the past.)
2. I will not forget to meet him. (I will be sure to meet him in the future.)
Compare:
I will never forget meeting them. (I will not lose the memory of meeting them.)
Модуль 5. Причастие
Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая действие и обладающая свойствами, как прилагательного, так и глагола. В английском языке существуют:
причастие I – (Participle I) , имеющее суффикс -ing (to pass - passing – проходя, проходящий)
причастие II (Participle II) – третья форма глагола (to order-ordered – заказанный, заказываемый; to send-sent – посланный, посылаемый).
Отрицаемая частица not ставится перед причастием:
not opening – не открывая;
not declared – незадекларированный
Формы причастия

Active
Passive

Participle I
doing
being done

Participle II

done

Perfect Participle
having done
having been done


В предложении причастия I и II употребляются в функциях:
части сказуемого
He is filling in the exit declaration.
The passenger was kept under surveillance by the Customs officers.
Он заполняет выездную декларацию.
Таможенники держали пассажира под наблюдением.

определения (левого и правого)
Passengers taking out valuable pieces of art are to have a special permit of the Ministry of Culture.

Пассажиры, вывозящие ценные произведения искусства, должны иметь специальное разрешение Министерства культуры.

обстоятельства
(While) looking through the declaration the Customs officer asked the passenger a few questions on the contents of his luggage.

Просматривая декларацию, таможенник задал пассажиру несколько вопросов относительно содержимого его багажа.

В функции обстоятельства причастие в английском языке соответствует русскому деепричастию:
The Customs officer stood
on the deck counting the cases.
Таможенник стоял на палубе,
считая ящики.


Причастные обороты
Оборот Объектный падеж с причастием (Complex Object with Participle) состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и причастия (иногда с союзом as). Переводится придаточным предложением с союзами как и что.
We saw the passenger boarding the plane.
Мы видели, как пассажир садился в самолет.


Оборот Именительный падеж с причастием состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже и причастия (иногда с союзом as). Переводится придаточным предложением, которое вводится неопределенно-личным оборотом видели что …, считают что ….
He was seen checking-in at the counter.

Видели, как он регистрировался у стойки регистрации.


Независимый причастный оборот (The Absolute Participle Construction) состоит из существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в именительном падеже (перед которым может стоять предлог with и причастие). Это оборот обычно отделяется запятой, независимо от места в предложении. Переводится при помощи придаточных обстоятельственных предложений, начинающихся со слов так как, если, когда, причем и др.
The night shift being hectic, the Customs officers were very tired.

The formalities cleared, the passengers went to the flight gate.
Так как ночная смена была очень напряженной, таможенники очень устали.
После того, как были выполнены все формальности, пассажиры пошли к выходу на посадку.


All the athletes were accommodated in the Olympic village, their coaches staying in the same blocks.
Всех спортсменов разместили в Олимпийской деревне, при этом их тренеры находились в тех же корпусах.


Стоящий перед независимым причастным оборотом предлог with не переводится:
We stopped for a few minutes, with our guides continuing to pack the equipment.
Мы остановились на несколько минут, а наши проводники продолжали упаковывать снаряжение.

Модуль 6. Инфинитив
Инфинитив (неопределенная форма глагола) представляет собой неличную глагольную форму, которая только называет действие, не указывая ни лица, ни числа. Инфинитив в русском языке соответствует неопределенной форме глагола и отвечает на вопросы что делать?, что сделать?. Признаком инфинитива является частица to, которая в отдельных случаях может опускаться.
Формы инфинитива

Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Continuous

Active
to write
to be writing
to have written
to have been writing

Passive
to be written

to have been written


В предложении инфинитив употребляется в следующих функциях:
1) Подлежащего
To solve this problem is very important.

Решить эту проблему (задачу) очень важно. Решение этой проблемы является очень важным.


Когда инфинитив в функции подлежащего имеет при себе пояснительные слова, он часто стоит после сказуемого, а перед сказуемым стоит формальное подлежащее it.
It is the passenger’s responsibility to open, unpack and repack his belongings.
Пассажир должен сам открыть свой багаж для досмотра, распаковать его и вновь запаковать.


2) Части сказуемого (в сочетании с глаголом – связкой to be и модальным глаголом):
The next stage will be to publish the results of the research.

The research supervisor is to take care of that this week.
Не must have known the time of the train’s arrival.
Следующим этапом будет опубликование (опубликовать) результаты исследования.
Научный руководитель должен позаботиться об этом на этой неделе.
Он должен был знать время прибытия поезда.

3) Определения
The policy to be chosen must be socially oriented.

Mr. Black was the first person to clear post-flight formalities.
The issue to consider next deals with investment policy.
Экономическая политика, которую следует выбрать, должна быть социально ориентированной.
Мистер Блэк первым прошел таможенные формальности.
Вопрос, который будет рассматриваться далее, касается инвестиционной политики.

4) Обстоятельства
The interest rate was raised (so as) to attract customers.


This method is good enough to achieve reliable results.

They are too young to make such decisions.

Процентная ставка была увеличена для (с целью) привлечения вкладчиков (чтобы привлечь вкладчиков).
Этот метод достаточно хорош, чтобы достичь (он мог достичь) надёжные результаты.
Они слишком молоды, чтобы принимать такие решения (для принятия таких решений).

5) Прямого дополнения
We are planning (want) to finish the work today.
A number of factors have made us agree to their terms.
Мы планируем (хотим) закончить работу сегодня.
Целый ряд факторов заставил нас согласиться с их условиями.

6) Вводного члена предложения
То begin with, I would like to thank you for coming.

То be honest it’s a surprise for me.

Прежде всего (Вначале) мне бы хотелось поблагодарить Вас за то, что Вы пришли.
Если быть честным (Честно говоря), для меня это неожиданность.


Инфинитивные обороты
Объектный падеж с инфинитивом (Complex Object) - это сложное дополнение, состоящее из существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже и инфинитива. Может употребляться:
- после глаголов умственного восприятия - to see, to hear, to watch, to observe, to notice, to feel.
I heard that passenger say that he had lost his baggage.
We saw her check-in for the flight.

Я слышал, как этот пассажир сказал, что потерял свой багаж.
Мы видели, как она регистрировалась на рейс.


- после глаголов принуждения, приказа, разрешения и просьбы - to want, to wish, to tell, to ask, to order
The Customs officer asked the passenger to write his name in the declaration in block letters.
After the passengers’ baggage had been checked-in the Baggage Crew officer ordered his employees to load it.

Таможенник попросил пассажира написать его имя в декларации печатными буквами.
После того, как багаж пассажиров был зарегистрирован, офицер багажной службы приказал своим сотрудникам отправить его на погрузку.


после глаголов – to expect, to think, to consider, to know
We expect the agreement to be signed in the near future.

I know him to be suspected of the stealing these things.
Мы рассчитываем, что соглашение будут подписано в ближайшем будущем.
Я знаю, что он подозревается в краже этих вещей.


Инфинитив (без частицы to после глаголов чувственного восприятия или с частицей to после других глаголов) как часть сложного дополнения (‘complex object’) переводится на русский язык сказуемым дополнительного придаточного предложения.
I saw him pass the paper to the passenger.
Я видел, как (что) он передал документ пассажиру.


Именительный падеж с инфинитивом (Complex Subject) – это группа слогов, где подлежащее предложения и инфинитив, соотносящийся с ним по смыслу, составляют один член предложения – сложное подлежащее и переводится придаточным предложением.
Инфинитив может следовать после сказуемого типа:
А. is said – говорят
is believed – считается
is expected - ожидается
is supposed - предполагается
is reported – сообщают
He is known to be a highly trained handler.
Он считается хорошим кинологом.

B.
turn out, prove -оказываться
appear, seem - казаться
happen - случаться
The flight seems to be delayed already.
Кажется, рейс сегодня откладывается.

C.
is likely – вряд ли, похоже
is sure – наверняка
is certain – вероятно
If we don’t catch a taxi we are likely to be late for the flight.
These goods are sure to be detained at the Customs.
Если мы не возьмем такси, то, наверняка, опоздаем на самолет.
Эти товары, наверняка, задержат на таможне.


В зависимости от формы инфинитива при переводе сказуемое выражено глаголом совершенного или несовершенного вида в настоящем, будущем или прошедшем времени:
Не is unlikely to come today.

Не is said to have made a good report.

They are known to have been working on this issue for a year.
Маловероятно, что он сегодня придёт.
Говорят, что он сделал хороший доклад.
Известно, что они работают над этой проблемой уже год.


В обороте ‘Complex Subject’ инфинитив является частью составного глагольного сказуемого и может стоять после глаголов в двух формах – (а) пассивной и (б) активной:
They are known (were reported) to have won.


Their team seems to have won.

Известно (сообщили), что они одержали победу. Они, как известно (как сообщили), одержали победу
Кажется, что их команда одержала победу. Их команда, кажется, одержала победу.


Оборот “For + Noun (Pronoun) + Infinitive”
Этот оборот переводятся на русский язык придаточным предложением или инфинитивом.
The Customs officer waited for the passenger to fill in his declaration.
The best thing for you to do is to leave the excess luggage with the Customs and collect it in your way back home.

Таможенник ждал, пока пассажир заполнит декларацию.
Самое лучшее, что вы можете сделать – это оставить излишек багажа на таможне и забрать его на обратном пути.

При переводе на русский язык предлог for опускается, при этом инфинитив переводится сказуемым придаточного предложения, а стоящее перед ним существительное (местоимение) – подлежащим:
For money to be able to work it must be either invested or deposited in a bank.


Для того чтобы деньги могли работать, их нужно во что-то вложить или поместить в банк.


Заключение
Учебное пособие содержит профессионально ориентированный материал, предусматривающий овладение студентами умениями и навыками поиска и извлечения необходимой информации, ведения беседы на профессиональные темы, а также активизации профессиональной терминологии. Предлагается достаточное количество упражнений, направленных на усвоение, закрепление языкового материала, на оказание студентам помощи в работе с различными источниками информации по английскому языку.
Кроме того, учитывались требования программы, использовались материалы по грамматике, изложенные в учебниках и современных зарубежных пособиях.
Список использованной литературы
Брюховец Н. А., Чахоян Л. П. Английский язык. Менеджмент, маркетинг, таможенное дело : учебник для вузов. СПб. : Профессия, 2005. 288 с.
Графова Л. Л., Палей С. М. Англо-русский таможенный словарь : Около 40 000 терминов. М. : Буки Веди, 2013. 784 с.
Графова Л. Л., Арзуманян С. В., Лазарева Т. П. English for Customs : учебник английского языка для таможенников. М. : 1998. 687 с.
Давыдова Г. П. Неличные формы глагола (герундий, инфинитив, причастие) : учеб. пособие. М. : Изд-во Российской таможенной академии, 2009. 68 с.
Колесникова Н. А., Томашевская Л. А. Проблемы организации таможенного дела в России и за рубежом в переводах (начальный этап) : учеб. пособие. Ростов н/Д : Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2005. 69 с.
Колесникова Н. А., Томашевская Л. А. Работа таможенников в зеркале прессы. Часть I. Пресечение производства и распространения контрафактной продукции : практикум. Ростов н/Д : Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2006. 51 с.
Кузнецова О. А., Пономарева В. Д. Working for Customs. Учебное пособие по дисциплине Английский язык для студентов 1 курса : учеб. пособие. В 2-х ч. Ростов н/Д : Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2010. 450 с.
Слепович В. С. Translation Course. (English - Russian) (курс перевода (английский – русский язык)) : учеб. для студентов высш. учеб. заведений по специальности Мировая экономика. 9-е изд. Минск : Тетра Системс, 2011. 320 с.
Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press. 2000. 350 с.
Rules and Exercises in Modern English Grammar : практикум по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский язык) / О. А. Кузнецова [и др.] // Часть 1. Ростов н/Д : Российская таможенная академия, Ростовский филиал, 2006. 158 с.
Электронные источники
http://englishbrahim.wordpress.com/category/conditionalswishes/
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com
http://www.merriam-webster.com
http://en.rian.ru/society/20100531/159272675.html
http://people.howstuffworks.com/smuggling-info.htm
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/smuggling.aspx
http://cmrwaybill.com/
http://www.study.ru/test
http://www.myenglishpages.com
http://ec.europa.eu/
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/procedural_aspects/export/procedure/index_en.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_Customs/resources/documents/annex_i_transit_brochure_en.pdf
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_Customs/Customs/procedural_aspects/transit/tir/index_en.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_Customs/common/glossary/Customs/index_en.htm
http://engtime.ru/gerundii
http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_Customs/Customs/procedural_aspects/imports/free_zones/index_en.htm
www.douane.gouv.fr
www.douane.winecenters.gouv.fr
General Agreement on Tariff and Trade
inter alia – latin, между прочим, среди прочего
from the GATT
Customs and Border Protection (the US Customs)
фр.Convention de Marchandises par Route; товарно-транспортная накладная
Международная федерация экспедиторских ассоциаций
defence (British English)
New computerised transit system (NCTS) – electronic data interchange system which was introduced as the transit declaration and is due to replace the traditional paper procedure in the Community as well as in the EFTA countries (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland)

computerization, computerized (American English)









8



profit

depart

illegal

national

concerned

demand

restrictions

to sell


undetected

revenue

money

cost

price

CARGO




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