101 IELTS Reading Past Papers_2019 -455p

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Table of Contents
 TOC \h  HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_001_html" \h Reading Test 1
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_1" \h Section 1 Andrea Palladio : Italian architect
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2" \h Section 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 - 26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below . The future never dies ?
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_1" \h Section 3 Pottery production in ancient Akrotiri
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_002_html" \h Reading Test 2
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_3" \h Section 1 Save the Turtles
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_2" \h Section 2 Corporate Social Responsibility
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_3" \h Section 3 TV Addiction 2
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_003_html" \h Reading Test 3
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_5" \h Section 1  Timekeeper 2 Invention of Marine ChronometerHYPER15
Section 2 Father of modern management
Section 3 Extinct : the Giant Deer
Reading Test 4
Section 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 - 13 which are based on the Reading Passage below . New Agriculture in Oregon , US
Section 2  Intelligence and Giftedness
Section 3 Paper or Computer ?
Reading Test 5
Section 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1 - 13 which are based on Reading Passage below .  Terminated Dinosaur Era
Section 2 Detection of a meteorite Lake
Section 3 Internal and External Marketing
Reading Test 6
Section 1 OTTER
Section 2  BIRD MIGRATION
Section 3 Talc Powder
Reading Test 7
Section 1  The Dinosaurs Footprints and Extinction
Section 2 WHAT COOKBOOKS REALLY TEACH US
Section 3 Learning lessons from the past
Reading Test 8
Section 1 Finches on Islands
Section 2  Flight from reality ?
Section 3  Communicating Conflict !
Reading Test 9
Section 1 Agriculture and Tourism
Section 2  Cosmetics in Ancient Past
Section 3 Asian Space 2 Satellite Technology
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_010_html" \h Reading Test 10
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_19" \h Section 1 Koalas
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_18" \h 2 Antarctica - in from the cold ? ( Updated version )
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_19" \h Section 3 Language strategy In Multinational Company
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_011_html" \h Reading Test 11
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_21" \h Section 1 THE ORIGIN OF WRITING
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_20" \h Section 2 Aqua product : New Zealands Igae Biodiesel
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_21" \h Section 3 British Architecture 2
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_012_html" \h Reading Test 12
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_23" \h Section 1 Radio Automation forerunner of the integrated circuit
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_22" \h Section 2 Bestcom CONSIPERATE COMPUTING
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_23" \h Section 3  Environmentally - friendly ! Vihicles
Reading Test 13
Section 1 Bondi Beach
Section 2 Hunting Perfume in Madagascar !
Section 2  Fossil files : " The Paleobiology Database "
Section 3 Communication in science
Reading Test 16
Section 1 Can We Hold Back the Flood ?  A . LAST winter's floods on the rivers of central Europe
Section 2 When the Tulip Bubble Burst
Section 3  The Secrets of Persuasion
Reading Test 17
Section 1  MENTAL GYMNASTICS
Section 2 Finding Our Way
Section 3 Mystery in Easter
HYPER13 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_019_html" \h Reading Test 18
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_35" \h Section 1 The Mozart Effect
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_34" \h Section 2 London Swaying Footbridge
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_34" \h Section 3 Book review on Musiccophilia
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_020_html" \h Reading Test 19
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_37" \h Section 1 The coming back of the Extinct Grass in Britain
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_36" \h Section 2 CHILDRENS LITERATURE
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_36" \h Section 3 Beyond the Blue Line
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_021_html" \h Reading Test 20
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_39" \h Section 1 world Ecotourism in the developing courtiers
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_38" \h Section 2 Memory and age
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_38" \h Section 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28 - 40 , which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages .  The secret of the YawnHYPER15
Reading Test 21
Section 1 Consecutive and Simultaneous Translation
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_40" \h Section 2 Water Filter
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_40" \h Section 3 Music : Language We All Speak
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_023_html" \h Reading Test 22
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_43" \h Section 1 Voyage of going : beyond the blue line 2
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_42" \h Section 2 European Heat Wave
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_42" \h Section 3 the concept of childhood in the western countries
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_024_html" \h HYPER14Reading Test 23
Section 1 Have Teenagers Always Existed
Section 2  You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15 — 27 , which are based on Reading Passage 1 below . Numeracy : can animals tell numbers ?
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_44" \h Section 3 Elephant communication
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_025_html" \h Reading Test 24
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_47" \h Section 1
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_46" \h Section 2
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_46" \h Section 3 Sunset for the Oil Business
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_026_html" \h Reading Test 25
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_49" \h Section 1 Build a Medieval Castle
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_48" \h HYPER14Section 2 Smell and Memory : SMELLS LIKE YESTERDAY
Section 3 Memory Decoding
Reading Test 26 
Section 1 Origin of Species & Continent Formation
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_50" \h Section 2 Chinese Yellow Citrus Ant for BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_50" \h Section 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 - 40 , which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages . Mechanisms of Linguistic Change
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_028_html" \h Reading Test 27
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_53" \h Section 1 Museum Blockbuster
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_52" \h Section 2 Stress of Workplace
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_52" \h Section 3 Company Innovation
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_029_html" \h Reading Test 28
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_55" \h Section 1 The Beginning of Football
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_54" \h Section 2 A New Ice Age
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_54" \h Section 3 Soviets New Working Week
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_030_html" \h Reading Test 29
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_57" \h Section 1 Density and Crowding
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_56" \h Section 2 The reconstruction of community in Talbot Park , Auckland
Section 3  You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 - 40 , which are based on reading passage III below . Video Game’s Unexpected Benefits to Human Brain
Reading Test 30
Section 1 Lie Detector
Section 2  Leaf - Cutting Ants and Fungus
Section3 Save Endangered Language
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_032_html" \h Reading Test 31
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_61" \h Section 1
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_60" \h Section 2 Saving the British Bitterns
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_58" \h Section 3 E - training
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_033_html" \h Reading Test 32
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_63" \h Section 1  Animal minds : Parrot Alex
Section 2 stealth Forces in weight Loss
Section 3  Bright Children
Reading Test 33
HYPER13 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_65" \h Section 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 1 on the following pages . Section A : A decibel Hell :
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_2_64" \h Section 2 Is Graffiti Art or Crime ?
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_62" \h Section 3 Serendipity : The Accidental Scientists
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_035_html" \h Reading Test 34
 HYPERLINK \l "Section_1_67" \h Section 1  LONGAEVA : Ancient Bristlecone PineHYPER15
Section 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 - 27 , which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages . Monkeys and Forests
HYPER13 HYPERLINK \l "Section_3_64" \h Section 3
 HYPERLINK \l "Top_of_part0000_split_036_html" \h Answer Keys
Table of Contents
Reading Test 1
Section 1
Andrea Palladio: Italian architect
Section 2
The future never dies?
Section 3
Pottery production in ancient Akrotiri
Reading Test 2
Section 1
Save the Turtles
Section 2
Corporate Social Responsibility
Section 3
TV Addiction 2
Reading Test 3
Section 1
Timekeeper 2 Invention of Marine Chronometer
Section 2
Father of modern management
Section 3
Extinct: the Giant Deer
Reading Test 4
Section 1
New Agriculture in Oregon, US
Section 2
Intelligence and Giftedness
Section 3
Paper or Computer?
Reading Test 5
Section 1
Terminated Dinosaur Era
Section 2
Detection of a meteorite Lake
Section 3
Internal and External Marketing
Reading Test 6
Section 1
OTTER
Section 2
BIRD MIGRATION 2
Section 3
Talc Powder
Reading Test 7
Section 1
The Dinosaurs Footprints and Extinction
Section 2
WHATCOOKBOOKS REALLY TEACH US
Section 3
Learning lessons from the past
Reading Test 8
Section 1
Finches on Islands
Section 2
Flight fromreality?
Section 3
Communicating Conflict!
Reading Test 9
Section 1
Agriculture and Tourism
Section 2
Cosmetics in Ancient Past
Section 3
Asian Space 2 Satellite Technology
Reading Test 10
Section 1
Koalas
Section 2
Antarctica- in from the cold?
Section 3
Language strategy In Multinational Company
Reading Test 11
Section 1
THE ORIGIN OF WRITING
Section 2
Aqua product: New Zealands Igae Biodiesel
Section 3
British Architecture 2
Reading Test 12
Section 1
Radio Automation forerunner of the integrated circuit
Section 2
Bestcom CONSIPERATE COMPUTING
Section 3
Environmentally-friendly! Vihicles
Reading Test 13
Section 1
Bondi Beach
Section 2
Hunting Perfume inMadagascar!
Section 3
The Exploration of Mars
Reading Test 14
Section 1
Traditional Farming System in Africa
Section 2
Griffith and American films
Section 3
The Persuaders
Reading Test 15
Section 1
Teaand IndustrialRevolution
Section 2
Fossil files: "The Paleobiology Database"
Section 3
Communication in science
Reading Test 16
Section 1
Can We Hold Back theFlood?
Section 2
When the Tulip Bubble Burst
Section 3
The Secrets of Persuasion
Reading Test 17
Section 1
MENTAL GYMNASTICS
Section 2
Finding Our Way
Section 3
Mystery in Easter
Reading Test 18
Section 1
The Mozart Effect
Section 2
London Swaying Footbridge
Section 3
Book review on Musiccophilia
Reading Test 19
Section 1
The coming back of theExtinct Grass in Britain
Section 2
CHILDRENS LITERATURE
Section 3
Beyond the Blue Line
Reading Test 20
Section 1
world Ecotourism in the developing courtiers
Section 2
Memory and age
Section 3
The secret of the Yawn
Reading Test 21
Section 1
Consecutive and Simultaneous Translation
Section 2
Water Filter
Section 3
Music: Language We All Speak
Reading Test 22
Section 1
Voyage of going: beyond the blue line 2
Section 2
European Heat Wave
Section 3
the concept of childhood in the western countries
Reading Test 23
Section 1
Have Teenagers Always Existed
Section 2
Numeracy: can animals tell numbers?
Section 3
Elephant communication
Reading Test 24
Section 1
Ambergris
Section 2
global warming: Prevent poles from melting
Section 3
Sunset for the Oil Business
Reading Test 25
Section 1
Builda Medieval Castle
Section 2
Smell and Memory: SMELLS LIKE YESTERDAY
Section 3
Memory Decoding
Reading Test 26
Section 1
Origin of Species & Continent Formation
Section 2
Chinese Yellow Citrus Ant for BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
Section 3
Mechanisms of Linguistic Change
Reading Test 27
Section 1
Museum Blockbuster
Section 2
Stress of Workplace
Section 3
Company Innovation
Reading Test 28
Section 1
The Beginning ofFootball
Section 2
A New Ice Age
Section 3
Soviets New Working Week
Reading Test 29
Section 1
Density and Crowding
Section 2
The reconstruction of community in Talbot Park,Auckland
Section 3
Video Games Unexpected Benefits to Human Brain
Reading Test 30
Section 1
Lie Detector
Section 2
Leaf-Cutting Ants and Fungus
Section3
Save Endangered Language
Reading Test 31
Section 1
Food forthought 2
Section 2
Savingthe British Bitterns
Section 3
E- training
Reading Test 32
Section 1
Animal minds: Parrot Alex
Section 2
stealth Forces in weight Loss
Section 3
Bright Children
Reading Test 33
Section 1
Section 2
Is Graffiti Art or Crime?
Section 3
Serendipity: The Accidental Scientists
Reading Test 34
Section 1
LONGAEVA: Ancient Bristlecone Pine
Section 2
Monkeys and Forests
Section 3
Answer Keys
Reading Test 1
Reading Test 2
Reading Test 3
Reading Test 4
Reading Test 5
Reading Test 6
Reading Test 7
Reading Test 8
Reading Test 9
Reading Test 10
Reading Test 11
Reading Test 12
Reading Test 13
Reading Test 14
Reading Test 15
Reading Test 16
Reading Test 17
Reading Test 18
Reading Test 19
Reading Test 20
Reading Test 21
Reading Test 22
Reading Test 23
Reading Test 24
Reading Test 25
Reading Test 26
Reading Test 27
Reading Test 28
Reading Test 29
Reading Test 30
Reading Test 31
Reading Test 32
Reading Test 33
Reading Test 34

Reading Test 1
Section 1
Andrea Palladio: Italian architect
A new exhibition celebrates Palladios architecture 500years on
A. Vicenza is a pleasant, prosperous city in the Veneto, 60km west ofVenice. Its grand families settledand farmed the area from the 16thcentury. But its principal claim tofame is Andrea Palladio, who issuch an influential architect that aneoclassical style is known asPalladian. The city is a permanentexhibition of some of his finestbuildings, and as he was borninPadua, to be precise500 yearsago, the International Centre forthe Study of Palladio'sArchitecture has an excellentexcuse for mountingla grandemostra,the big show.
B. The exhibition has the special advantage of being held in one ofPalladio's buildings, PalazzoBarbaran da Porto. Its bold facadeis a mixture of rustication anddecoration set between two rowsof elegant columns. On the second floor the pediments are alternately curved or pointed, aPalladian trademark. Theharmonious proportions of theatrium at the entrance leadthrough to a dramatic interior offine fireplaces and paintedceilings. Palladio's design issimple, clear and notover-crowded. The show hasbeen organised on the sameprinciples, according to HowardBurns, the architectural historianwho co-curated it.
C. Palladio's father was a miller who settled in Vicenza, wherethe young Andrea wasapprenticed to a skilledstonemason. How did a humble miller's son become a world renowned architect? The answerin the exhibition is that, as ayoung man, Palladio excelled atcarving decorative stonework oncolumns, doorways and fireplaces.He was plainly intelligent, andlucky enough to come across arich patron, Gian Giorgio Trissino,a landowner and scholar, whoorganised his education, takinghim to Rome in the 1540s, wherehe studied the masterpieces ofclassical Roman and Greekarchitecture and the work of otherinfluential architects of the time,such as Donato Bramante andRaphael.
D. Burns argues that social mobility was also important. Entrepreneurs,prosperous from agriculture in theVeneto, commissioned the promisinglocal architect to design theircountry villas and their urbanmansions. In Venice thearistocracy were anxious to co-opt talented artists, and Palladio was given thechance to design the buildingsthat have made him famousthechurches of San Giorgio Maggioreand the Redentore, both easy toadmire because they can be seenfrom the city's historical centreacross a stretch of water.
E. He tried his hand at bridgeshis unbuilt version ofthe Rialto Bridge was decoratedwith the large pediment andcolumns of a temple and, aftera fire at the Ducal Palace, heoffered an alternative designwhich bears an uncannyresemblance to the BanquetingHouse in Whitehall in London.Since it was designed by InigoJones, Palladio's first foreigndisciple, this is not as surprisingas it sounds.
F. Jones, who visited Italy in 1614, bought a trunk full of the master'sarchitectural drawings; theypassed through the hands of theDukes of Burlington andDevonshire before settling at theRoyal Institute of BritishArchitects in 1894. Many are nowon display at Palazzo Barbaran.What they show is how Palladiodrew on the buildings of ancientRome as models. The major themeof both his rural and urbanbuilding was temple architecture,with a strong pointed pedimentsupported by columns andapproached by wide steps.
G. Palladio's work for rich landownersalienates unreconstructed critics on the Italian left, but among thepapers in the show are designsfor cheap housing in Venice. Inthe wider world, Palladio'sreputation has been nurtured bya text he wrote and illustrated,"QuattroLibri dell' Architettura". His influence spread to St Petersburg and toCharlottesville in Virginia, whereThomas Jefferson commissioned aPalladian villa he calledMonticello.
H. Vicenza's show contains detailed models of the major buildings andis leavened by portraits ofPalladio's teachers and clients byTitian, Veronese and Tintoretto;the paintings of his Venetianbuildings are all by Canaletto, noless. This is an uncompromisingexhibition; many of the drawingsare small and faint, and there areno sideshows for children, but theimpact of harmonious lines andsatisfying proportions is to impartin a viewer a feeling of benevolentcalm. Palladio is history's mosttherapeutic architect.
I. "Palladio, 500 Anni: La Grande Mostra" is at Palazzo Barbaran daPorto, Vicenza, until January 6th2009. The exhibition continues atthe Royal Academy of Arts,London, from January 31st toApril 13th, and travels afterwardsto Barcelona and Madrid.
Questions 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-7on your answer sheet write

True if the statement agree with the information False if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN If there is no information on this 
1 The building where the exhibition is staged has been newly renovated
2 Palazzo Barbaran da Porto typically represent the Palladios design
3 Palladios father worked as an architect.
4 Palladios family refused to pay for his architectural studies
5 Palladios alternative design for the Ducal Palace in Venice was basedon an English building.
6 Palladio designed both wealthy and poor people
7 The exhibition includes paintings of people by famous artists
Questions 8-13
Answer the questions below
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet
8 What job was Palladio training for before he became an architect?
9 Who arranged Palladio's architectural studies?
10 Who was the first non-Italian architect influenced by Palladio?
11 What type of Ancient Roman buildings most heavily influenced Palladio'swork?
12 What did Palladio write that strengthened his reputation?
13 In the writer's opinion, what feeling will visitors to the exhibitionexperience?

Section 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14 -26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
The future never dies?
The prospects for humanity and for the world as a whole are somewhere between glorious and dire. It is hard to be much more precise.
A. By glorious I mean that our descendants - all who are born on to this Earth - could live very comfortably and securely, and could continue todo so for as long as the Earth can support life, which should be for a verylong time indeed. We should at least be thinking in terms of the nextmillion years. Furthermore, our descendants could continue to enjoy thecompany of other species - establishing a much better relationship withthem than we have now. Other animals need not live in constant fear ofus. Many of those fellow species now seem bound to become extinct, but asignificant proportion could and should continue to live alongsideUS.Such a future may seem ideal, and so it is. Yet I do not believe it is fanciful.There is nothing in the physical fabric of the Earth or in our own biologyto suggest that this is not possible.
B. Dire means that we human beings could be in deep trouble within the next few centuries, livingbut also dying in large numbers in political terror andfrom starvation, while huge numbers of our fellow creatures would simply disappear, leaving only theones that we findconvenient - chickens, cattle- or that we can't shake off,like flies and mice. I'm taking it to beself-evident that glory is preferable.
C. Our future is not entirely in our own hands because the Earth has its own rules, is part of the solar system and is neither stable nor innately safe.Other planets in the solar system are quite beyond habitation, becausetheir temperature is far too high or too low to be endured, and ours, too,in principle could tip either way. Even relatively unspectacular changes inthe atmosphere could do the trick. The core of the Earth is hot, which inmany ways is good for living creatures, but every now and again, themolten rock bursts through volcanoes on the surface. Among the biggestvolcanic eruptions in recent memory was Mount St Helens, in the USA,which threw out a cubic kilometre of ash - fortunately in an area wherevery few people live. In 1815, Tambora (in present-day Indonesia)expelled so much ash into the upper atmosphere that climatic effectsseriously harmed food production around the world for season afterseason. Entire civilisations have been destroyed by volcanoes.
D. Yet nothing we have so far experienced shows what volcanoes can really do. Yellowstone National Park in the USA occupies the caldera (the craterformed when a volcano collapses) of an exceedingly ancient volcano ofextraordinary magnitude. Modem surveys show that its centre is nowrising. Sometime in the next 200 million years, Yellowstone could erupt again, and when it does, the whole world will betransformed.Yellowstone could erupt tomorrow. But there's a very good chancethat it will give US anothermillion years, and that surelyis enough to be going on with.It seems sensible to assumethat this will be the case.
E. The universe at large is dangerous, too: in particular, we share the sky with vast numbers of asteroids, and every now and again, they come into our planet's atmosphere. An asteroid the size of a small island, hittingthe Earth at 15,000 kilometres an hour (a relatively modest speed by the standards of heavenly bodies), would strike the ocean bed like a rock in a puddle, send a tidal wave aroundthe world as high as a small mountain and as fast as a jumbo jet, andpropel us into an ice age that could last for centuries. There are plans tohead off such disasters (including rockets to push approaching asteroidsinto new trajectories), but in truth it's down to luck.
F. On the other hand, the archaeological and the fossil evidence shows that no truly devastating asteroid has struck since the one that seems to haveaccounted for the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Soagain, there seems no immediate reason for despair. The Earth is indeedan uncertain place, in an uncertain universe, but with average luck, itshould do us well enough. If the world does become inhospitable in thenext few thousand or million years, then it will probably be our own fault.In short, despite the underlying uncertainty, our own future and that ofour fellow creatures is very much in our own hands.
G. Given average luck on the geological and the cosmic scale, the difference between glory and disaster will be made, and is being made, by politics.Certain kinds of political systems and strategies would predispose US tolong-term survival (and indeed to comfort and security and the pleasureof being alive), while others would take us more and morefrenetically towards collapse. The broad point is, though, that we needto look at ourselves - humanity - and at the world in general in a quitenew light. Our material problems are fundamentally those ofbiology. We need to think, and we need our politicians to think,biologically. Do that, and take the ideas seriously, and we are in with achance. Ignore biology and we and our fellow creatures haven't a hope.
Questions 14-19
Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet write

YES if the statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the formation is not given to the passage 
14 It seems predictable that some species will disappear.
15 The nature of the Earth and human biology make it impossible forhuman beings to survive another million years,
16 An eruption by Yellowstone is likely to be more destructive than previousvolcanic eruptions.
17 There18a greater chance of the Earth being hit by small asteroids than bylarge ones.
18 If the world becomes uninhabitable, It is most likely to be as a result of anatural disaster.
19 Politicians currently in power seem unlikely to change their way ofthinking.
Questions 20-25
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 20-25 cm your answer sheet
The Earth could become uninhabitable, like other planets, through a major change in the 20 .....................Volcanic eruptions of 21..................... can lead to shortages of 22.....................in a wide area.
An asteroid hitting the Earth could create a 23.....................that would result in a new 24....................Plans are being made to use 25...................to deflectasteroidsheadingfortheEarth.
Question 26
Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D.
Write your answer in box 26 on your answer sheet
What is the writers purpose in Reading Passage 2?
A. to propose a new theory about the causes of natural disasters
B. to prove that generally held beliefs about the future are all mistaken
C.to present a range of opinions currently held by scientists
D. to argue the need for a general change in behavior
Section 3
Pottery production in ancient Akrotiri
A. Excavations at the site of prehistoric Akrotiri, on the coast of the Aegean Sea, have revealed much about the technical aspects of pottery manufacture,indisputably one of the basic industries of this Greek city. However, considerablyless is known about the socio-economic context and the way production wasorganised.
B. The bulk of pottery found at Akrotiri is locally made, and dates from the late fifteenth century BC. It clearlyfulfilled a vast range of the settlements requirements:more than fifty different types of pots can bedistinguished. The pottery found includes a widevariety of functional types like storage jars, smallercontainers, pouring vessels, cooking pots, drinkingvessels and so on, which all relate to specific activitiesand which would have been made and distributed withthose activities in mind. Given the large number of shapes produced and therelatively high degree of standardisation, it has generally been assumed that most,if not all, of Akrotiri pottery was produced by specialised craftsmen in anon-domestic context. Unfortunately neither the potters workshops nor kilnshave been found within the excavated area. The reason may be that the ceramicworkshops were located on the periphery of the site, which has not yet beenexcavated. In any event, the ubiquity of the pottery, and the consistent repetitionof the same types in different sizes, suggest production on an industrial scale.
C. The Akrotirian potters seem to have responded to pressures beyond their households, namely to the increasing complexity of regional distribution andexchange systems. We can imagine them as full-time craftsmen workingpermanently in a high production-rate craft such as pottery manufacture, andsupporting themselves entirely from the proceeds of then craft. In view of theabove, one can begin to speak in terms of mass-produced pottery and theexistence of organised workshops of craftsmen during the period 15501500 BC.Yet, how pottery production was organised at Akrotiri remains an open question,as there is no real documentary evidence. Our entire knowledge comes from theceramic material itself, and the tentative conclusions which can be drawn from it.
D. The invention of units of quantity and of a numerical system to count them was of capital importance for an exchange-geared society such as that of Akrotiri. Inspite of the absence of any written records, the archaeological evidence revealsthat concepts of measurements, both of weight and number, had been formulated.Standard measures may already have been in operation, such as those evidencedby a graduated series of lead weights made in disc formfound at the site. Theexistence of units of capacity in Late Bronze Age times is also evidenced, by thenotation of units of a liquid measure for wine on excavated containers.
E. It must be recognised that the function of pottery vessels plays a very important role in determining then characteristics. The intended function affects the choiceof clay, the production technique, and the shape and the size of the pots. Forexample, large storage jars (pithoi) would be needed to store commodities,whereas smaller containers would be used for transport. In fact, the length of amans arm limits the size of a smaller pot to a capacity of about twenty lines; thatis also the maximum a man can comfortably carry.
F. The various sizes of container would thus represent standard quantities of a commodity, which is a fundamental element in the function of exchange.Akrotirian merchants handling a commodity such as wine would have been ableto determine easily the amount of wine they were transporting fiom the numberof containers they carried in then ships, since the capacity of each container wasknown to be 14-18 litres. (We could draw a parallel here with the current practicein Greece of selling oil in 17 kilogram tins.)
G. We may therefore assume that the shape, capacity, and, sometimes decoration of vessels are indicative of the commodity contained by them. Since individualtransactions would normally involve different quantities of a given commodity, arange of standardised types of vessel would be needed to meet tradersrequirements.
H. In trying to reconstruct systems of capacity by measuring the volume of excavated pottery, arather generous range of tolerances must beallowed. It seems possible that the potters of thattime had specific sizes of vessel in mind, andtried to reproduce them using a specific type andamount of clay. However, it would be quite difficult for them to achieve the exact size required every time, without any mechanical means of regulating symmetry and wall thickness, and some potterswould be more skilled than others. In addition, variations in the repetition oftypes and size may also occur because of unforeseen circumstances during thethrowing process. For instance, instead of destroying the entire pot if the clay inthe rim contained a piece of grit, a potter might produce a smaller pot by simply cutting off the rim. Even where there is no noticeable external difference between pots meant to contain the same quantity of a commodity, differences in theircapacity can actually reach one or two litres. In one case the deviation from therequired size appears to be as much as 10-20 percent.
I. The establishment of regular trade routes within the Aegean led to increased movement of goods; consequently a regular exchange of local, luxury and surplusgoods, including metals, would have become feasible as a result of the advancesin transport technology. The increased demand for standardised exchanges,inextricably linked to commercial transactions, might have been one of the mainfactors which led to the standardisation of pottery production. Thus, the wholenetwork of ceramic production and exchange would have depended on specificregional economic conditions, and would reflect the socio-economic structure ofprehistoric Akrotiri.
Questions 27-28
Choose the correct letter, A, B.cor D.
27. What does die writer say about items of pottery excavated at Akrotiri?
A. There was very little duplication.
B. They would have met a big variety of needs.
C.Most of them had been imported from other places.
D. The intended purpose of each piece was unclear.
28. The assumption that pottery from Akrotiri was produced by specialists is partly ' based on
A. The discovery of kilns.
B. The central location of workshops.
C.The sophistication of decorative patterns.
D. The wide range of shapes represented.
Questions 29-32
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F.
29 The assumption that standard units of weight were in use could be based on
30 Evidence of the use of standard units of volume is provided by
31 The size of certain types of containers would have been restricted by
32 Attempts to identify the intended capacity of containers are complicated by
---------------------
A. The discovery of a collection of metal discs.
B.The size and type of the sailing ships in use.
C. Variations in the exact shape and thickness of similar containers.
D.The physical characteristics of workmen.
E. Marks found on wine containers.
F. The variety of commodities for which they would have been used.
Questions 33-38
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? Write

YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
33. There are plans to excavate new areas of the archaeological site in the near future.
34. Some of the evidence concerning pottery production in ancient Akrotiri comes from written records.
35. Pots for transporting liquids would have held no more than about 20 litres.
36. It would have been hard for merchants to calculate how much wine was on their ships.
37. The capacity of containers intended to hold the same amounts differed by up to 20 percent.
38. Regular trading of goods around the Aegean would have led to the general standardisation of quantities.
Question 39-40
Choose the correct letter, A. B, C or D
39. What does the writer say about the standardisation of container sizes?
A. Containers which looked the same from the outside often varied in capacity.
B. The instruments used to control container size were unreliable.
C.The unsystematic use of different types of clay resulted in size variations.
D. Potters usually discarded containers which were of a non-standard size.
40. What is probably the main purpose of Reading Passage 3?
A.To evaluate the quality of pottery containers found in prehistoric Akrotiri.
B. To suggest how features of pottery production at Akrotiri reflected other developments in the region.
C. To outline the development of pottery-making skills in ancient Greece.
D. To describe methods for storing and transporting household goods in prehistoric societies.



Reading Test 2
Section 1
Save the Turtles
A. Leatherback turtles follow the general sea turtle body plan of having a large, flattened, round body with two pairs of very large flippers and a short tail. Like other sea turtles, the leatherback's flattened forelimbs are adapted for swimming in the open ocean. Claws are absent from both pairs of flippers. The Leatherback's flippers arc the largest in proportion to its body among extant sea turtles. Leatherback's front flippers can grow up to 2.7 meters (9 ft) in large specimens, the largest flippers (even in comparison to its body) of any sea turtle. As the last surviving member of its family, the leatherback turtle has several distinguishing characteristics that differentiate it from other sea turtles. Its most notable feature is that it lacks the bony carapace of the other extant sea turtles.

B. During the past month, four turtles have washed up along Irish coasts from Wexford to
Kerry. These turtles arc more typical of warmer waters and only occur in Irish waters when they stray off course. It is likely that they may have originated from Florida, America. Two specimens have been taken to Coastal and Marine Resources Centre (stored at the National Maritime College), University College Cork, where a necropsy (post mortem for animals) will be conducted to establish their age, sex and their exact origin. During this same period, two leatherback turtles were found in Scotland, and a rare Kemp's Ridley turtle was found in Wales, thus making it an exceptional month for stranded turtles in Ireland and the UK.

C. Actually, There has been extensive research conducted regarding the sea turtles abilities to return to their nesting regions and sometimes exact locations from hundreds of miles away. In the water, their path is greatly affected by powerful currents. Despite their limited vision, and lack of landmarks in the open water, turtles are able to retrace their migratory paths. Some explanations of this phenomenon have found that sea turtles can detect the angle and intensity of the earths magnetic fields.

D. However, Loggerhead turtles are not normally found in Irish waters, because water temperatures here are far too cold for their survival. Instead, adult loggerheads prefer the warmers waters of the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and North America's east coast. The four turtles that were found have probably originated from the North American population of loggerheads. However it will require genetic analysis to confirm this assumption. It is thought that after leaving their nesting beach as hatchlings (when they measure 4.5 cm in length), these tiny turtles enter the North Atlantic Gyre (a giant circular ocean current) that takes them from America, across to Europe (Azores area), down towards North Africa, before being transported back again to America via a different current. This remarkable round trip may take many years during which these tiny turtles grow by several centimetres a year. Loggerheads may circulate around the North Atlantic several times before they settle in the coastal waters of Florida or the Caribbean.


E. These four turtles were probably on their way around the Atlantic when they strayed a bit too far north from the Gulf Stream. Once they did, their fate was sealed, as the cooler waters of the North East Atlantic are too cold for loggerheads (unlike leatherback turtles which have many anatomical and physiological adaptations to enable them to swim in our seas). Once in cool waters, the body of a loggerhead begins to shut down as they get 'cold stunned', then get hypothermia and die.

F. Leatherbacks are inimmanent danger of extinction. A critical factor (among others) is the
harvesting of eggs from nests. Valued as a food delicacy, Leatherback eggs are falsely touted to have aphrodisiacal properties in some cultures. The leatherback, unlike the Green Sea turtle, is not often killed for its meat; however, the increase in human populations coupled with the growing black market trade has escalated their egg depletion. Other critical factors causing the leatherbacks decline are pollution such as plastics (leatherbacks eat this debris thinking it is jellyfish; fishing practices such as longline fishing and gill nets, and development on habitat areas. Scientists have estimated that there are only about 35,000 Leatherback turtles in the world.

G. Weare often unable to understand the critical impact a species has on the environmentthat is, until that species becomes extinct. Even if we do not know the role a creature plays in the health of the environment, past lessons have taught US enough to know that every animal and plant is one important link in the integral chain of nature. Some scientists now speculate that the Leatherback may play an important role in the recovery of diminishing fish populations. Since the Leatherback consumes its weight in jellyfish per day, it helps to keep Jellyfish populations in check. Jellyfish consume large quantities of fish larvae. The rapid decline in Leatherback populations over the last 50 years has been accompanied by a significant increase in jellyfish and a marked decrease in fish in our oceans. Saving sea turtles is an International endeavor.

Question 1-6
Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below.
Write appropriate numbers (i-x) in boxes 1 -6 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

List of Headings

Sea turtles are found in unusual locations

Unique features of the Leatherbacks

The Leatherbacks contribution

Methods used for routes tracking

Predict the migration routes

Remains multiplicity within the species

The progress of hatching

The fate of the lost turles

How trips suppose to look like?

Factors leading to population decline

Paragraph B
Paragraph c
Paragraph D
Paragraph E
Paragraph F
Paragraph G
Question 7 -13

Choose words from the passage to answer the questions 7-13. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

7. How many Leatherback turtles are there in the world?
8. What is the most noticeable difference between other sea turtles and leatherbacks?
9. What candle therback turtles to die in Irish waters?
10. Where did the four turtles probably come from?
11. By which means can sea turtles retrace their migratory paths?
12. For what purpose are Green Sea turtles killed by people?
13. What kind of species will benefits from a decline in Leatherback populations?
Section 2
Corporate Social Responsibility
Broadly speaking, proponents of CSR have used four arguments to make their case: moral obligation, sustainability, license to operate, and reputation. The moral appealarguing that companies have aduty to be good citizens and to *do the right thingis prominent in the goal of Business for SocialResponsibility, the leading nonprofit CSR business association in the United States. It asks that itsmembers achieve commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and respect people,communities, and the natural environment. Sustainability emphasizes environmental and communitystewardship.
A. An excellent definition was developed in the 1980s by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and used by the World Business Council for Sustainable Devebpment "Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs.The notion of license to operate derives fromthe fact that every company needs tacit orexplicit permission from governments,communities, and numerous other stakeholders to dobusiness. Finally, reputation is used by many companies tojustify CSR initiatives on the grounds that they will improvea company's image, strengthen its brand, enliven morale, and even raise the valueof its stock.
B. To advance CSR, we must root it in a broad understanding of the interrelationship between a corporation and society while at the same timeanchoring it in the strategies and activities of specific companies. To say broadlythat business and society need each other might seem like a clich, but it is alsothe basic truth that will pull companies out of the muddle that their currentcorporate-responsibility thinking has created Successful corporations need ahealthy society. Education, health care, and equal opportunity are essential to aproductive workforce. Safe products and working conditions not only attractcustomers but lower the internal costs of accidents. Efficient utilization of land,water, energy, and other natural resources makes business more productive.Good government, the rub of law, and property rights are essential for efficiencyand innovation. Strong regulatory standards protect both consumers andcompetitive companies from exploitation. Ultimately, a healthy society createsexpanding demand for business, as more human needs are met and aspirationsgrow. Any business that pursues its ends at the expense of the society in which itoperates will find its success to be illusory and ultimately temporary. At the sametime, a healthy society needs successful companies. No social program can rival the business sector when it comes to creating the jobs, wealth, and innovation that improve standards of living and social conditions over time.
C. A companys impact on society also changes over time, as social standards evolve and science progresses. Asbestos, now understood as a serious health risk, wasthought to be safe in the early 1900s, given the scientific knowledge thenavailable. Evidence of its risks gradually mounted for more than 50 years beforeany company was held liable for the harms it can cause. Many firms that failed toanticipate the consequences of this evolving body of research have beenbankrupted by the results. No longer can companies be content to monitor onlythe obvious social impacts of today. Without a careful process for identifyingevolving social effects of tomorrow, firms may risk their very survival.
D. No business can solve all of societys problems or bear the cost of doing so. Instead, each company must select issues that intersect with its particularbusiness. Other social agendas are best left to those companies in otherindustries, NGOs, or government institutions that are better positioned to addressthem. The essential test that should guide CSR is not whether a cause is worthybut whether it presents an opportunity to create shared value that is, ameaningful benefit for society that is also valuable to the business. However,Corporations are not responsible for all the worlds problems, nor do they havethe resources to solve them all Each company can identify the particular set ofsocietal problems that it is best equipped to help resolve and from which it cangain the greatest competitive benefit. Addressing social issues by creating sharedvalue will lead to self-sustaining solutions that do not depend on private orgovernment subsidies. When a well-run business applies its vast resources,expertise, and management talent to problems that it understands and in which ithas a stake, it can have a greater impact on social good than any other institutionor philanthropic organization.
E. The best corporate citizenship initiatives involve far more than writing a check: They specify clear, measurable goals and track results over time. A good exampleis GEs program to adopt underperforming public high schools near several of itsmajoru.s.facilities. The company contributes between $250,000 and$1millionover a five-year period to each school and makes in-kind donations as well GEmanagers and employees take an active role by working with schooladministrators to assess needs and mentor or tutor students. In an independentstudy of ten schools in the program between1989and1999,nearly all showedsignificant improvement, while the graduation rate in four of the fiveworst performing schools doubled from an average of 30% to 60%. Effectivecorporate citizenship initiatives such as this one create goodwill and improverelations with local governments and other important constituencies. What'smore, GEs employees feel great pride in their participation. Their effect isinherently limited, however. No matter how beneficial the program is, it remainsincidental to the companys business, and the direct effect on GE's recruiting and retention is modest.
F. Microsoft's Working Connections partnership with the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is a good example of a shared-value opportunityarising from investments in context. The shortage of information technologyworkers is a significant constraint on Microsofts growth; currently, there aremore than 450,000 unfilled IT positions in the United States alone. Communitycolleges, with an enrollment of 11.6 million students, representing 45% of allU.S.undergraduates, could be a major solution. Microsoft recognizes, however, thatcommunity colleges face special challenges: IT curricula are not standardized,technology used in classrooms is often outdated, and there are no systematicprofessional development programs to keep faculty up to date. Microsoft's $50million five-year initiative was aimed at all three problems. In addition tocontributing money and products, Microsoft sent employee volunteers to collegesto assess needs, contribute to curriculum development, and create facultydevelopment institutes. Note that in this case, volunteers and assigned staff wereable to use their core professional skills to address a social need, a far cry fromtypical volunteer programs. Microsoft has achieved results that have benefitedmany communities while having a directand potentially significantimpact onthe company.
G. At the heart of any strategy is a unique value proposition: a set of needs a company can meet for its chosen customers that others cannot. The moststrategic CSR occurs when a company adds a social dimension to its valueproposition, making social impact integral to the overall strategy. Consider WholeFoods Market, whose value proposition is to sell organic, natural and healthyfood products to customers who are passionate about food and the environment.The company's sourcing emphasizes purchases from local farmers through eachstore's procurement process. Buyers screen out foods containing any of nearly100 common ingredients that the company considers unhealthy orenvironmentally damaging. The same standards apply to products madeinternally. Whole Foods commitment to natural and environmentally friendlyoperating practices extends well beyond sourcing. Stores are constructed using aminimum of virgin raw materials. Recently, the company purchased renewablewind energy credits equal to 100% of its electricity use in all of its stores andfacilities, the only Fortune 500 company to offset its electricity consumptionentirely. Spoiled produce and biodegradable waste are trucked to regional centersfor composting. Whole Foods' vehicles are being converted to run on biofuels.Even the cleaning products used in its stores are environmentally friendly. Andthrough its philanthropy, the company has created the Animal CompassionFoundation to develop more natural and humane ways of raising farm animals. Inshort, nearly every aspect of the companys value chain reinforces the socialdimensions of its value proposition, distinguishing Whole Foods from itscompetitors.
From Harvard business review 2007
Questions 14-20
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below. Write the correct number,i-xi,in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. How CSR may help one business to expand
ii. CSR in many aspects of a company's business
iii. A CSR initiative without a financial gain
iv. Lack of action by the state of social issues
v. Drives or pressures motivate companies to address CSR
vi.the past illustrates business are responsible for future outcomes
vii. Companies applying CSR should be selective
viii.Reasons that business and society benefit each other -------------------
14. Paragraph A
15. Paragraph B
16. Paragraph C
17. Paragraph D
18. Paragraph E
19. Paragraph F
20. Paragraph G
Questions 21-22
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 21-22 on your answer sheet.
The implement of CSR, HOW?
Promotion of CSR requires the understanding of interdependence between business and society. Corporations workers productivity generally needs health care, Education, and given 21...............Restrictions imposed by government and companies both protect consumers from being treated unfairly. Improvement of the safety standard can reduce the22 ...............of accidentsintheworkplace.Similarly society becomes pool of more human needs and aspirations.
Questions 23-26
Use the information in the passage to match the companies (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A, B orCin boxes23-26onyour answer sheet.
List of companies
General Electronics
Microsoft
Whole foods market
NB: you may use any letter more than once
23. The disposable waste
24. The way company purchases as goods
25. Helping the undeveloped
26. ensuring the people have the latest information

Section 3
TV Addiction 2
A. Excessive cravings do not necessarily involve physical substances. Gambling can becomecompulsive; sex can become obsessive. Oneactivity, however, stands out for itsprominence and ubiquitythe worlds mostpopular pastime, television. Most peopleadmit to having a love-bate relationship with it. They complain about the boob tube and couch potatoes, then they settle into theirsofas and grab the remote control. Parents commonly fret about their childrens viewing (if not their own). Even researchers who study TV for a living marvel at the mediums hold on them personally. Percy Tannenbaum of the University of California at Berkeley has written:Amonglifes more embarrassing moments have been countless occasions when I am engaged in conversation in a room while aTV set is on, and I cannot for the life of me stop fromperiodically glancing over to the screen. This occurs not only during dullconversations but during reasonably interesting ones just as well.
B. Scientists have been studying the effects of television for decades, generally focusing on whether watching violence on TV correlates with being violent inreal life. Less attention has been paid to the basic allure of the small screenthemedium, as opposed to the message.
C. The term TV addiction is imprecise and laden with value judgments, but it captures the essence of a very real phenomenon. Psychologists and psychiatristsformally define substance dependence as a disorder characterized by criteria that include spending a great deal of time using the substance; using it moreoften than one intends; thinking about reducing use or making repeatedunsuccessful efforts to reduce use; giving up important social, family oroccupational activities to use it; and reporting withdrawal symptoms when onestops using it.
D. All these criteria can apply to people who watch a lot of television. That does not mean that watching television, in itself, is problematic. Television can teach andamuse; it can reach aesthetic heights; it can provide much needed distraction andescape. The difficulty arises when people strongly sense that they ought not towatch as much as they do and yet find themselves strangely unable to reduce theirviewing. Some knowledge of how the medium exerts its pull may help heavyviewers gain better control over their lives.
E. The amount of time people spend watching television is astonishing. On average, individuals in the industrialized world devote three hours a day to the pursuitfully half of their leisure time, and more than on any single activity save work and sleep. At this rate, someone who lives to 75 would spend nine years in front of the tube. To some commentators, this devotion means simply that people enjoy TV and make a conscious decision to watch it. But if that is the whole story, why do so many people experience misgivings about how much they view? In Gallup polls in 1992 and 1999, two out of five adult respondents and seven out of10 teenagers said they spent too much time watching TV. Other surveys haveconsistently shown that roughly 10 percent of adults call themselves TV addicts.
F. What is it about TV that has such a hold onUS?In part, the attraction seems tospring from our biological orienting response. First described by Ivan Pavlov in1927, the orienting response is our instinctive visual or auditory reaction to anysudden or novel stimulus. It is part of our evolutionary heritage, a built-insensitivity to movement and potential predatory threats.
G. In 1986 Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues began to study whether the simple formal features of television-cuts, edits, zooms, pans, sudden noisesactivate the orienting response, thereby keeping attention on the screen. By watching how brain waves were affected by formal features, the researchers concluded that these stylistic tricks can indeed trigger involuntary responses and derive their attention-al value through the evolutionary significance of detecting movement.... It is the form, not the content, of television that is unique.
H. The orienting response may partly explain common viewer remarks such as: If a television is on, I just cant keep my eyes off it, I dont want to watch as much as I do, but I cant help it, and I feel hypnotized when I watch television. In the years since Reeves and Thorson published then pioneering work, researchershave delved deeper.Annie Langs research team at Indiana University has shownthat heart rate decreases for four to six seconds after an orienting stimulus. In ads,action sequences and music videos, formal features frequently come at a rate ofone per second, thus activating the orienting response continuously.
I. Lang and her colleagues have also investigated whether formal features affect peoples memory of what they have seen. In one of their studies, participantswatched a program and then filled out a score sheet. Increasing the frequency ofedits (defined here as a change from one camera angle to another in the samevisual scene) improved memory recognition, presumably because it focusedattention on the screen. Increasing the frequency of cutschanges to a new visualscene-had a similar effect but only up to a point. If the number of cuts exceeded10 in two minutes, recognition dropped off sharply.
J. Producers of educational television for children have found that formal features can help learning. But increasing the rate of cuts and edits eventually overloadsthe brain. Music videos and commercials that userapid intercutting of unrelated scenes are designed tohold attention more than they are to conveyinformation. People may remember the name of theproduct or band, but the details of the ad itself floatin one ear and out the other. The orienting response isoverworked. Viewers still attend to the screen, but they feel tired and worn out, with little compensating psychological reward. Our ESM findings show much the same thing.
K. Sometimes the memory of the product is very subtle. Many ads today are deliberately oblique: they have an engaging story line, but it is hard to tell whatthey are trying to sell. Afterward you may not remember the product consciously.Yet advertisers believe that if they have gotten your attention, when you later goto the store you will feel better or more comfortable with a given product becauseyou have a vague recollection of having heard of it.
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 27-40, which are based on reading passage 3 on the following pages.
Questions 27-30
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOTGIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 27. Even researcher find sometimes it is more interesting in watching TV than talking with others in personal experience
28. Information medium as TV has always been the priority for scientific research.
29. It is partially unscientific to use the term TV addiction.
30. Children do not know why they exercise too little.
Questions 31-33
Choose THREE letters, A-F.
Write the correct letters in boxes 31-33 on your answer sheet.
WhichTHREEof the following are benefits of watching TV?
artistic inspiration
family reunion
relieve stress
learn knowledge and education
work efficiency
ease communicative conflict
Questions 34-37
Look at the following researchers (Questions 34-37) and the list of statements below. Match each researcher with the correct statements.
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 34-37 on your answer sheets.
34 Percy Tannenbaum
35 Ivan Pavlov
36 Byron Reeves and Esther Thorson
37 Annie Lang
List of Statements
A. It is the specific media formal characteristic that counts.
B. TV distraction shows human physical reaction to a new and prompted stimulus
C.Conveying information is the most important thing.
D. It is hard to ignore the effects of TV.
E. Whether people can remember deeper of the content relates with the format.
F. The heart rate remains stable when watching.
G. Clinically reliance on TV does not meet the criteria of an addiction.
Questions 38-40
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 1, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet
TV is becoming a worldwide 38........... Some people love it and spend a great deal of time watching it. According to some surveys, a small group even claim themselves as 39............ One researcher believes that this attraction comes from our human instinct, described as 40.........which is built in part of our physiological evolution.

Reading Test 3
Section 1
Timekeeper 2 Invention of Marine Chronometer
A. It was, as Dava Sobel has described a phenomenon: the greatest scientific problem of the age. The reality was that inthe 18th century no one had ever made a clock that could suffer the great rolling and pitching of a ship and the large changes in temperature whilst stillkeeping time accurately enough to be of any use.Indeed, most of the scientific community thoughtsuch clock impossibility. Knowing one's positionon the earth requires two very simple but essentialcoordinates; rather like using a street map where onethinksin terms of how far oneis up/down and how far side to side.
B. The longitude is a measure of how far around the world one has come from home and has nonaturally occurring base line like the equator. The crew of a given ship was naturally only concerned with how far round they were fromtheir own particular home base. Even when inthe middle of the ocean, with no land in sight, knowing this longitude position is very simple in theory. The key to knowing how far around the world you are from home is to know, at that very moment, what timeit is back home. A comparison with your local time (easily found by checking theposition of the Sim) will then tell you the time difference between you and home,and thus how far round the Earth you are from home.
C. Up until the middle of the 18th century, navigators had been unable to determine their position at sea with accuracy and they faced the huge attendant risks ofshipwreck or running out of supplies before reaching then destination. The angularposition of Moon and other bright stars was recorded in three-hour intervals ofGreenwich Time.In order to determine longitude, sailors had to measure the anglebetween Moon centre and a given star - lunar distance - together with height of both planets using the navalsextant.The sailors also had to calculate the Moons position if seen form the centre of Earth. Time corresponding toGreenwich Timewasdetermined using thenautical almanac.Then the difference between the obtainedtime and local time served for calculation in longitude from Greenwich. The greatflaw in this simple theory was - how does the sailor know time back home whenhe is in the middle of an ocean?
D. The obvious and again simple answer is that he takes an accurate clock with him, which he sets to home time before leaving. All he has to do is keep it wound up and running, and he mustnever reset the hands throughout the voyage Thisclock then provides home time, so if, for example, itis midday on board your ship and your home timeclock says that at that same moment it is midnight athome, you know immediately there is a twelve hourtime-difference and you must be exactly round theother side of the world, 180 degrees of longitude fromhome.
E. After 1714 when the British government offered the huge sum of 20,000 for a solution to the problem,with the prize to be administered by die splendidlytitled Board of Longitude. The Government prize of20,000 was the highest of three sums on offer for varying degrees of accuracy, the full prize only payable for a method that could find the longitude at sea within half a degree. If the solution was to be by timekeeper(and there were other methods since the prize was offered for any solution to theproblem), then the timekeeping required to achieve this goal would have to bewithin 2.8 seconds a day, a performance considered impossible for any clock at seaand unthinkable for a watch, even under the very bestconditions.
F. It was this prize, worth about 2 million today, which inspired the self-taught Yorkshfre carpenter, John Harrison, to attempt a design for a practical marine clock. During the latter part of his early career, he worked with his younger brother James. Their first major project was a revolutionary turret clock forthestablesatBrocklesby Park, seat of the Pelham family. The clock was revolutionary because it required no lubrication. 18th century clock oils were uniformly poor and one of the major causes of failure in clocks of the period. Rather than concentrating on improvements to the oil, Harrison designed a clock which didn't need it. In 1730 Harrison created a description and drawings for a proposed marine clock to compete for the Longitude
Prize and went to London seeking financial assistance. He presented his ideas to Edmond Halley, the Astronomer Royal. Halley referredhimto George Graham, thecountry's foremost clockmaker. He must have been impressed by Harrison, forGraham personally loaned Harrison money to build a model of his marine clock. Ittook Harrison five years to build Harrison Number One or HI. He demonstrated it tomembers of the Royal Society who spoke on his behalf to the Board of Longitude.The clock was the first proposal that the Board considered to be worthy of a seatrial. In 1736,
G. After several attempts to design a betterment of HI, Harrison believed that the ' solution to the longitude problem lay in an entirely different design. H4 iscompletely different from the other three timekeepers. It lookslike a very large pocket watch. Harrison's son William set sailfor the West Indies, with H4, aboard the shipDeptford on 18 November 1761. It was a remarkableachievement but it would be some time before the Board ofLongitude was sufficiently satisfied to award Harrison theprize.
H. John Hadley, an English mathematician, developed sextant, who was a competitor of Harrison at that time for the luring prize. A sextant is an instrument used formeasuring angles, for example between the sun and the horizon, so that the positionof a ship or aeroplane can be calculated. Making this measurement is known assighting the object, shooting the object, or taking asight and it is an essential part of celestialnavigation. The angle, and the time when it wasmeasured, can be used to calculate a position line ona nautical or aeronautical chart. A sextant can alsobe used to measure the Lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (e.g., star, planet) in order to determine Greenwich time which is important because it can then be used to determine the longitude.
I. The majority within this next generation of chronometer pioneers were English, but the story is by no means wholly that of English achievement. One French name,Pierre Le Roy of Paris, stands out as a major presence in the early history of thechronometer. Another great name in the story is that of the Lancastrian, ThomasEamshaw, a slightly younger contemporary of John Arnold's. It was Eamshaw whocreated the final form of chronometer escapement, the spring detent escapement, andfinalized the format and the production system for the marine chronometer, makingit truly an article of commerce, and a practical means of safer navigation at sea overthe next century and half.
Questions 1-5
The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letterA-I,in boxes1-5on your answer sheet.
NB: you may use any letter more than once
1. introduction of a millman under awards
2. the definition of an important geographical term
3. a rival against Harrisons invention emerged
4. problems of sailor encountered in identifying the position on the sea
5. economic assist from another counterpart
Questions 6-8
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1In boxes6-8on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true no if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 6. It is with no great effort by sailors to calculate the position when in the center of the ocean theoretically.
7. To determine the longitude, a measurement of distance from moon to a given star is a must.
8. In theory, by calculating the longitude degrees covered by a sail journey, the distance between the start and the end points can be obtained.
Questions 9-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
Hundred years ago, sailors tried to identify their time by checking the sun or stars, but the trouble was that they did need a reliable clock which showed time of......9....... And thetimekeeperrequired would be to precisely tell a tangible time lapse confined to......10......
An extraordinary craftsman, Harrison, once created a novel clock which did not rely on ...11......to work properly.Later on, competitive mode of......12.......was another prominent device designed by Hadley, which calculated angle between sun and the earth. Base on Harrison'seffort, Earns haw eventually implement key componentsfor......13......., which had been used ever since.
Section 2
Father of modern management
A. Its been said that Peter Drucker invented the discipline of management Before he wrote his first book on the topic, he knew of only two companies in the world with management development programs. Ten years after the books publication, 3,000 companies were teaching the subject. Widely considered as the father of "modem management," he wrote 39 books and countless scholarly and popular articles exploring how humans are organized in all sectors of societybusiness, government and the nonprofit world. His writings have predicted many of the major developments of the late twentieth century, including privatization anddecentralization; the rise of Japan to a world economic power;the decisive importance of marketing; and the emergence of theinformation society with its necessity of lifelong learning.
B. Drucker has said that writing is die foundation of everything he does. In 1937, he published his first book, which was written in Europe. The End of Economic Man: A Study of the New Totalitarianism examined the spiritual and social origins of fascism. In 1940, before the United States entered World Warn,he wrote The Future of Industrial Man, in which he presented his social vision for the postwar world. In 1943, General Motors asked Drucker to study its management practices. Drucker accepted and spent 18 months researching and writing the 1945 book. Concept of the Corporation.
C. The concepts Drucker introduced in the 1940s and 1950s have endured. In 1954, Drucker wrote his first book that taught peoplehow to manage. Tided The Practice of Management, it introduced the concept of "management by objectives. Management by objectives require managers to establish goals for theft subordinates and devise means of measuring results.Workers are then left alone to perform as they will and measure theft performance. Druckerwrote, "It is not possible to be effective unless one first decides what one wants to accomplish.He went on to explain that every worker must be given the tools "to appraise himself, rather than be appraised and controlled from the outside. Management by objectives has become an accepted business concept and is probably Drucker's most important contribution. Druckerissued challenges to junior, middle and senior management: 'The very term "middlemanagement" is becoming meaningless [as some] will have to learn how to work with peopleover whom they have no direct line control, to work transnationally, and to create, maintain,and run systems-none of which are traditionally middle management tasks. "It is topmanagement that faces the challenge of setting directions for the enterprise, of managing thefundamentals.
D. Drucker interviewed executives and workers, visited plants, and attended board meetings. While the book focused on General Motors, Drucker went on to discuss the industrial corporation as a social institution and economic policy in the postwar era. He introduced previously unknown concepts such as cooperation between labor and management, decentralization of management, and viewing workers as resources rather than costs. Drucker saw people as a resource, and considered that they would be more able to satisfy customers if they had more involvement in then jobs and gained some satisfaction from doing them. Drucker claimed that an industrial society allows people to realize their dreams of personal achievement and equal opportunity-the need to manage business by balancing a variety of needs and goals, rather than subordinating an institution to a single value. This concept of management by objectives forms the keynote of his 1954 landmark The Practice of Management. He referred to decentralization as 'a system of local self government, in whichcentral management tells division managers what to do, but not how to do it. The youngexecutives are given the freedom to make decisions and mistakes and learn from theexperience. Top leaders at General Motors disliked the book and discouraged their executivesfrom reading it. Many other American executives criticized Concept for its challenge tomanagement authority.
E. Drucker wasn't immune to criticism. The Wall Street Journal researched several of his lectures in 1987 and reported that he was sometimes loose with facts. Drucker was off themark, for example, when he told an audience that English was the official language for allemployees at Japan's Mitsui trading company. And he was known for his prescience. Giventhe recent involvement of the US government with financial companies, he was probablycorrect in his forecast when he anticipated, for instance, that the nations financial centerwould shift from New York to Washington, others maintain that one of Drucker's coreconcepts"management by objectives"is flawed and has never really been proven to workeffectively. Specifically, critics say that the system is difficult to implement, and that companies often wind up overemphasizing control, as opposed to fostering creativity, to meet their goals. Drucker didn't shy away from controversy, either.
F. Throughout his career, Drucker expanded his position that management was "a liberal art"and he infused his management advice with interdisciplinary lessons including history,sociology, psychology, philosophy, culture and religion. He also strongly believed that allinstitutions, including those in the private sector, had a responsibility for the whole society."The fact is," Drucker wrote in 1973, "that in modem society there is no other leadershipgroup but managers. If the managers of our major institutions, especially in business, do nottake responsibility for the common good, no one else can or will." In his books, lectures andinterviews, the emergence of knowledge workers is only one of the demographic changesDrucker warns businesses to prepare for. Others include a decreasing birth rate in developedcountries, a shift in population from rural to urban centers, shifts in distribution of disposableincome and global competitiveness. Drucker believes these changes will have a tremendousimpact on business. Drucker held a profound skepticism of macroeconomic theory andcontended that economists of all schools fail to explain significant aspects of modemeconomies. Business "gums" have come and gone during the last 50 years, but Drucker'smessage continues to inspire managers. During the 1990s, Drucker wrote about social,political and economic changes of the postcapitalist era, which he says are as profound asthose of the industrial revolution. In Managing for the Future: The 1990s and Beyond (1992),Drucker discussed the emergence of the "knowledge worker" whose resources includespecialized learning or competency rather than land, labor or other forms of capital.
Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 has 6 paragraphs A-F. Choose die correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number:i-x, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet
List of Headings
i. Introducing new management concepts to postwar era
ii. Ideas that stood the test of time
iii. Early publications
iv. Shifting the focus of management in modem manufactures
v. Thinker and scholar with world-wide popularity
vi. Druckers concepts are flawed
vii. The changing role of employees in management
viii. Find fault with Drucker
ix. Iconic view of management by objectives
---------------------
14. Paragraph A
15. Paragraph B
16. Paragraphc
17. Paragraph D
18. Paragraph E
19. Paragraph F


Questions20-23
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? In boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 
20. Drucker believed the employees should enjoy the same status as the employers in a company
21. middle management tasks will change since companies become more complicated and run business globally
22. Drucker strongly support that economists of schools have resources to explain the problems of modem economies at least in a macroeconomics scope
23. Druckers ideas proposed half a century ago are out of date in modem days
Questions 24-25
Choose TWO letters from A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 24 and 25 on your answer sheet. Which TWO of the following are true of Druckers views?
A. Managers should be responsible for the common good of the whole society.
B. Young executives should be given chances to start from low level jobs
C.More emphasis should be laid on fostering the development of the union.
D. Management should facilitate workers with tools of self-appraisal instead of controlling them from the outside.
E. management should go beyond an isolate discipline as to incorporate ideas with many subjects
Questions 26-27
Choose TWO letters from A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 26 and 27 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following are mentioned in the passage as criticisms to Drucker and his views?
A. He did not show enough respect to Japanese employees when he said English was the official language for all employees at Japans Mitsui trading company.
B. His lectures are too broad and lack of being precise and accurate about the facts,
C.His concepts helped corporate executives but not average workers.
D. His ideas are sometimes impractical and result in opposite outcomes.
E. He was overstating the case for knowledge workers when warning businesses to get prepared.
Section 3
Extinct: the Giant Deer
Toothed cats, mastodons, giant sloths, woolly rhinos, and many other big, shaggy mammals are widely thought to have died out around the end of the last ice age, some10,500 years ago.
A. The Irish elk is also known as the giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus). Analysis of ancient bones and teeth by scientists based in Britain andRussia show the huge herbivore survived until about 5,000 B.C.morethan three millennia later than previously believed. The research teamsays this suggests additional factors, besides climate change, probablyhastened the giant deer's eventual extinction. The factors could includehunting or habitat destruction by humans.
B. The Irish elk, so-called because its well-preserved remains are often found in lake sediments under peat bogs in Ireland, first appeared about 400,000years ago in Europe and central Asia. Through a combination ofradiocarbon dating of skeletal remains and the mapping of locationswhere the remains were unearthed, the team shows the Irish elk waswidespread across Europe before the last "big freeze." The deer's rangelater contracted to the Ural Mountains, in modern-day Russia, whichseparate Europe from Asia.
C. The giant deer made its last stand in western Siberia, some 3,000 years after the ice sheets receded, said the study's co-author, Adrian Lister,professor of palaeobiology at University College London, England. "The eastern foothills of the Urals became very densely forested about 8,000 years ago, whichcould have pushed them on to the plain," hesaid. He added that pollen analysis indicates the region then became very dry in response to further climactic change, leading to the loss of important food plants. "In combination with humanpressures, this could have finally snuffed them out," Lister said.
D. Hunting by humans has often been put forward as a contributory cause of extinctions of the Pleistocene mega fauna. The team, though, said theirnew date for the Irish elk's extinction hints at an additional human-madeproblemhabitat destruction. Lister said, "We haven't got just hunting7,000 years agothis was also about the time the first Neolithic peoplesettled in the region. Theywere farmers who would have cleared the land." The presence of humansmay help explain why the Irish elk was unable to tough out the latest ofmany climatic fluctuationsperiods it had survived in the past.
E. Meanwhile, Lister cast doubt on another possible explanation for the deer's demisethe male's huge antlers. Some scientists have suggestedthis exaggerated featurethe result of females preferring stags with thelargest antlers, possibly because they advertised a male'sfitness contributed to the mammal's downfall. They say such antlerswould have been a serious inconvenience in the dense forests that spreadnorthward after the last ice age. But, Lister said, "That's a hard argumentto make, because the deer previously survived perfectly well throughwooded interglacials [warmer periods between ice ages]." Some researchhas suggested that a lack of sufficient high-quality forage caused the extinction of the elk. High amounts ofcalciumand phosphate compounds arerequired to formantlers, and therefore large quantities of these minerals are required for the massive structures of the Irish Elk. The males (and male deer in general) met thisrequirement partly from their bones, replenishing them from food plantsafter the antlers were grown or reclaiming the nutrients from discardedantlers (as has been observed in extant deer). Thus, in the antler growthphase. Giant Deer were suffering from a condition similar to osteoporosis.When the climate changed at the end of the last glacial period, thevegetation in the animal's habitat also changed towards species thatpresumably could not deliver sufficient amounts of the required minerals,at least in the western part of its range.
F. The extinction of megafauna around the world was almost completed by the end of the last ice age. It is believed that megafauna initially came intoexistence in response to glacial conditions and became extinct with theonset of warmer climates. Tropical and subtropical areas haveexperienced less radical climatic change. The most dramatic of thesechanges was the transformation of a vast area of north Africa into theworld's largest desert. Significantly, Africa escaped major faunalextinction as did tropical and sub-tropical Asia. The human exodus fromAfrica and our entrance into the Americas and Australia were alsoaccompanied by climate change. Australia's climate changed fromcold-dry to warm-dry. As a result, surface water became scarce. Mostinland lakes became completely dry or dry in the warmer seasons. Mostlarge, predominantly browsing animals lost their habitat and retreated toa narrow band in eastern Australia, where there was permanent waterand better vegetation. Some animals may have survived until about 7000years ago. If people have been in Australia for up to 60 000 years, thenmegafauna must have co-existed with humans for at least 30 000 years.Regularly hunted modem kangaroos survived not only 10 000 years ofAboriginal hunting, but also an onslaught of commercial shooters.
G. The group of scientists led by A.J. Stuart focused on northern Eurasia, which he was taking as Europe, plus Siberia, essentially, where they 'vegot the best data that animals became extinct in Europe during the LatePleistocene. Some cold-adapted animals, go through into the last part ofthe cold stage, and then become extinct up there. So you've actually gottwo phases of extinction. Now, neither of these coincide these areNeanderthals here being replaced by modem humans. There's no obviouscoincidence between the arrival of humans or climatic change alone andthese extinctions. There's a climatic change here, so there's a double effecthere. Again, as animals come through to the last part of the cold stage,here there's a fundamental change in the climate, reorganization ofvegetation, and the combination of the climatic change and the presenceof humans -- of advanced Paleolithic humans causes this wave ofextinction. There's a profound difference between the North Americandata and that of Europe, which summarize that the extinctions in northernEurasia, in Europe, are moderate and staggered, and in North Americasevere and sudden. And these things relate to the differences in thetiming of human arrival. The extinctions follow from human predation,but only at times of fundamental changes in the environment.
Questions 28-32

Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than three wordsfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.
Having been preserved well in Europe and central Asia, the remains of the Irish elk was initially found approximately _______28____. Around _____29______, they were driven to live in the plain after being restricted to the Ural Mountains. Hunting was considered as one of the important factors of Irish elk's extinction, people have not started hunting until______30______ when Irish elk used to get through under a variety of climatic fluctuations.
The huge antlers may possibly contribute to the reason why Irish elkextinct, which was highly controversial as they live pleasantly over the span of____31_____. Generally,itis well-known that, at the last maximum ice age, mammals become extinct about ______32_____.
Questions 33-35
Answer the questions below.
ChooseNO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBERfrom the passage for each answer.
33. What kind of physical characteristics eventually contributed to theextinction of Irish elk?
34. What kind of nutrient substance needed in maintaining the huge size ofIrish elk?
35. What geographical evidence suggested the advent of human resulted inthe extinction of Irish elk?
Questions36-39
Matching choose the letter A-D and fill in box 36-39
Eurasia
Australia
Asia
Africa
36 the continents where humans imposed little impact on large mammals extinction
37 the continents where the climatic change was mild and fauna remains
38 the continents where both humans and climatic change are the causes
39 the continents where the climatic change along caused a massive extinction
40. Which statement is true according the Stuart team's finding?
A. Neanderthals rather than modem humans caused the extinction in Europe
B. Paleolithic humans in Europe along kill the big animals such as Giant deer
C. climatic change was not solely responsible for the mega fauna extinction in Europe
D. moderate and staggered extinction was mainly the result of fundamental climatic change

Reading Test 4
Section 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on the Reading Passage below.
New Agriculture in Oregon, US
A. Onion growers in eastern Oregon are adopting a system that saves water and keeps topsoil in place, while producing the highest quality "super colossal" onions. Pear growers in southern Oregon have reduced their use of some of the most toxic pesticides by up to two-thirds, and are still producing top-quality pears. Range managers throughout the state have controlled the poisonous weed tansy ragwort with insect predators and saved the Oregon livestock industry up to $4.8 million a year.
B. These are some of the results Oregon growers have achieved in collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU) researchers as they test new farming methods including integrated pest management (IPM).Nationwide, however, IFM has notdelivered results comparable to thosein Oregon. A recent U.S GeneralAccounting Office (GAO) reportindicates that while integrated pestmanagement can result indramatically reduced pesticide use,the federal government has been lacking in effectively promoting thatgoal and implementing IPM. Farmers also blame the government fornot making the new options of pest management attractive."Wholesale changes in the way that farmers control the pests on theirfarms is an expensive business." Tony Brown, of the National FarmersAssociation says. "If the farmers are given tax breaks to offset theexpenditure, then they would willingly accept the new practices." Thereport goes on to note that even though the use of the riskiestpesticides has declined nationwide, they still make up more than 40 percent of all pesticides used today; and national pesticide use has risen by 40 million kilograms since 1992. "Our food supply remainsthe safest and highest quality on Earth but we continue to overdoseour farmland with powerful and toxic pesticides and to under-use thesafe and effective alternatives," charged Patrick Leahy, whocommissioned the report. Green action groups disagree about thesafety issue. "There is no way that habitual consumption of foodstuffsgrown using toxic chemicals of the nature found on today's farms canbe healthy for consumers," noted Bill Bowler, spokesman for GreenAction, one of many lobbyists interested in this issue.
C. The GAO report singles out Oregon's apple and pear producers who have used the new IPM techniques with growing success. AlthoughOregon is clearly ahead of the nation, scientists atOSU are taking theGovernment Accounting Office criticisms seriously. "We mustcontinue to develop effective alternative practices that will reduceenvironmental hazards and produce high quality products," said PaulJepson, a professor of entomology atOSU and new director of
D. OSU's Integrated Plant Protection Centre (IPPC). The IPPC brings togetherscientists from OSU's AgriculturalExperiment Station,OSU Extensionservice, theu.s.Department of Agriculture and Oregon farmers to help develop agricultural systems that will save water and soil, and reduce pesticides. In response to theGAO report, the Centre is putting even more emphasis on integratingresearch and farming practices to improve Oregon agricultureenvironmentally and economically.
E. "The GAO report criticizes agencies for not clearly communicating the goals of IPM," said Jepson. "Our challenge is to greatly improve thecommunication to and from growers, to learn what works and whatdoesn't. The work coming fromOSU researchers must be adopted inthe field and not simply languish in scientific journals."
F. In Oregon, growers and scientists are working together to instigate new practices. For example, a few years ago scientists at OSU'sMalheur Experiment Station began testing a new drip irrigationsystem to replace old ditches that wasted water and washedsoil and fertilizer into streams. The new system cut water and fertilizeruse by half, kept topsoil in place and protected water quality.
G. In addition, the new system produced crops of very large onions, rated "super colossal" and highly valued by the restaurant industryand food processors. Art Pimms, one of the researchers at Malheurcomments: "Growers are finding that when they adopt moreenvironmentally benign practices, they can have excellent results. Thenew practices benefit the environment and give the growers theirsuccess."
H. OSUresearchers in Malheur next tested straw mulchand found that it successfully held soil in place and kept the ground moist with less irrigation. In addition, and unexpectedly, the scientists foundthat the mulched soil created a home for beneficial beetles and spidersthat prey on onion thrips - a notorious pest in commercial onion fields- a discovery that could reduce the need for pesticides. "I would neverhave believed that we could replace the artificial pest controls that wehad before and still keep our good results," commented Steve Black, acommercial onion farmer in Oregon, "but instead we have actuallysurpassed expectations."
I. OSU researchers throughout the state have been working to reduce dependence on broad spectrum chemical spraysthat are toxic to many kind of organisms, including humans. "Consumers are rightly putting more and more pressure on the industry to changeits reliance on chemical pesticides, but they still want a picture-perfectproduct," said Rick Hilton, entomologist at OSU's Southern OregonResearch and Extension Centre, where researchers help pear growersreduce the need for highly toxic pesticides. Picture perfect pears are animportant product in Oregon and traditionally they have required lotsof chemicals. In recent years, the industry has faced stiff competitionfrom overseas producers, so any new methods that growers adoptmust make sense economically as well as environmentally. Hilton istesting a growth regulator that interferes with the molting of codlingmoth larvae. Another study used pheromonedispensers to disrupt codling moth mating. These and other methodsof integrated pest management have allowed pear growers to reducetheir use of organophosphates by two-thirds and reduceall other synthetic pesticides by even more and still producetop-quality pears. These and other studies around the state are part ofthe effort of the IPPC to find alternative farming practices that benefitboth the economy and the environment.
Questions 1-8
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-G) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A. Tony Brown
B. Patrick Leahy
C. Bill Bowler
D. Paul Jepson
E. Art Pimms
F. Steve Black
G. Rick Hilton
--------------
1. There is a double-advantage to the new techniques.
2. The work on developing these alternative techniques is not finished.
3. Eating food that has had chemicals used in its production is dangerous toour health.
4. Changing current farming methods into a new one is not a cheap process.
5. Results have exceeded the anticipated goal.
6. The research done should be translated into practical projects.
7.TheU.S.produces the best food in the world nowadays.
8. Expectations of end users of agricultural products affect the products.
Questions 9-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 9. Integrated Pest Management has generally been regarded as a success in j the across the US.
10. Oregon farmers of apples and pears have been promoted as successful examples ofIntegrated Pest Management.
11. The IPPC uses scientists from different organisations globally
12. Shaw mulch experiments produced unplanned benefits.
13. The apple industry is now facing a lot of competition from abroad.
Section 2
Intelligence and Giftedness
A. In 1904 the French minister of education, facing limited resources for schooling, sought a way to separate die unable from the merely lazy. Alfred Binet got the job of devising selection principles and his brilliant solution put a stamp on the study of intelligence andwas the forerunner of intelligence tests still usedtoday, he developed a thirty-problem test in 1905,which tapped several abilities related to intellect,such as judgment and reasoning, the test determineda given child's mental age', the test previouslyestablished a norm for children of a given physical age. (for example, five-year-olds on average get ten items correct), therefore, a child with a mentalage of five should score 10, which would meanthat he or she was functioning pretty much as others of that age. the child's mental age was then compared to his physical age.
B. A large disparity in the wrong direction (e.g., a child of nine with a mental age of four) might suggest inabilityrather than laziness and mean he or she was earmarkedfor special schooling, Binet, however, denied that the testwas measuring intelligence, its purpose was simplydiagnostic, for selection only. This message was howeverlost, and caused many problems and misunderstandinglater.
C. Although Binet's test was popular, it was a bit inconvenient to deal with a variety of physical and mental ages. So in 1912 Wilhelm Stem suggested simplifying this by reducing die two to a single number, he divided the mental age by the physical age, and multiplied the result by 100. An average child, irrespective of age, wouldscore 100. a number much lower than 100 would suggest the need for help, andone much higher would suggest a child well ahead of his peer.
D. This measurement is what is now termed the IQ (for intelligence quotient) score and it has evolved to be used to show how a person, adult or child, performed inrelation to others, (the term IQ was coined by Lewis m. Terman, professor ofpsychology and education of Stanford university, in 1916. he had constructed anenormously influential revision of Binet's test, called the Stanford-Binet test,versions of which are still given extensively.)
E. The field studying intelligence and developing tests eventually coalesced into a sub-field of psychology called psychometrics (psycho for mind and metrics for'measurements'). The practical side of psychometrics (the development and use oftests) became widespread quite early, by 1917, when Einstein published his grandtheory of relativity, mass-scale testing was already in use. Germanys unrestrictedsubmarine warfare (which led to the sinkingof the Lusitaniain 1915) provoked the United States to finally enter the First World War in the same year. The military had to build up an army very quickly; it had two million inductees to sort out.Who would become officers and who enlistedmen? Psychometricians developed twointelligence tests that helped sort all these peopleout, at least to some extent, this was the firstmajor use of testing to decide who lived and whodied, as officers were a lot safer on the battlefield,the tests themselves were given under horrendously bad conditions,and the examiners seemed to lack commonsense, a lot of recruits simply had noidea what to do and in several sessions most inductees scored zero! The examinersalso came up with the quite astounding conclusion from the testing that theaverage American adult's intelligence was equal to that of a thirteen-year-old!
F. Intelligence testing enforced political and social prejudice, their results were used to argue that Jews ought to be kept out of the united states because they were sointelligently inferior that they would pollute the racial mix; and blacks ought not to be allowed to breed at all. And so abuse and test bias controversies continued to plaque psychometrics.
G. Measurement is fundamental to science and technology, science often advances in leaps and bounds when measurement devicesimprove, psychometrics has long tried todevelop ways to gauge psychologicalqualities such as intelligence and more specific abilities, anxiety, extroversion, emotional stability, compatibility, with marriage partner, and so on. Their scores are often given enormous weight, asingle IQ measurement can take on a life of its own if teachers and parents see itas definitive, it became a major issue in the 70s, when court cases were launchedto stop anyone from making important decisions based on IQ test scores, the maincriticism was and still is that current tests dont really measure intelligence,whether intelligence can be measured at all is still controversial, some say itcannot others say that IQ tests are psychologys greatest accomplishments
Questions 14-17
The reading Passage hassevenparagraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-Gin boxes14-17on your answer sheet.
14 IQ is just one single factor of human characteristics.
15 Discussion of methodology behind the Professor Stern's test.
16 Inadequacy of IQ test from Binet.
17 The definition of IQ was created by a professor.
Questions 18-21
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 18-21 on your answer sheet.
18. Professor Binet devise the test to_____
A. find those who do not perform satisfied
B. choose the best one
C.measure the intelligence
D. establish the standard of intelligence
19. The test is designedaccordingto_______
A. math
B. age
C. reading skill
D. gender
20. USArmy used Intelligence tests to select______
A. Officers
B. Normal Soldiers
C.Examiners
D. Submarine drivers.
21. the purpose of the text is to______
A. Give credit to the contribution of Binet in IQ test
B. prove someone's theory is feasible,
C.discuss the validity and limitation of test
D. outline the history of the test
Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 22 Part the intension in designing the test by professor Binet has beenmisunderstood.
23 Age as a factor is completely overboked in the simplified tests by WilhelmStern
24 Einstein was a counter-example of IQ test conclusion.
25 IQ test may probably bad to racial discrimination as a negative effect.
26 The author regards measuring intelligent test as a goal hardly meaningful
Section 3
Paper or Computer?
A. Computer technology was supposed to replace paper. But that hasn't happened. Every country in the Western world uses more paper today, on a per-capita basis, than it did ten years ago. The consumption of uncoated free-sheet paper, for instance the most common kind of office paper rose almost fifteen per cent in the United States between 1995 and 2000. This is generally taken as evidence of how hard it is to eradicate old, wasteful habits and of how stubbornly resistant we are to the efficiencies offered by computerization. A number of cognitive psychologists and ergonomics experts, however, don't agree. Paperhas persisted, they argue, for very good reasons: whenit comes to performing certain kinds of cognitivetasks, paper has many advantages over computers. The dismay people feel at thesight of a messy desk or the spectacle of air-traffic controllers tracking flightsthrough notes scribbled on paper strips - arises from a fundamental confusion aboutthe role that paper plays in our lives.
B. The case for paper is made most eloquently in "The Myth of the Paperless Office", by two social scientists, Abigail Sellen and Richard Harper. They begin their book withan account of a study they conducted at the International MonetaryFund, in Washington,D.c.Economists at the I.M.F. spend most oftheir time writing reports on complicated economic questions, workthat would seem to be perfectly suited to sitting in front of acomputer. Nonetheless, the I.M.F. is awash in paper, and Sellen andHarper wanted to find out why. Their answer is that the business ofwriting reports - at least at the I.M.F. is an intensely collaborative process,involving the professional judgments and contributions of many people. Theeconomists bring drafts of reports to conference rooms, spread out the relevant pages,and negotiate changes with one other. They go back to their offices and jot downcomments in the margin, taking advantage of the freedom offered by the informalityof the handwritten note. Then they deliver the annotated draft to the author in person,taking him, page by page, through the suggested changes. At the end of the process,the author spreads out all the pages with comments on his desk and starts to enterthem on the computer moving the pages around as he works, organizing and reorganizing, saving and discarding.
C. Without paper, this kind of collaborative and iterative work process would be much more difficult. According to Sellen and Harper, paper has a unique set of "affordances" that is, qualities that permit specific kinds of uses. Paper is tangible: we can pick up a document, flip through it, read little bits here and there, and quickly get a sense of it. Paper is spatially flexible, meaning that we can spread it out and arrange it in the way that suitsUSbest. And it's tailorable: we can easily annotate it, and scribble on it as we read, without altering the original text. Digital documents, of course, have thenown affordances. They can be easily searched, shared, stored, accessed remotely, andlinked to other relevant material. But they lack the affordancesthat really matter to agroup of people working together on a report. Sellen and Harper write:
D. Paper enables a certain kind ofthinking. Picture, for instance, the top of your desk. Chances are that you have a keyboard and a computer screen off to one side, and aclear space roughly eighteen inches square in front of your chair. What covers the restof the desktop is probably piles- piles of papers, journals, magazines, binders,postcards, videotapes, and all the other artifacts of the knowledgeeconomy. The piles look like a mess, but they aren't. When agroup at Apple Computer studied piling behavior several yearsago, they found that even the most disorderly piles usually makeperfect sense to the piler, and that office workers could hold forthin great detail about the precise history and meaning of thefr piles.The pile closest to the cleared, eighteen-inch-square working area,for example, generally represents the most urgent business, and within that pile themost important document of all is likely to be at the top. Piles are living, breathingarchives. Over time, they get broken down and resorted, sometimes chronologicallyand sometimes thematically and sometimes chronologically and thematically; cluesabout certain documents may be physically embedded in the file by, say, stacking acertain piece of paper at an angle or inserting dividers into the stack.
E. But why do we pile documents instead of filing them? Because piles represent the process of active, ongoingthinking. The psychologist Alison Kidd, whose researchSellen and Harper refer to extensively, argues that "knowledge workers" use thephysical space of the desktop to hold "ideas which they cannot yet categorize or evendecide how they might use." The messy desk is not necessarily a sign ofdisorganization. It may be a sign of complexity: those who deal with manyunresolved ideas simultaneously cannot sort and file the papers on their desks,because they haven't yet sorted and filed the ideas in their head. Kidd writes that many of the people she talked to use the papers on their desks as contextual cues to recover a complex set of threads without difficulty and delay" when they come in ona Monday morning, or after their work has been interrupted by a phone call. What wesee when we look at the piles on our desks is, in a sense, the contents of our brains.
F. This idea that paper facilitates a highly specialized cognitive and social process is a far cry from the way we have historically thought about the stuff. Paper first began toproliferate in the workplace in the late nineteenth century as part of the move toward"systematic management." To cope with the complexity of the industrial economy,managers were instituting company-wide policies and demanding monthly, weekly,or even daily updates from their subordinates. Thus was born the monthly salesreport, and the office manual and the internal company newsletter. The typewritertook off in the eighteen-eighties, making it possible to create documents in a fractionof the time it had previously taken, and that was followed closely by the advent ofcarbon paper, which meant that a typist could create ten copies of that documentsimultaneously. Paper was important not to facilitate creative collaboration andthought but as an instrument of control.

Questions 27-32

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-F
Choose the correct heading for paragraphsA-Ffrom the list below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. paper continued as a sharing or managing must
ii. piles can be more inspiring rather than disorgnising
iii.Favorable situation that economists used paper pages
iv. overview of an unexpected situation: paper survived
v. comparison between efficiencies for using paper and using computer
vi. IMF paperless office seemed to be a waste of papers
vii. example of failure for avoidance of paper record
viii. There are advantages of using a paper in offices
ix.piles reflect certain characteristics in people thought
x.joy of having the paper square in front of computer
----------------------
27. Paragraph A 28. Paragraph B
29. Paragraph C
30. Paragraph D
31. Paragraph E
32. Paragraph F
Questions 33-36
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
Compared with digital documents, paper has several advantages. First it allows clerks to work in a ...... 33....... wayamong colleagues. Next, paper is not like virtual digital versions, it's...... 34........Finally, because it is......35......., noteor comments can be effortlessly added as related information. However, shortcoming comes at the absence of convenience on task which isfor a......36..........
Questions 37-40

Choose the correct letter,A,B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
37. What do theeconomistsfromIMFsay that their way of writing documents?
A. they note down their comments for freedom on the drafts
B. they finish all writing individually
C.they share ideas on before electronic version was made
D. they use electronic version fully
38. What is the implication of the"Piles" mentioned in the passage?
A. they have underlying orders
B. they are necessarily a mess
C.they are in time sequence order
D. they are in alphabetic order
39. What does themanagerbelieve in sophisticated economy?
A. recorded paper can be as management tool
B. carbon paper should be compulsory
C.Teamwork is the most important
D. monthly report is the best way
40 According to the end of this passage, what is the reasonwhy paper is notreplacedby electronic vision?
A. paper is inexpensive to buy
B. it contributed to management theories in western countries
C.people need time for changing their old habit
D. it is collaborative and functional for tasks implement and management

Reading Test 5
Section 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage below.
Terminated Dinosaur Era
A. The age of dinosaurs, which ended with the cataclysmic bang of a meteor impact 65 million years ago, may also have begun with one. Researchers found recently the first direct, though tentative, geological evidence of a meteor impact 200 million years ago, coinciding with a mass extinction that eliminated half of the major groups of life and opened the evolutionary1door for what was then a relatively small group of animals: dinosaurs.
B. The cause and timing of the ascent of dinosaurs has have been much debated. It has been impossible to draw any specific conclusions becausethe transition between the origin of dinosaurs and their ascent todominance has not been sampled in detail. "There is a geochemicalsignature of something important happening, probably an asteroidimpact, just before the time in which familiar dinosaur-dominatedcommunities appear," said Dr. Paul E. Olsen, a professor of earth andenvironmental sciences at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty EarthObservatory in Palisades, N.Y.
C. Olsen and his colleagues studied vertebrate fossils from 80 sites in four different ancient rift basins, part of a chain of rifts that formed as North America began to split apart from the supercontinent that existed 230-190 million years ago. In the layer of rock corresponding to the extinction, the scientists found elevated amounts of the rare element iridium. A precious metal belonging to the platinum group of elements, iridium is more abundant in meteorites than in rocks.
D. On Earth, A similar spike of iridium in 65 million-year-old rocks gave rise in the 1970s to the theory that a meteor caused the demise of thedinosaurs. That theory remained controversial for years until it wascorroborated by other evidence and the impact site was found off the Yucatan Peninsula. Scientists will need to examine the new iridiumanomaly similarly. The levels areonly about one-tenth as high as thosefound at the later extinction. Thatcould mean that the meteor wassmaller or contained less iridium orthat a meteor was notinvolvediridium can also comefrom the Earth's interior, belched outby volcanic eruptions. Dr. Michael J. Benton, a professor of vertebratepaleontology at the University of Bristol in England, described the data as"the first reasonably convincing evidence of an iridium spike".
E. The scientists found more evidence of rapid extinction in a database of 10,000 fossilized footprints in former lake basins from Virginia to NovaScotia. Although individual species cannot usually be identified solelyfrom their footprints the tracks of a house cat, for example, resemblethose of a baby tiger footprints are muchmore plentiful than fossil bones and canprovide a more complete picture of thetypes of animals walking around. "It makesit very easy for us to tell the very obvious signals of massive fauna change," Dr. Olsen said. Because the sediment piles up quickly in lake basins, the researchers were able to assign a dateto each footprint, based on the layer of rock where it was found. Theydetermined that the mix of animals walking across what is now the EastCoast of North America changed suddenly about 200 million years ago.
F. The tracks of several major reptile groups continue almost up to the layer of rock marking the end of the Triassic geologic period 202million years ago, and then vanish in younger layers from the Jurassicperiod. "I think the footprint methodology is very novel and veryexciting," said Dr. Peter D. Ward, a professor of geology at the Universityof Washington. He called the data "very required more research. Last year,researchers led by Dr. Ward reported that the types of carbon in rockchanged abruptly at this time, indicating a sudden dying off of plantsover less than 50,000 years. The footprint research reinforces thehypothesis that the extinction was sudden.
G. Several groups of dinosaurs survived that extinction, and the footprints show that new groups emerged soon afterward. Before the extinction,about one-fifth of the footprints were left by dinosaurs; after theextinction, more than half were from dinosaurs. The changes, theresearchers said, occurred within 30,000 years-a geological blink of an eye.The scientists postulate that the asteroid or comet impact and theresulting death of Triassic competitors allowed a few groups ofcarnivorous dinosaurs to evolve in size very quickly and dominate the topof the terrestrial food chain globally.
H. Among the creatures that disappeared in the extinction were the dominant predators at the time: 15-foot-long rauisuchians with great knife-like teeth and phytosaurs that resembled large crocodiles. Dinosaurs first evolved about230 million years ago, but they were small,competing in a crowded ecological niche. Before the extinction 200 million years ago. the largest of the meat-eating dinosaurswere about the see of large dogs. Not terribly impressive." Dr. Olsen said. The dinosaurs quickly grew. The toe-to-heel length of the foot of a meat eater from the Jurassic period was on average 20percent longer than its Triassic ancestor.Larger feet can carry bigger bodies; thescientists infer the dinosaurs doubled inweight, eventually evolving into fearsomevelociraptors, Tyrannosaurus rex and other large carnivorousdinosaurs.
I. The spurt in evolution is similar to the rise of mammals after the extinction of dinosaurs. Mammals, no larger than small dogs during the age of dinosaurs, diversified into tigers, elephants, whales and people after the reptilian competition died away. The success of the dinosaurs after the Triassic-Jurassic extinction may be why they did not survive the second extinction. "Small animals always do better in catastrophic situations. Dr. Olsen said, because they can survive on smaller amounts of food." He also pointed out that scientistsnow believe the small dinosaurs did survive. "We just call them birds," hesaid.
Qụestịon 1-6
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A- C) with opinions or deeds (listed 1-6) below.
Write the appropriate letter(A-C)in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
Paul Olsen
Michael Benton
Peter Ward
1 Large animals are in a disadvantageous position when disasters happen.
2 Radical changes in carbon types are related to massive extinction ofvegetation.
3 The changes in earth's animal species become easier to identify by addingfootprint investigation.
4 Geochemical evidence suggests an asteroid impact before dinosaursappeared.
5 Footprint study is a way of research.
6 Persuasive clues of an iridium spike werediscovered for the first time.
Question 7-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage? In boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 7 The rare element, iridium, was presented both on earth and in meteorites.
8 The meteor impact theory had been suspected before the discovery of the impact site and other supporting evidence.
9 Footprints are of little value in providing information, in comparison tofossil bones, because individual species cannot be identified withfootprints.
10 According to scientists, the transition to a dinosaur-dominated era took place very quickly by geological time scales.
11 The creatures that disappeared in the extinction were the dominantly the 15-foot-long rauisuchians and large crocodiles.
12 Tyrannosaurus rex was larger in body size than other carnivorous dinosaurs.
13 Large dinosaurs died out but small ones evolved and competed with birds and mammals.

Section 2
Detection of a meteorite Lake
A. AS THE SUN rose over picturesque Lake Bosumtwi, a team of Syracuse Universityresearchers prepared for another day of usingstate-of-the-art equipment to help unlock themysteries hidden below the lake bottom. Nestled in the heart of Ghana, thelake holds an untapped reservoir of information that could help scientists predict future climatechanges by looking at evidence from the past. This information will also improve the scientists' understanding of the changes that occur in a region struck by a massive meteorite
B. The project, led by earth sciences professor Christopher Scholz of the College of Arts and Sciences and funded by the National ScienceFoundation (NSF), is the first large-scale effort to study Lake Bosumtwi,which formed 1.1 million years ago when a giant meteor crashed into theEarth's surface. The resulting crater is one of the largest and mostwell-preserved geologically young cratersin the world, says Scholz, who is collaborating on the project with researchers fromthe University of Arizona, theUniversity of South Carolina, theUniversity of Rhode Island, andseveral Ghanaian institutions."Our data should provideinformation about what happens when an impact hits hard,pre-Cambrian,crystallinerocksthat are a billion years old," he says.
C. Equally important is the fact that the lake, which is about 8 kilometers in diameter, has no natural outlet. The rim of the crater rises about 250meters above the water's surface. Streams flow into the lake, Scholz says, but the water leaves only by evaporation, or by seeping through the lake sediments. For the past million years, the lake has acted as a tropical rain, filling and drying with changes in precipitation and thetropical climate. The record of those changes is hidden in sediment belowthe lake bottom. "The lake is one of the best sites in the world for thestudy ofropical climatechanges," Scholz says. "The tropics are the heat engine for the Earth's climate. To understand global climate, we need to have records of climate changes from many sites around theworld, including the tropics."
D. Before the researchers could explore the lake's subsurface, they needed a boat with a large, working deck area that could carry eight tons ofscientific equipment. The boat dubbed R/V Kilindi was built inFlorida last year. It was constructed in modules that were dismantled,packed inside a shipping container, and reassembled over a 10-dayperiod in late November and early December 1999 in the rural village ofAbono, Ghana. The research team then spent the next two weeks testingthe boat and equipment before returning to the United States for theholidays.
E. In mid-January, five members of the teamKeely Brooks, an earth sciences graduate student; Peter Cattaneo, a research analyst; and KiramLezzar, a postdoctoral scholar, all from SU; James McGill, a geophysicalfield engineer; and Nick Peters, a Ph.D. student in geophysics from theUniversity of Miamireturned to Abono to begin collecting data aboutthe lake's subsurface using a technique called seismic reflection profiling.In this process, a high-pressure air gun is used to create small, pneumaticexplosions in the water. The sound energy penetrates about 1,000 to 2,000meters into the lake's subsurface before bouncing back to the surface ofthe water.
F. The reflected sound energy is detected by underwater microphones-called hydrophonesembedded in a 50-meter-long cable that is towed behind the boat as it crosses the lake in a carefully designed grid pattern. On-board computersrecord the signals, and the resulting dataare then processed and analyzed in thelaboratory. The results will giveUSa goodidea of the shape of the basin, how thickthe layers of sediment are, and when andwhere there were major changes in sediment accumulation, Scholz says. Weare now developing three-dimensional perspective of the lakes subsurfaceand the layers of sediment that have been laid down.
G. Team members spent about four weeks in Ghana collecting the data. They worked seven, days a week/ arriving at the lake just after sunrise.On a good day, when everything went as planned, the team could collectdata and be back at the dock by early afternoon. Except for a fewrelatively minor adjustments, the equipment and the boat worked well.Problems that arose were primarily non-scientifictree stumps, fishingnets, cultural barriers, and occasional misunderstandings with localvillagers.
H. Lake Bosumtwi, the largest natural freshwater lake in the country, is sacred to the Ashanti people, who believe their souls come to the lake tobid farewell to their god. The lake is also the primary source of fish forthe 26 surrounding villages. Conventional canoes and boats areforbidden. Fishermen travel on the lake by floating on traditionalplanksthey propel with smallpaddles.Beforedieresearch project could begin, Scholz and his Ghanaian counterparts had to secure special permission from tribal chiefs to put the R/V Kilindi on the lake.
I. When the team began gathering data,rumorsflewaround the lake as to why the researchers were there. "Some thought we weredredging the lake for gold, othersthought we were going to drain thelake or that we had bought the lake," Cattaneo says. "But once the local people understood why we werethere, they were very helpful"
Questions 14-18
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage1?In boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet,write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 14 With the investigation of the lake, scientist may predict the climate changes in thefuture.
15 The crater resulted from a meteorite impact is the largest and most preserved onein the world.
16 The water stored in lake Bosumtwi was gone only by seeping through thelake sediments.
17 Historical climate changes can be detected by the analysis of the sediment in thelake.
18 The greatest obstacle to research of scientists had been the interference by thelocals due to theừ indigenous believes.
Questions 19 - 22

There are three steps of collecting data from the lake as followings, please filling the blanks in the Flow Chart below:


Questions 23-27
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.
The boat-double R/V Kilindi crossed the lake was dismantled and stored in a ........23........... The technologythey used called........24......; They created sound energy in to 1000-2000 metres in to the bottom of the lake, and used separate equipment to collect the returned waves. Then the data had been analyzed and processed in the........25....... Scholz alsoaddedthat they were now building ........26......view of the sediment or sub-image in the bottom of the lake. Whole set of equipment works well yet the ship should avoid physical barrier includingtree stumps or........27......floating on the surface of the lake.
Section 3
Internal and External Marketing
A. Employees need to hear the same messages that you send out to the marketplace. At most companies, however, internal and externalcommunications are often mismatched. This can be very confusing, and itthreatens employees' perceptions of the company's integrity: They are told one thing by management but observe that a different message is being sent to the public.One health insurance company, for instance,advertised that the welfare of patients wasthe company's number one priority, whileemployees were told that theft main goal was to increase the value of theft stockoptions through cost reductions. And one major financial services institutiontold customers that it was making a major shift in focus from being a financialretailer to a financial adviser, but, a year later, research showed that thecustomer experience with the company had not changed. It turned out thatcompany leaders had not made an effort to sell the change internally, soemployees were still churning out transactions and hadn't changed theftbehavior to match theft new adviser role.
B. Enabling employees to deliver on customer expectations is important, of course, but it's not theonly reason a company needs to match internal andexternal messages. Another reason is to help push the company to achieve goals that might otherwise be out of reach. In 1997, when IBM launched its e-business campaign (which is widely credited for turningaround the company's image), it chose to ignore research that suggestedconsumers were unprepared to embrace IBM as a leader in e-business.Although to the outside world this looked like an external marketing effort, IBMwas also using the campaign to align employees around the idea of the Internetas the future of technology. The internal campaign changed the way employeesthought about everything they did, from how they named products to how theyorganized staff to how they approached selling. The campaign was successfullargely because it gave employees a sense of direction and purpose, which inturn restored theft confidence in IBM's ability to predict the future and lead thetechnology industry. Today, research shows that people are four times morelikely to associate the term "e-business" with IBM than with its nearestcompetitor, Microsoft.
C. The type of "two-way branding" that IBM did so successfully strengthens both sides of the equation. Internal marketing becomes stronger because it can drawon the same "big idea" as advertising. Consumer marketing becomes strongerbecause the messages are developed based on employees' behavior andattitudes, as well as on the company's strengths and capabilitiesindeed, thethemes are drawn from the company's very soul. This process can result in amore distinct advertising idea because marketers are more likely to create amessage that7s unique to the company.
D. Perhaps even more important, by taking employees into account, a company can avoid creating a message that doesn't resonate with staff or, worse, one thatbuilds resentment. In 1996, United Airlines shelved its "Come Fly the Friendly Skies" slogan when presented with a survey that revealed the depth of customerresentment toward the airline industry. Inan effort to own up to the industry'sshortcomings. United launched a newcampaign, "Rising," in which it sought todifferentiate itself by acknowledging poorservice and promising incrementalimprovements such as better meals. Whilethis was a logical premise for the campaign given the tenor of the times, acampaign focusing on customers' distaste for flying was deeply discouraging tothe staff. Employee resentment ultimately made it impossible for United todeliver the improvements it was promising, which in turn undermined the"Rising" pledge. Three years later. United decided employee opposition wasundermining its success and pulled the campaign. It has since moved to a moreinclusive brand message with the line "United," which both audiences canembrace. Here, a fundamental principle of advertisingfind and address acustomer concernfailed United because it did not consider the internalmarket.
E. When it comes to execution, the most common and effective way to link internal and external marketing campaigns is to create external advertising that targetsboth audiences. IBM used this tactic very effectively when it launched itse-business campaign. It took out an eight-page ad in the Wall Street Journaldeclaring its new vision, a message directed at both customers and internalstakeholders. This is an expensive way to capture attention, but if usedsparingly, it is the most powerful form of communication; in fact, you need do itonly once for everyone in the company to read it. There's a symbolic advantageas well. Such a tactic signals that the company is taking its pledge veryseriously; it also signals transparencythe same message going out to bothaudiences.
F. Advertising isn't the only way to link internal and external marketing. At Nike, a number of senior executives now hold the additional title of "CorporateStoryteller." They deliberately avoid stories of financial successes andconcentrate on parables of "just doing it," reflecting and reinforcing thecompany's ad campaigns. One tale, for example,recalls how legendary coach and Nike cofounder Bill Bowerman, in an effortto build a better shoe for his team, poured rubber into the family waffle iron, giving birth to theprototype of Nike's famous Waffle Sole. Bytalking about such inventive moves, thecompany hopes to keep the spirit of innovation that characterizes its adcampaigns alive and well within the company.
G. But while their messages must be aligned, companies must also keep external promises a little ahead of internal realities. Such promises provide incentives foremployees and give them something to live up to. In the 1980s, Ford turned"Quality is Job" from an internal rallying cry into a consumer slogan inresponse to the threat from cheaper, more reliable Japanese cars. It did so before the claim was fully justified, but by placing it in the public arena, it gave employees an incentive to match the Japanese. If thepromise is pushed too far ahead, however, it loses credibility. When abeleaguered British Rail launched a campaign announcing service improvementunder the banner "We're Getting There," it did so prematurely. By drawingattention to the gap between the promise and the reality, it prompteddestructive press coverage. This, in turn, demoralized staff, who had beenlegitimately proud of the service advances they had made.
Questions 28-34
Use the information in the passage to match the company (listed A-F) with correct category or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 28-33 on youranswer sheet.
NB: you may use any letter more than once
A. legendary anecdote inspire employee successfully
B. advertisement campaign inspire employees and ensure leading role in business
C.improper ads campaign brings negative effect
D. internal and external announcement are different
E. campaign brings positive and realistic expectation internally
F. a bad slogan that failed both to win support internally and raise standard toits poor service
Questions 35-38

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 35-38 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 35. Employers in almost all companies successfully make their employees fully understand the outside campaign.
36. Currently IBM is more prominent in the area of E-business
37. United Airline finally gave up an ads slogan due to a survey in 1996.
38. Nike had improved company performance through telling employees legendarycorporation stories.
Questions 39-40
ChooseTwo correct letters below
Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.
Please chooseTWOapproaches in the passage mentioned that were employed as company strategy:
promoting the visual effect of their products advertisement
launching inspiring campaigns internally
introducing inner competition
learning how to tell stories among senior executives
applying an appropriate slogan
Reading Test 6
Section 1
OTTER
A. Otters have long, thin bodies and short legs - ideal for pushing through dense undergrowth or hunting in tunnels. An adult male may be up to 4 feet long and 301bs. Females are smaller typically. The Eurasian otter's nose is about the smallest among the otter species and has a characteristic shape described as a shallow 'W. An otter's tail (or rudder, or stem) is stout at the base and tapers towards the tip where it flattens. This forms part of the propulsion unit when swimmingfast under water. Otter fur consists of two types of hair: stout guard hairs which form a waterproof outer covering, and under-fur which is dense and fine, equivalent to an otter's thermal underwear. The fur must be kept in goodcondition by grooming. Sea water reduces thewaterproofing and insulating qualities of otter fur when salt water in the fin. This iswhy freshwater pools are important to otters living on the coast. After swimming,they wash the salts off in the pools and then squirm on the ground to rub dry againstvegetation.
B. Scent is used for hunting on land, for communication and for detecting danger, otterine sense of smell is likely to be similar in sensitivity to dogs. Otters havesmall eyes and are probably short-sighted on land. But they do have the ability tomodify the shape of the lens in the eye to make it more spherical, and henceovercome the refraction of water. In clear water and good light, otters can hunt fishby sight. The otter's eyes and nostrils are placed high on its head sothat it can seeand breathe even when the rest of the body is submerged. Underwater, the otterholds its legs against the body, except for steering, and the hind end of the body isflexed in a series of vertical undulations. River otters have webbing which extendsfor much of the length of each digit, though not to the very end. Giant otters and seaotters have even more prominent webs, while the Asian short-clawed otter has nowebbing - they hunt for shrimps in ditches and paddy fields so they don't need theswimmingspeed. Otter ears are tiny for streamlining, but they still have verysensitive hearing and are protected by valves which close them against waterpressure.
C. A number of constraints and preferences limit suitable habitats for otters. Water is a must and the rivers must be large enough to support a healthy population of fish.Being such shy and wary creatures, they will prefer territories where man's activitiesdo not impinge greatly. Of course, there must also be no other otter already inresidence - this has only become significant again recently as populations start torecover. Coastal otters have a much more abundant food supply and ranges formales and females may be just a few kilometres ofcoastline. Because male ranges are usually larger a maleotter may find his range overlaps with two or threefemales - not bad! Otters will eat anything that they canget hold of - there are records of sparrows and snakes andslugs being gobbled. Apart from fish the most common prey are crayfish, crabs and water birds. Small mammals are occasionally taken, most commonly rabbits but sometimes even moles.
D. Eurasian otters will breed any time where food is readily available. In places where condition is more severe, Sweden for example where the lakes are frozenfor much of winter, cubs are born inspring. This ensures that they are wellgrown before severe weather returns.In the Shetlands, cubs are born insummer when fish is more abundant.Though otters can breed every year, some do not. Again, this depends on foodavailability. Other factors such as food range and quality of the female may have aneffect. Gestation for Eurasian otter is 63 days, with the exception of Lutracanadensis whose embryos may undergo delayed implantation. Ottersnormally give birth in more secure dens to avoid disturbances. Nests are lined withbedding to keep the cubs warm while mummy is away feeding.
E. Otters normally give birth in more secure dens to avoid disturbances. Nests are lined with bedding (reeds, waterside plants, grass) to keep the cubs warmwhile is awayfeeding. Litter Size varies between 1 and 5. For someunknown reason, coastal otterstend to produce smaller litters. At five weeks they open their eyes - a tiny cub of700g. At seven weeks they're weaned onto solid food. At ten weeks they leave thenest, blinking into daylight for the first time. After three months they finally meetthe water and learn to swim. After eight months they are hunting, though the motherstill provides a lot of food herself. Finally, after nine months she can chase them all away with a clear conscience, and relax - until the next fella shows up.
F. The plight of the British otter was recognised in the early 60s, but it wasn't until the late 70s that the chief cause was discovered. Pesticides,such as dieldrin and aldrin, were first used in 1955 in agriculture andother industries - these chemicals are very persistent and had already beenrecognised as the cause of huge declines in the population of peregrine falcons,sparrow hawks and other predators. The pesticides entered the river systems and thefood chain - micro-organisms, fish and finally otters, with every step increasing theconcentration of the chemicals. From 1962 the chemicals were phased out, but whilesome species recovered quickly, otter numbers did not - and continued to fall intothe 80s. This was probably due mainly to habitat destruction and road deaths. Actingon populations fragmented by the sudden decimation in the 50s and 60s, the loss ofjust a handful of otters in one area can make an entire population unviable and spellthe end.
G. Otter numbers are recovering all around Britain - populations are growing again in the few areas where they had remained and have expanded from those areas into therest of the country. This is almost entirely due to legislation, conservation efforts,slowing down and reversing the destruction of suitable otter habitat andreintroductions from captive breeding programs. Releasing captive-bred otters isseen by many as a last resort. The argument runs that where there is no suitablehabitat for them they will not survive after release and where there is suitablehabitat, natural populations should be able to expand into the area. However,reintroducing animals into a fragmented and fragile population may add just enoughimpetus for it to stabalise and expand, rather thandie out. This is what the OtterTrust accomplished in Norfolk, where the otter population may have been as low astwenty animals at the beginningof the 1980s. The Otter Trust has now finished itscaptive breeding program entirely, great news because it means it is no longerneeded.
Questions 1-9
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-G,in boxes1-9on your answer sheet.
NB: You may use any letter more than once.
1 A description of how otters regulate vision underwater
2 The fit-for-purpose characteristics of otters bodyshape
3 A reference to an underdeveloped sense
4 An explanation of why agriculture failed in otter conservation efforts
5 A description of some of the otters social characteristics
6 A description of how baby otters grow
7 The conflicted opinions on how to preserve
8 A reference to legislative act
9 An explanation of how otters compensate for heat loss
Questions 10-13
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer
10. What affects the outer fur of otters?
11. What skill is not necessary for Asian short-clawed otters?
12. Which type of otters has the shortest range?
13. Which type of animals do otters hunt occasionally?

Section 2
BIRD MIGRATION 2
A. Birds have many unique design features that enable them to perform such amazing feats of endurance. They are equipped with lightweight, hollow bones, intricately designed feathers providing both lift and thrust for rapid flight, navigation systems superior to any that man has developed, and an ingenious heat conserving design that, among other things, concentrates all blood circulation beneath layers of warm, waterproof plumage, leaving them fit to face life in the harshest of climates. Theft respiratory systems have to perform efficiently during sustainedflights at altitude, so they have a systemof extracting oxygen from their lungs that for exceeds that of any other animal.During the later stages of the summerbreeding season, when food is plentiful,their bodies are able to accumulateconsiderable layers of fat, in order to provide sufficient energy for theft longmigratory flights.
B. The fundamental reason that birds migrate is to find adequate food during the winter months when it is in short supply. This particularly applies to birds thatbreed in the temperate and Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, wherefood is abundant during the short growing season. Many species can tolerate coldtemperatures if food is plentiful, but when food is not available they must migrate.However, intriguing questions remain.
C. One puzzling fact is that many birds journey much further than would be necessary just to find food and good weather. Nobody knows, for instance, whyBritish swallows, which could presumably survive equally well if they spent thewinter in equatorial Africa, instead fly several thousands of miles further to theftpreferred winter home in South Africa Cape Province. Another mystery involvesthe huge migrations performed by arctic terns and mudflat-feeding shorebirds thatbreed close to Polar Regions. In general, the further north a migrant species breeds, the further south it spends the winter. For arctic terns this necessitates an annual round trip of 25,000 miles. Yet, en route to then final destination infar-flung southern latitudes, all these individuals overfly other areas of seeminglysuitable habitat spanning two hemispheres. While we may not fully understandbirds reasons for going to particular places, we can marvel at then feats.
D. One of the greatest mysteries is how youngbirds know how tofindthetraditional wintering areas without parental guidance. Veryfew adults migrate withjuveniles in tow, andyoungsters may evenhave little or noinklingof then parentsappearance. Afamiliarexample Is that of the cuckoo, which lays its eggs in another species' nest andnever encounters its young again. It is mind boggling to consider that, once raisedby its host species, the young cuckoo makes it own way to ancestral winteringgrounds in the tropics before returning single-handedly to northern Europe thenext season to seek out a mate among its ownkind.The obvious implication isthat it inherits from its parents an inbuilt route mạp and direction-findingcapability, as well as a mental image of what another cuckoo looks like. Yetnobody has the slightest idea as to how this is possible.
E. Mounting evidence has confirmed that birds use the positions of the sun and stars to obtain compass directions. They seem also to be able to detect the earthsmagnetic field, probably due to having minute crystals of magnetite in the regionof then brains. However, true navigation also requires an awareness of positionand time, especially when lost. Experiments have shown that after being takenthousands of miles over anunfamiliarland-mass, birds are still capable ofreturning rapidly to nest sites. Such phenomenal powers are the product ofcomputing a number of sophisticated cues, including an inborn map of the nightsky and the pull of the earths magnetic field. How the buds use theninstruments remains unknown, but one thing is clear: they see the world with asuperior sensory perception to ours. Most small birds migrate at night and takethen direction from the position of the setting sun. However, as well as seeing thesun go down, they also seem to see the plane of polarized light caused by it,which calibrates then compass. Traveling at night provides other benefits.Daytime predators are avoided and the danger of dehydration due to flying forlong periods in warm, sunlit skies is reduced. Furthermore, at night the air isgenerally cool and less turbulent and so conducive to sustained, stable flight.
F. Nevertheless, all journeys involve considerable risk, and part of the skill in arriving safely is setting off at the right time. This means accurate weather forecasting, and utilizing favorable winds. Birds are adept at both, and, in laboratory tests, some have been shown to detect the minute difference in barometric pressure between the floor and ceiling of a room. Often birds react to weather changes before there is any visible sign of them. Lapwings, which feed on grassland, flee west from the Netherlands to the British Isles, France and Spain at the onset of a cold snap. When the ground surface freezes the birds could starve. Yet they return to Holland ahead of a thaw, their arrival linked to a pressure change presaging an improvement in the weather.
G. In one instance a Welsh Manx shearwater carried to America and released was back in its burrow on Skokholm Island, off the Pembrokeshire coast, one day before a letter announcingits release! Conversely, each autumn a small number of North Americanbirds are blown across the Atlantic by fast-moving westerly tail winds.Not only do they arrive safely in Europe, but, based on ringing evidence,some make it back to North America the following spring, after probablyspending the winter with European migrants in sunny African climes.
Questions 14-20
Reading passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of headings
i The best moment to migrate
ii The unexplained rejection of closer feeding ground
iii The influence of weather on the migration route
iv Physical characteristics that allow birds to migrateVThe main reason why birds migrate
vi The best wintering grounds for birds
vii Research findings on how birds migrate
viii Successful migration despite trouble of wind
ix Contrast between long-distance migration and short-distance migration
x Mysterious migration despite lack of teaching
------------------------ 14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16 Paragraph c
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E

19 Paragraph F

20 Paragraph G
Questions 21-22
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 21 and 22 on your answer sheet. Which TWO of the following statements are true of bird migration?
A. Birds often fly further than they need to.
B. Birds traveling in family groups are safe,cBirds flying at night need less water.
D. Birds have much sharper eye-sight than humans,
E. Only share birds are resistant to strong winds.
Question 23-26
Complete the sentences below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage. Write your answers in boxes 25-26 on your answer sheet
23 It is a great mystery that young birds like cuckoos can find their wintering grounds without
24 Evidence shows birds can tell directions nice a byobservingthesun and theaters.
25 Oneadvantage for birds flying at night is that they can avoid contact with.
26 Laboratory tests show that birds can detect weather without..signs.
Section 3
Talc Powder
A. Peter Brigg discovers how talc from Luzenacs Trimouns in France find its way into food and agricultural products -from chewing gum to olive oil. High in the FrenchPyrenees, some 1,700m above see level, lies Trimouns, ahuge deposit of hydrated magnesium silicate - talc to youand me. Talc from Trimouns, and from ten other Luzenacmines across the globe, is used in the manufacture of a vast array of everydayproducts extending from paper, paint and plaster to cosmetics, plastics and cartyres. And of course there is always talcs best known end use: talcum powder forbabies bottoms. But the true versatility of this remarkable mineral is nowherebetter displayed than in its sometimes surprising use in certain niche markets inthe food and agriculture industries.
B. Take, for example, the chewing gum business. Every year. Talc de Luzenac France - which owns and operates the Trimouns mine and is a member of theinternational Luzenac Group (art of Rio Tinto minerals) - supplies about 6,000tones of talc to chewing gum manufacturers in Europe. Weve been selling to thissector of the market since the 1960s, says Laurent Fournier, sales manager inLuzenacs Specialties business unit in Toulouse. Admittedly, in terms of our totalannual sales of talc, the amount we supply to chewing gum manufacturers isrelatively small, but we see it as a valuable niche market: one where customersplace a premium on securing supplies from a reliable, high quality source.Because of this, long term allegiance to a proven suppler isvery much a feature of this sector of the talc market. Switching sources - in the way that you might choose to buy, say, paperclips from Supplier A rather than fromSupplier B - is not a easy option for chewing gummanufacturers, Fournier says. The cost of reformulating ishigh, so when customers are using a talc grade that works,even if its expensive, they are understandably reluctant toswitch.
C. But how is talc actually used in the manufacture of chewing gum? Patrick Delord, an engineer with a degree in agronomics, who has been with Luzenac for 22 years and is now seniormarket development manager. Agriculture andFood, in Europe, explains that chewing gums hasfour main components. The most important of them is the gum base, he says. Its the gum base that puts the chew into chewing gum. It binds all the ingredients together, creating a soft, smooth texture. To thisthe manufacturer then adds sweeteners, softeners and flavourings. Our talc is usedas a filler in the gum base. The amount varies between, say, ten and 35 per cent,depending on the type of gum. Fruit flavoured chewing gum, for example, isslightly acidic and would react with the calcium carbonate that the manufacturermight otherwise use as a filler. Talc, on the other hand, makes an ideal fillerbecause its non-reactive chemically. In the factory, talc is also used to dust thegum base pellets and to stop the chewing gum sticking during the lamination andpacking process, Delord adds.
D. The chewing gum business is, however, just one example of talcs use in the food sector. For the past 20 years or so, olive oil processors in Spain have been takingadvantage of talcs unique characteristics to help them boost the amount of oilthey extract from crushed olives. According to Patrick Delord, talc is especiallyuseful for treating what he calls difficult olives. After the olives are harvested -preferably early in the morning because their taste is better if they are gathered inthe cool of the day - they are taken to the processing plant. There they are crushedand then stirred for 30-45 minutes. In the old days, the resulting paste was passedthrough an olive press but nowadays its more common to add water andthe mixture to separate the water and oil from the solidmatter. The oil and water are then allowed to settle so that the olive oil layer canbe decanted off ( and bottled. Difficult olives are those that are more reluctant than the norm to yield up their full oil content. This may be attributable to the particular species of olive, or to its water content and the time of year theolives are collected - at the beginning and the end of the season their watercontent is often either too high or too low. These olives are easy to recognizebecause they produce a lot of extra foam during the stirring process, aconsequence of an excess of a fine solid that acts as a natural emulsifier. The oil inthis emulsion is lost when the water is disposed of. Not only that, if the waste water is disposed of directly into local fields - often the case in many smaller processing operations - theemulsified oil may take some time to biodegradeand so be harmful to the environment.
I. If you add between a half and two per cent of talc by weight during the stirring process, it absorbs the natural emulsifierintheolivesand so boosts the amount of oil you can extract, says Delord. In addition, talcs flat, platey structure helps increase the size of the oil dropletsliberatedduringstirring, which again improves the yield. However, because talc is chemically inert, it doesnt affect the colour, taste, appearance or composition of the resulting oliveoil.
F. If the use of talc in olive oil processing and in chewing gum is long established, new applications in the food and agriculture industries are also constantly beingsought by Luzenac. One such promising new market is fruit crop protection, beingpioneered in the US. Just like people, fruit can get sunburned. In fact, in verysunny regions up to 45 per cent of a typical crop can be affected by heat stress andsunburn. However, in the case of fruit, its not so much the ultra violet rays whichharm the crop as the high surface temperature that the suns rays create.
G. To combat this, farmers normally use either chemicals or spray a continuous fine canopy ofmistabove the fruit trees or bushes. The trouble is, this uses a lot of water - normally a precious commodity in hot, sunny areas - and it is therefore expensive. Whats more, the ground can quickly become waterlogged. So our idea was to coat the fruit with talc to protect it from the sun,says Greg Hunter, a marketing specialist who has been with Luzenac for ten years.But to do this, several technical challenges had first to be overcome. Talc is veryhydrophobic: it doesnt like water. So in order to have a viable product we neededa wettable powder - something that would go readily intosuspension so that it could be sprayed onto the fruit. It also hadto break the surface tension of the cutin (the natural waxy,waterproof layer on the fruit) and of course it had to wash offeasily when the fruit was harvested. No-ones going to want anapple thats covered in talc.
H. Initial trials in the state of Washington in 2003 showed that when the product was sprayed onto Granny Smith apples, it reduced their surface temperature andlowered the incidence of sunburn by up to 60 per cent. Today the new product,known as Invelop Maximum SPF, is in its second commercial year on the USmarket. Apple growers are the primary target although Hunter believes grapegrowers represent another sector with long term potential. He is also hopeful ofextending sales to overseas markets such as Australia, South America andsouthern Europe.
Questions 27-32

Use the information in the passage to match each use of talc power with correct application from A,Borc.Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes27-32on youranswer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A. Fruit protection
B. Chewing gum business
C.Olive oil extraction
-------------------------
27 Talc is used to increase the size of drops.
28 Talc is applied to reduce foaming.
29 Talc is employed as a filler of base.
30 Talc is modified and prevented sunburn.
31 Talc is added to stop stickiness.
32 Talc is used to increase production.
Questions 33-38
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 33-38 on your answer sheet.
Spanish olive oil industry has been using talc in oil extraction process for about____33____years. It is useful in dealing with difficult olives which often produce high amount of______34______because of the high content of solid materials. When smaller factories release ______35_____,it could be_____36_____ to the environment because it is hard to _____37_____ and usually takes time as it contains emulsified oil. However, talc power added in the process is able to absorb the emulsifier oil. It improves the oilextraction production, because with aid of talc powder, size of oil _____38_______ increased.

Question 39-40

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes39-40on your answer sheet.
39 In which process is talc used to clear the stickiness of chewing gum?
40 Which group of farmers does Invelop intend to target in a long view?

Reading Test 7
Section 1
The Dinosaurs Footprints and Extinction
A. EVERYBODYknows that the dinosaurs were killed by an asteroid. Something big hit the earth 65 million years ago and, when the dust had fallen, so had the greatreptiles. There is thus a nice, if ironic,symmetry in the idea that a similar impactbrought about the dinosaurs' rise. That isthe thesis proposed by Paul Olsen, ofColumbia University, and his colleagues inthis week's Science.
B. Dinosaurs first appear in the fossil record 230m years ago, dining the Triassic period. But they were mostly small, and theyshared the earth with lots of other sorts of reptile. Itwas in the subsequent Jurassic, which began202million years ago, that they overran the planet and turned into the monsters depicted in the book and movieJurassic Park.(Actually, though, the dinosaurs that appeared on screen were from the still morerecent Cretaceous period.) Dr Olsen and his colleagues are not thefirst to suggest that the dinosaurs inherited the earth as the result of an asteroidstrike. But they are the first to show that the takeover did, indeed, happen in ageological eyeblink.
C. Dinosaur skeletons are rare. Dinosaur footprints are, however, surprisingly abundant. And the sizes of the prints are as good an indication of the sizes of thebeasts as are the skeletons themselves. Dr Olsen and his colleagues thereforeconcentrated on prints, not bones.
D. The prints in question were made in eastern North America, a part of the world then full of rift valleys similar to those in East Africa today. Like the modem African rift valleys, the Triassic /JurassicAmericanonescontained lakes, and these lakes grew and shrank at regular intervals because of climatic changes caused by periodic shifts in the earth's orbit. (A similar phenomenon isresponsible for modem ice ages.) That regularity, combined with reversals in theearth's magnetic field, which are detectable in the tiny fields of certain magneticminerals, means that rocks from this place and period can be dated to within afew thousand years. As a bonus, squish lake-edge sedimentsare just the things for recording the tracks of passing animals. By dividing thelabour between themselves, the ten authors of the paper were able to study suchtracks at 80 sites.
E. The researchers looked at 18 so-called ichnotaxa. These are recognisable types of footprint that cannot be matched precisely with the species of animal thatleft them. But they can be matched with a general sort of animal, and thus act asan indicator of the fate of that group, even when there are no bones to tell thestory. Five of the ichnotaxa disappear before the end of the Triassic, and fourmarch confidently across the boundary into the Jurassic. Six, however, vanish atthe boundary, or only just splutter across it; and three appear from nowhere,almost as soon as the Jurassic begins.
F. That boundary itself is suggestive. The first geological indication of the impact that killed the dinosaurs was an unusually high level of iridium in rocks at the endof the Cretaceous, when the beasts disappear from the fossil record. Iridium isnormally rare at the earth's surface, but it is more abundant in meteorites. Whenpeople began to believe the impact theory, they started looking for otherCretaceous-end anomalies. One that turned up was a surprising abundance of fernspores in rocks just above the boundary layera phenomenon known as a fernspike
G. That matched the theory nicely. Many modem ferns are opportunists. They cannot compete against plants with leaves, but if a piece of land is cleared by, say,a volcanic emption, they are often the first things to set up shop there. An asteroidstrike would have scoured much of the earth of its vegetable cover, and provideda paradise for ferns. A fem spike in the rocks is thus a good indication thatsouthing terrible has happened.
H. Both an iridium anomaly and a fem spike appear in rocks at the end of the Triassic, too. Thataccounts for the disappearing ichnotaxa: the creaturesthat made them did not survive the holocaust. Thesurprise is how rapidly the new ichnotaxa appear.
I. Dr Olsen and his colleagues suggest that the explanation for this rapid increase in size may be a phenomenon called ecological release. This is seen today whenreptiles (which, in modem times, tend to be small creatures) reach islands wherethey face no competitors. The most spectacular example is on the Indonesianisland of Komodo, where local lizards have grown so large that they are oftenreferred to as dragons. The dinosaurs, in other words, could flourish only whenthe competition had been knocked out.
J. That leaves the question of where the impact happened. No large hole in the earth's crust seems to be 202m years old. It may, of course, have been overlooked.Old craters are eroded and buried, and not always easy to find. Alternatively, itmay have vanished. Although continental crust is more or less permanent, theocean floor is constantly recycled by the tectonic processes that bring aboutcontinental drift. There is no ocean floor left that is more than 200m years old, soa crater that formed in the ocean would have been swallowed up by now.
K. There is a third possibility, however. This is that the crater is known, but has been misdated. TheManicouagan structure, a crater in Quebec, isthought to be 214m years old. It is hugesome100km acrossand seems to be the largest ofbetween three and five craters that formed within afew hours of each other as the lumps of adisintegrated comet hit the earth one by one.
Questions 1-6
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the information NO if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 1 Dr Paul Olsen and his colleagues believe that asteroid knock may also lead todinosaurs boom.
2 Books and movie likeJurassic Parkoften exaggerate the size of the dinosaurs.
3 Dinosaur footprints are more adequate than dinosaur skeletons.
4 The prints were chosen by Dr Olsen to study because they are more detectablethan earth magnetic field to track a date of geological precise within thousandsyears.
5 Ichnotaxa showed that footprints of dinosaurs offer exact information of the traceleft by an individual species.
6 We can find more Iridium in the earths surface than in meteorites.
Questions 7-13

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.
Dr Olsen and his colleagues applied a phenomenon named......7........to explain the large size of the Eubrontes, which is a similar case to that nowadays reptiles invade a place where there are no......8......; for example, on an island called Komodo, indigenous huge lizards grow so big that people even regarding them as......9....... However, there were no old impact trace being found? The answer may be that we have ......10...... the evidence. Old craters are difficult to spot or it probably......11.......due to the effect of the earth moving. Even a crater formed in Ocean had been ......12...... under the impact of crust movement. Beside the third hypothesis is that the potential evidences some craters may be ......13.......
Section 2
WHATCOOKBOOKS REALLY TEACH US
A. Shelves bend under their weight of cookery books. Even a medium-sized bookshop contains many more recipes than oneperson could hope to cook m a lifetime. Although the recipes in one book are often similarto those in another, theirpresentation varies wildly, from an arrayof vegetarian cookbooks to instructionson cooking the food that historicalfigures might have eaten. The reason forthis abundance is that cookbookspromise to bring about a land of domestic transformation for the user. The dailyroutine can be put to one side and they liberate the user, if only temporarily. To follow their instructions is to turn a task which has to be performed every day into an engaging,romantic process. Cookbooks also provide anopportunity to delve into distant cultures withouthaving to turn up at an airport to get there.
B. The first Western cookbook appeared just over 1,600 years ago. De re coquinara (it means concerning cookery1) is attributed to a Roman gourmet named Apicius. It isprobably a complilation of Roman and Greek recipes, some or all of them drawnfrom manuscripts that were later lost. The editor was sloppy, allowing severalduplicated recipes to sneak in. Yet Apiciuss book set die tone of cookery advice inEurope for more than a thousand years. As a cookbook it is unsatisfactory with verybasic instructions. Joseph Vehling, a chef who translated Apicius in the 1930s,suggested the author had beat obscure on purpose, in case his secrets leaked out.
C. But a more likely reason is that Apiciuss recipes were written by and for professional cooks, who could follow their shorthand. This situation continued forhundreds of years. There was no order to cookbooks: a cake recipe might be followed by a mutton one. But then, they were not written for careful study. Before the 19th century few educated people cooked for themselves.
D. The wealthiest employed literate chefs; others presumably read recipes to their servants. Such cooks would have been capable of creating dishes from the vaguestof instructions. The invention of printing might have been expected to lead togreater clarity but at first the reverse was true. As words acquired commercial value,plagiarism exploded Recipes were distorted through reproduction A recipe forboiled capon in The Good Huswives Jewell, printed in 1596t advised the cook toadd three or four dates. By 1653, when the recipe was given by a different author inA Book of Fruits & Flowers, the cook was told to set the dish asideforthree orfourdays.
E. The dominant theme in 16th and 17th century cookbooks was order. Books combined recipes and household advice, on the assumption that a well-made dish, awell-ordered larder and well- disciplined children were equally important.Cookbooks thus became a symbol of dependability in chaotic times. They hardlyseem to have been affected by the English civil war or the revolutions in Americaand France.
F. In the 1850s Isabella Beeton published The Book of Household Management. Like earlier cookery writers she plagiarised freely, lifting not just recipes butphilosophical observations from other hooks. If Beetons recipes wore not whollynew, though, the way in which she presented them certainly was. She explains when the chief ingredients are most likely to be in season, how long the dish will take to prepare and even how much it is likely to cost. Beetons recipes were well suited to her times. Two centuries earlier, an understanding of rural ways had been so widespread that one writer could advise cooks to heat water until it was a little hotter than milk comes from a cow. By the 1850b Britain was industrialising. The growing urban midrib class needed details, and Beeton provided them in full.
G. In France, cookbooks were last becoming even more systematic. Compared with Britain, France had produced few books written for the ordinary householder by theend of the 19th century. The most celebrated Frenchcookbooks were written by superstar chefs who had aclear sense of codifying a unified approach tosophisticated French cooking. The 5,000 recipes inAuguste Escoffiers Le Guide Culinaire (The CulinaryGuide), published in 1902, might as well have beenwritten in stone, given the book's reputation amongFrench chefs, many of whom still consider it the definitive reference book.
H. What Escoffier did for French cooking, Fannie Farmer did for American home cooking. She not only synthesised American cuisine; she elevated it to the status ofscience. Progress in civilisation has been accompanied by progress in cookery, shebreezily announced in The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, before launchinginto a collection of recipes that sometimes resembles a book of chemistryexperiments. She was occasionally over-fussy. She explained that currants should bepicked between June 28th and July 3rd, but not when it is raining. But in the mainher book is reassuringly authoritative. Its recipes are short, with no unnecessary chatand no unnecessary spices.
I. In 1950 Mediterranean Food by Elizabeth David launched a revolution in cooking advice in Britain. In some ways Mediterranean Food recalled even older cookbooksbut the smells and noises that filled Davids books were not mere decoration for herrecipes. They were the point of her books. When she began to write, manyingredients were not widely available or affordable. She understood this,acknowledging in a later edition of one of her books that even if people could notvery often make the dishes here described, it was stimulating to think about them.Davids books were not so much cooking manuals as guides to the kind of foodpeople might well wish to eat.
Questions 14-16
Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS firm the passage for each answer. Write your answers inboxes 14-16 on your answer sheet.
Why are there so many cookery books?
There are a great number more cookery books published than is really necessary and it is their 14 .............which makes them differ from each other. There are such large numbers because they offer people an escape from their 15 ........and some give the user the chance to inform themselves about other 16 ........
Questions 17-21
Reading Passage has nine paragraphs, A-I Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-I in boxes 17-21 on your answer sheet
NB: you may use any letter more than once.
17 cookery books providing a sense of stability during periods of unrest
18 details in recipes being altered as they were passed on
19 knowledge which was in danger of disappearing
20 the negative effect on cookery books of a new development
21 a period when there was no need for cookery books to be precise
Questions 22-26
Look at the following statements (Questions 22-26) and list of books (A-E) below. Match each statement with the correct book. Write the correct letter, A-E, m boxes22-26 on your answer sheet
22Its recipes were easy to follow despite the writers attention to detail.
23 Its writer may have deliberately avoided pawing on details.
24 It appealed to ambitious ideas people have about cooking.
25 Its writer used ideas from other books but added additional related information.
26 It put into print ideas which are still respected today.
List of cookery books
A De re coquinara
B The Book of Household Management
C Le Guide Culinaire
D The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book
E Mediterranean Food
Section 3
Learning lessons from the past
A. Many past societies collapsed or vanished, leaving behindmonumental ruins such as thosethat the poet Shelley imagined inhis sonnet,Ozymandias.Bycollapse, I mean a drasticdecrease in human populationsizeand/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time. By those standards, most people would consider the following past societies to have been famousvictims of full-fledged collapses rather than of just minor declines: the Anasaziand Cahokia within the boundaries of the modem US, the Maya cities in CentralAmerica, Moche and Tiwanaku societies in South America, Norse Greenland,Mycenean Greece and Minoan Crete in Europe, Great Zimbabwe in Africa,Angkor Wat and the Harappan Indus Valley cities in Asia, and Easter Island in thePacific Ocean.
B. The monumental ruins left behind by those past societies hold a fascination for all of us. We marvel at them when as children we first learn of them through pictures.When we grow up, many ofUSplan vacations in order to experience them at firsthand. We feel drawn to their often spectacular and haunting beauty, and also tothe mysteries that they pose. The scales of the ruins testify to the former wealthand power of their builders. Yet these builders vanished, abandoning the greatstructures that they had created at such effort. How could a society that was onceso mighty end up collapsing?
C. It has long been suspected that many of those mysterious abandonments were at least partly triggered by ecological problems: people inadvertently destroying theenvironmental resources on which their societies depended. This suspicion ofunintended ecological suicide (ecocide) has been confirmed by discoveries madein recent decades by archaeologists, climatologists, historians, paleontologists,and palynologists (pollen scientists). The processes through which past societieshave undermined themselves by damaging theirenvironments fall into eight categories, whose relativeimportance differs from case to case: deforestation and habitat destruction, soil problems, water management problems, overhunting, overfishing, effects of introduced species on native species, human populationgrowth, and increased impact of people.
D. Those past collapses tended to follow somewhat similar courses constituting variations on a theme. Writers find it tempting to draw analogies between thecourse of human societies and the course of individual human lives - to talk of asocietys birth, growth, peak, old age and eventual death. But that metaphorproves erroneous for many past societies: they declined rapidly after reachingpeak numbers and power, and those rapid declines must have come as a surpriseand shock to their citizens. Obviously, too, this trajectory is not one that all pastsocieties followed unvaryingly to completion: different societies collapsed todifferent degrees and in somewhat different ways, while many societies did notcollapse at all.
E. Today many people feel that environmental problems overshadow all the other threats to global civilisation. These environmental problems include the sameeight that undermined past societies, plus four new ones: human-caused climatechange, build up of toxic chemicals in the environment, energy shortages, and fullhuman utilisation of the Earths photosynthetic capacity. But the seriousness ofthese current environmental problems is vigorously debated. Are the risks greatlyexaggerated, or conversely are they underestimated? Will modem technologysolve our problems, or is it creating new problems faster than it solves old ones?When we deplete one resource (eg wood, oil, or ocean fish), can we count onbeing able to substitute some new resource (eg plastics, wind and solar energy, orfarmed fish)? Isnt the rate of human population growth declining, such that we\realready on course for the worlds population to level off at some manageablenumber of people?
F. Questions like this illustrate why those famous collapses of past civilisations have taken on more meaning than just that of a romantic mystery. Perhaps there aresome practical lessons that we could learn from all those past collapses. But thereare also differences between the modem world and its problems, and those pastsocieties and their problems. We shouldnt be so naive as to think that study ofthe past will yield simple solutions, directly transferable to our societies today. We differ from past societies in some respects that putUSat lower risk than them; some of those respects often mentioned include our powerful technology (ie itsbeneficial effects), globalisation, modem medicine, and greater knowledge of pastsocieties and of distant modem societies. We also differ from past societies insome respects that putUSat greater risk than them: again, our potent technology(ie its unintended destructive effects), globalisation (such that now a problem inone part of the world affects all the rest), the dependence of millions ofUSonmodem medicine for our survival, and our much larger human population.Perhaps we can still learn from the past, but only if we think carefully about itslessons.

Questions 27-29
Choose the correct letter. A, B, c or D.

27. When the writer describes the impact of monumental ruins today, he emphasises
A. the income they generate from tourism.
B. the area of land they occupy.
C.then archaeological value.
D. then romantic appeal.
28. Recent findings concerning vanished civilisations
A. have overturned long-held beliefs.
B. caused controversy amongst scientists.
C.come from a variety of disciplines.
D. identified one main cause of environmental damage.
29. What does the writer say about ways in which former societies collapsed?
A. The pace of decline was usually similar.
B. The likelihood of collapse would have been foreseeable.
C.Deterioration invariably led to total collapse.
D. Individual citizens could sometimes influence the course of events.
Questions 30-34
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage ? Write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
30 It is widely believed that environmental problems represent the main dangerfaced by the modern world.
31 The accumulation of poisonous substances is a relatively modern problem.
32 There is general agreement that the threats posed by environmentalproblems are very serious.
33 Some past societies resembled present-day societies more closely than others.
34 We should be careful when drawing comparisons between past and present.
Questions 35-39
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F.
35 Evidence of the greatness of some former civilisations
36 The parallel between an individuals life and the life of a society
37 The number of environmental problems that societies face
38 The power of technology
39 A consideration of historical events and trends
------------------
A. is not necessarily valid.
B. provides grounds for an optimistic outlook,
C.exists in the form of physical structures.
D. is potentially both positive and negative.
E. will not provide direct solution for present problems.
F. is greater now than in the past
Question 40

Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D
40. What is the main argument of Reading Passage 3?
A. There are differences as well as similarities between past and present societies.
B. More should be done to preserve the physical remains of earlier civilisations.
C.Some historical accounts of great civilisations are inaccurate.
D. Modem societies are dependent on each other for then continuing survival.
Reading Test 8
Section 1
Finches on Islands
A. Today, the quest continues. On Daphne Major one of the most desolate of the Galpagos Islands, an uninhabited volcanic cone where cactiand shrubs seldom grow higher than a researcher's knee Peter andRosemary Grant have spent more than three decades watching Darwin'sfinchesrespondtothe challenges of storms, drought and competition for food. Biologists at Princeton University, the Grants know and recognize many of the individual birds on the island and can tracethe birds lineages back through time. They have witnessed Darwin'sprinciple in action again and again, over many generations of finches.
B. The Grants' most dramatic insights have come from watching the evolving bill of the medium ground finch. The plumage of this sparrow-sized bird ranges from dull brown to jet black. At first glance, it may notseem particularly striking, but among scientistswho study evolutionary biology, the mediumground finch is a superstar. Its bill is a middlingexample in the array of shapes and sizes foundamong Galapagos finches: heftier than that of thesmall ground finch, which specializes in eatingsmall, soft seeds, but petite compared to that of the large ground finch, anexpert at cracking and devouring big, hard seeds.
C. When the Grants began their study in the 1970s, only two species of finch livedon Daphne Major, the medium groundfinch and the cactus finch. The island isso small that the researchers were ableto count and catalogue every bird. When a severe drought hit in 1977, the birds soon devoured the last of the small, easily eaten seeds. Smaller members of the medium ground finch population, lacking the bill strength to crack large seeds, died out.
D. Bill and body size are inherited traits, and the next generation had a high proportion of big-billed Individuals. The Grants had documented naturalselection at work the same process that over many millennia, directedthe evolution of the Galpagos' 14 unique finch species, all descendedfrom a common ancestor that readied the islands a few million years ago.
E. Eight years later, heavy rains brought by an El Nino transformed the normally meager vegetation on Daphne Maịor. vines and other plantsthat in most years struggle forsurvival suddenly flourished, choking out the plants that provide large seeds to the finches. Small seeds came to dominate the food supply, and big birds with bigbills died out at a higher rate thansmaller ones. 'Natural selection isobservable/ Rosemary Grant says. 'Ithappen when the environmentchanges. When local conditionsreverse themselves, so does the direction of adaptation.'
F. Recently, die Grants witnessed another form of natural selection acting on the medium ground finch: competition from bigger, stronger cousins. In 1982, a third finch, the large ground finch, came tolive on Daphne Major. The stout bills of these birds resemble the businessend of a crescent wrench. Their arrival was the first such colonizationrecorded on the Galapagos in nearly a century of scientific observation.'We realized,' Peter Grant says, 'we had a very unusual and potentiallyimportant event to follow/ For 20 years, the large ground finch coexistedwith the medium ground finch, which shared five supply of large seedswith its bigger-billed relative. Then, in 2002 and 2003, another droughtstruck. None of the birds nested that year, and many died out. Mediumground finches with large bills, crowded out of feeding areas by the morepowerful large ground finches, were hit particularly hard.
G. When wetter weather returned in 2004, and the finches nested again, the new generation of the medium ground finch was dominated by smallerbirds with smaller bills, able to survive on smaller seeds. This situation,says Peter Grant, marked the first time that biologists have been able tofollow the complete process of an evolutionary change due to competitionbetween, species and the strongest response to natural selection that hehad seen in 33 years of tracking Galapagos finches.
H. On the inhabited island of Santa Cruz, just south of Daphne Major, Andrew Hendry of McGill University and Jeffrey Podos of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst have discovered a new, man-made twist infinch evolution. Their study focused on birds living near the AcademyBay research station, on the fringe of the town of Puerto Ayora. Thehuman population of the area has been growing fastfrom 900 people in1974 to 9,582 In 2001. Today Puerto Ayorn is full of hotels and mai taibars,' Hendry says. 'People have taken tills extremely arid place and triedto turn it Into a Caribbean resort.
I. Academy Bay records dating back to the early 1960s show that medium ground finches captured there had either small or large bills. Very few of the birds had mid-size bills. The finches appeared to be Inthe early stages of a newadaptive radiation: If thetrend continued, the mediumground finch on Santa Cruzcould split Into two distinctsubspecies, specializing indifferent types of seeds. Butin the late 1960s and early70s, medium ground fincheswith medium-sized bills began to thrive at Academy Bay along with smalland large-billed birds. The booming human population had introducednew food sources, including exotic plants and bird feeding stationsstocked with rice. Billsize, once critical to the fishes' survival, no longermade any difference. 'Now an intermediate bill can do fine/ Hendry says.
J. At a control site distant from Puerto Ayora, and relatively untouched by humane, the medium ground finch population remains split betweenlarge- and small-billed birds. On undisturbed parts of Santa Cruz, there Isno ecological niche for a middling medium ground finch, and the birdscontinue to diversify. In town, though there are still many finches,once-distinct populations are merging.
K. The finches of Santa Cruz demonstrate a subtle process in which human meddling can stop evolution In Its tracks, outing the formation of newspecies. In a time when global biodiversity continues Its downhill slide,Darwin's finches have yet another unexpected lesson to teach. 'If we hopeto regain some of the diversity that's already been lost/ Hendry says, 'weneed to protect not just existing creatures, but also the processes thatdrive the origin of new species.'
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 1-13, which are based on reading passage 1 on the following pages.
Questions 1-4
Complete the table below.
Year Climate Finchs condition 1977 1............. small-beak birds failing to survive,   without the power to open 2............. 1985 3.......... brought big-beak birds dying out, with  by El Nino 4.........as the main food resource 
Questions 5-8
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 1 for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 1, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet
On the remote island of Santa Cruz, Andrew Hendry and Jeffrey Podos conducted a study on reversal 5.............due to human activity. In the early 1960s medium ground finches were found to have a larger or smaller beak. But in the late 1960b and early 70s, finches with 6.............flourished. The study speculates that it is due to the growing 7...............who broughtinalienplants with intermediate-size seeds into the area and the birds ate 8................. sometimes.
Questions 9-13
Do die following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 9 Grants discovery has questioned Darwins theory.
10 The cactus finches are less affected by food than the medium ground finch-
11 In 2002 and 2003, all the birds were affected by the drought,
12 The discovery of Andrew Hendry and Jeffrey Podos was the same as that of theprevious studies.
13 It is shown that the revolution in finches on Santa Cruz is likely a response tohuman intervention.

Section 2
Flight fromreality?
Mobiles are barred, but passenger can tap away on their laptopstotheir heart' content.Isone realty safer than theother? hi the US, a Congressional subcommittee frilled airline representatives and regulators about the issue test month. Butthe committee heard that using cellphones in planes mayindeed pose a risk, albeit a slight one. This would seem tovindicate the treatment of Manchester oil worker Neil Whitehouse, who was sentenced last summer to a year in jail by a British court for refusing to turnoff his mobile phone on a flight home from Madrid. Although he was only typing a message to besent on landing, not actually making a call, the court decided that he was putting the flight at risk.
A. The potential fin problems is certainly there. Modem airliners are packed withelectronic devices that control the plane and handle navigation andcommunications- Each has to meet stringent safeguards tomake sure it doesn'temit radiation that would interfere with other devices in the plane-standards thatpassengers personal electronic devices don't necessarily meet Emissions frominside the plane could also interfere with sensitive antennae on the fixed exterior.
B. But despite running a numbsof studies, Boeing, Airbus and various government agencies havent been able to find clear evidence of problems caused by personalelectronic devices, including mobile phones, "We've done our own studies. Wevefound cellphones actually have no impact on the navigation system," BaysMaryazme Greczyn, a spokeswoman for Airbus Industries of North America inHerndon, Virginia, Nor do they affect other critical systems, she says. The onlyimpact Airbus found? "Sometimes when a passenger is starting or finishing aphone call, the pilot hears a very slight beep in the headset," she says.
C. The best evidence yet of a problem comes from a report released this year by Britain's Civil Aviation Authority. Its researchers generated simulated cellphonetransmissions inside two Boeing aircraft They concluded that the transmissionscould create signals at a power and frequency that would not affect the latestequipment, but exceeded the safety threshold established in 1984 and mighttherefore affect some of the older equipment on board. This doesnt mean "missioncritical" equipment such as the navigation system and flight controls. But the devices that could be affected, such as smoke detectors and fuel level indicators, could still create serious problems for the flight crew if they malfunction.
D. Many planes still use equipment certified to the older standards, says Dan Hawkes,head of avionics at the CAAs SafetyRegulation Group. The CAA study doesn'tprove the equipment will actually fell when cellphone signals actually cause devices to fail.
E. In 1996, RTCA, a consultant hired by the Federal Aviation Administration in the US to conduct tests,determined that potential problems from personal electronic devices were 'low". Nevertheless, it recommended a ban on their use during "critical" periods of flight, such as take-off and landing. RTCA didn'tactually test cellphones, but nevertheless recommended then wholesale ban onflights. But if "better safe than sorry" is the current policy, it's appliedinconsistently, according to Marshall Cross, the chairman of MegaWaveCorporation, based in Boylston, Massachusetts. Why are cellphones outlawedwhen no one considers a ban on laptops? "It's like most things in life. The reason isa little bit technical, a little bit economic and a little bit political," says Cross.
F. The company wrote a report for the FAA in 1998 saying it is possible to build an on-board system that can detect dangerous signals from electronic devices. ButCross's personal conclusion is that mobile phones aren't the real threat "You'dhave to stretch things pretty far to figure out how a cellphone could interfere with aplane's systems," he says. Cellphones transmit in ranges of around 400, 800 or1800 megahertz. Since no important piece of aircraft equipment operates at thosefrequencies, the possibility of interference is very low. Cross says. The use ofcomputers and electronic game systems is much more worrying, he says. They cangenerate very strong signals at frequencies that could interfere with planeelectronics, especially ư a mouse is attached (the wire operates as an antenna or iftheir built-in shielding is somehow damaged. Some airlines are even planning toput sockets for laptops in seatbacks.
G. Theres fairly convincing anecdotal evidence that some personal electronic devices have interfered with systems. Air crew on one flight found that the autopilot wasbeing disconnected, and narrowed the problem down to a passengers portablecomputer. They could actually watch the autopilot disconnect when they switchedthe computer on. Boeing bought the computer, took it to the airline's labs and even tested it on an empty flight. But as with every other reported instance of interference, technicians were unable to replicate the problem.
H. Some engineers, however, such as Bruce Donham of Boeing, say that common sense suggests phones are more risky than laptops. "A device capable of producinga strong emission is not as safe as a device which does not have any intentionalemission," he says. Nevertheless, many experts think it's illogical that cellphonesare prohibited when computers aren't. Besides, the problem is more complicatedthan simply looking at power and frequency. In the air, the plane operates in a soupof electronic emissions, created by its own electronics and by ground-basedradiation. Electronic devices in the cabin-especially those emitting a strongsignal-can behave unpredictably, reinforcing other signals, for instance, or creatingunforeseen harmonics that disrupt systems.
I. Despite the Congressional subcommittee hearings last month, no one seems to be working seriously on a technical solution that would allow passengers to use theirphones. That's mostly because no one -besides cellphone users themselves-standsto gain a lot if the phones are allowed in the air. Even the cellphone companiesdon't want it. They are concerned that airborne signals couldcause problems by flooding a number of the networks' basestations at once with the same signal This effect, calledbig footing, happens because airborne cellphone signalstendto go to many base stations at once, unlike land calls whichusually go to just one or two stations. In the US, even ifFAA regulations didn't prohibit cellphones in the air, Federal CommunicationsCommission regulations would.
J. Possible solutions might be to enhance airliners electronic insulation, or to fit detectors which warned flight staff when passenger devices were emittingdangerous signals. But Cross complains that neither the FAA, the airlines nor themanufacturers are showing much interest in developing these. So despiteCongressional suspicions and the occasional irritated (or jailed) mobile user, theindustrys "better safe than sorry" policy on mobile phones seems likely tocontinue. In the absence of firm evidence that the international airline industry isengaged in a vast conspiracy to overcharge its customers, a delayed phone callseems a small price to pay for even the tiniest reduction in the chances of a planecrash. But you'll still be allowed to use your personal computer during a flight.And while that remains the case, airlines can hardly claim that logic has prevailed.
Questions 14 - 17
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
The would-be risk surly exists, since the avionic systems on modern aircraft are used to manage flight and deal with ..........14.......... Those devices are designed to meet the safety criteria which should be free from interrupting ..........15............ The personal use of mobile phone may cause the sophisticated ..........16..........outside of plane to dysfunction. Though definite interference in piloting devices has not been scientifically testified, the devices such as those which detect ........17.........in cabinet could be affected.
Question 18 -22
Use the information in the passage to match the Organization (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 18-22 on youranswer sheet.
A British Civil Aviation Authority
B Maryanne Greczyn
C RTCA
D Marshall Cross
E Boeing company ---------------
18 Mobile usages should be forbidden in a specific time.
19 Computers are more dangerous than cell phones.
20finding that tile mobile phones pose little risk on flight' navigationdevices.
21 The disruption of laptops is not as dangerous as cellphones.
22 The mobile signal may have impact on earlier devices.
Questions 23-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Paasage2In boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE If the statement is false NOT GIVEN If the information not given in the passage 23Almost an scientists accept that cellphones have higher emission than that ofpersonal computers.
24 Some people believe that radio emission win interruptthe equipment on plane.
25The signal interference-detecting device has not yet been developed because they are in priority far neither administrative department nor offer economic incentive.
26FAA initiated open debate with Federal Communications Commission.
Section 3
Communicating Conflict!
Section A
As far back as Hippocrates' time (460-370B.c.)people have tried to understand other people by characterizing them according to personality type or temperament. Hippocrates believed there woe four different body Quids that influenced four basic types of temperament.Hisworkwasfurther developed 500 years later by Galem. These days there are any number of self-assessment tools that relate to die basic descriptions developed by Galen, although we no longer believe the source to be the types of body fluid that dominate our systems.
SectionB
The values in self-assessments that help determine personality style. Learning styles, communication styles, conflict-handling styles, or other aspects of individuals is thatthey help depersonalize conflict in interpersonal relationships.The depersonalization occurs when you realize that others aren'ttrying to be difficult, but they need different or more informationthan you do. They're not intending to be rude: they are so focusedon the task they forget about greeting people. They would like towork faster but not at the risk of damaging the relationshipsneeded to get the job done. They understand there is a job to do.But it can only be done right with the appropriate information,which takes time to collect When used appropriately,understanding communication styles can help resolve conflict onteams. Very rarely are conflicts true personality issues. Usually they are issues ofstyle, information needs, or focus.
Section C
Hippocrates and later Galen determined there woe four basic temperaments: sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholicandcholeric.Thesedescriptions were developed centuries ago and are still somewhat apt, although you could update the wording, in today's world, they translate into the four fairly common communicationstyles described below:
Section D
The sanguine personwouldbetheexpressiveor spirited style of communication. These people speak in pictures. They invest a lot of emotion and energy in their communication and often speak quickly. Putting their whole body intoit. They are easily sidetracked onto a story that may or may not illustrate the pointthey arc trying to make. Because of their enthusiasm, they are great team motivators.They are concerned about people and relationships. Their high levels of energy cancome on strong at times and their focus is usually on the bigger picture, which meansthey sometimes miss the details or the proper order of things. These people findconflict or differences of opinion invigorating and love to engage in a spiriteddiscussion. They love change and arc constantly looking for new and excitingadventures.
Section E
Tile phlegmatic person - cool and persevering - translates into the technical or systematic communication style. This style of communication is focused on facts andtechnical details. Phlegmatic people have an orderly, methodical way of approachingtasks, and their focus is very much on the task, not on the people, emotions, orconcerns that the task may evoke. The focus is also more on the details necessary toaccomplish a task.
Sometimes the details overwhelm the big picture and focus needs to be brought back to the context of the task. People with this style think the facts should speak forthemselves, and they are not as comfortable with conflict. They need time to adapt tochange and need to understand both the logic of it and the steps involved.
Section F
Tile melancholic person who is softhearted and oriented toward doing things for others translates into the considerate or sympathetic communication style. A personwith this communication style is focused on people and relationships. They are goodlisteners and do things for other people- sometimes to thedetriment of getting things done for themselves. They want tosolicit everyones opinion and make sure everyone iscomfortable with whatever is required to get the job done. Attimes this focus on others can distract from the task at hand. Because they are so concerned with the needs of others and smoothing over issues, they do not like conflict. They believe that change threatensthe status quoandtendstomakepeoplefeel uneasy, so people with this communication style, like phlegmatic,peopleneed time to consider the changes in order to adapt to them.
Section G
The choleric temperamenttranslatesintothe bold or direct style of communication. People with this style are brief in their communication - the fewer words the better. They are big picture thinkers and love to be involved in many things at once. They are focused on tasks and outcomes and often forget that the peopleinvolved in carrying out the tasks have needs. They don't do detail work easily and asa result can often underestimate how much time it takes to achieve the task. Becausethey are so direct, they often seem forceful and can be very intimidating to others.They usually would welcome someone challenging them. But most other styles areafraid to do so. They also thrive on change, the more the better.
SectionH
A well-functioning team should have all of these communication styles for true effectiveness. All teams need to focus on the task, and they need to take care ofrelationships in order to achieve those tasks. They need the big picture perspective orthe context of their work, and they need the details to be identified and taken care offor success. We all have aspects of each style within us.Some of uscan easily movefrom one style to another and adapt our style to the needs of the situation at hand-whether the focus is on tasks or relationships. For others, a dominant style is veryevident, and it is more challenging to see the situation from the perspective of anotherstyle.
The work environment can influence communication styles either by the type of work that is required or by the predominance of one style reflected in that environment. Some people use one style at work and another at home. The good news about communication styles is that we ah have the ability to develop flexibility in our styles. The greater the flexibility we have, the more skilled we usually are at handling possible and actual conflicts. Usually it has to be relevant toUS to do so, either because we think it is important or because there are incentives in our environment to encourage it. The key is that we have to want to become flexible with our communication style. As Henry Ford said, "Whether you think you can or you can't, you're right!
Questions 27-34
Reading Passage 3 has eight sections A-H.
Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct numberI-Xin boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Different personality types mentioned
ii recommendation of combined styles for group
iii Historical explanation of understanding personality
iv A lively and positive attitude person depicted
VA personality likes challenge and direct communication
vi different characters illustrated
vii Functions of understanding communication styles
viii Cautious and considerable person cited
ix Calm and Factual personality illustrated
x Self-assessment determines one's temperament
----------------------
27 Section A
28 Section B
29SectionC
30 Section D
31 Section E
32 Section F
33 Section G
34 Section H
Questions 35-39
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1In boxes 35-39 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 35 it is believed that sanguine people do not like variety
36 Melancholic and phlegmatic people have similar characteristics
37 It is the sanguine personality that needed most in the workplace.
38 It is possible for someone to change type of personality.
39 work surrounding can affect which communication style is the most effective.
Question 40
Choose the correct letter A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in box 40 on your answer sheet.
The authorthinksself-assessment tools can be able to
A. assist todevelop one's personality in a certain scenario.
B. help to understand colleagues and resolve problems
C.improve relationship with boss of company
D. change others behaviour and personality

Reading Test 9
Section 1
Agriculture and Tourism
A. Linkages between the Agri-Food Sector and Tourism offer significant opportunities for thedevelopment of both sectors within the region. These linkages could lead to ensuring the sustainability ofthe regions tourism product thus ensuring it preservation. Agriculture and tourism two of Wisconsins most industries are teaming up in southwestern Wisconsinhas found that tourists, rural communities, and some farmers could benefit from stronger efforts to promote and market agricultural tourism there. In 1990,agricultural tourism project memberssurveyed 290 visitors to the annualMonroe Cheese Festival and 164 visitorsto the Picnic on the Farm, a one-timeevent held in Platteville in conjunctionwith the Chicago Bears summer training camp. More than one-half of thosesurveyed responded favorably to a proposed tour, saying they would be interestedin participating in some type of agricultural tour in southwestern Wisconsin.Survey respondents reported that they would prefer to visit cheese factories,sausage processing plants, dairy farms, and historicalfarm sites, as well as enjoy an old-fashioned picnicdinner. The study also found strong interest in visitingspecialty farms (strawberries, cranberries, poultry, etc.). More than 75 percent of the Cheese Day visitors planned ahead for the trip, with 37 percent planning atleast two months in advance.
B. More than 40 percent of the visitors came to Monroe for two- or three-day visits. Many stopped at other communities on their way to Cheese Days. Visitors at both events indicated that they were there to enjoythemselves and were willing to spend money on food and arts and crafts. Theyalso wanted the opportunity to experience the country while there. The studyfound that planning around existing events should take into account what brought visitors to the area and provide additional attractions that will appeal to them. For example, visitors to Cheese Days said they were on a holiday and appeared to bemore open to various tour proposals. Picnic visitors came specifically to see theChicago Bears practice. They showed less interest in a proposed agricultural tourthan Cheese Day visitors, but more interest in a picnic dinner.
C. The study identified three primary audiences for agricultural tourism: 1) elderly people who take bus tours to see the country; 2) families interested in tours thatcould be enjoyed by both parents and children; and 3) persons already involved inagriculture, including international visitors. Agricultural tourism can serve toeducate urban tourists about the problems and challenges facing farmers, saysAndy Lewis, Grant county community development agent. While agriculture isvital to Wisconsin, more and more urban folk are becoming isolated from theindustry. In fact, Lewis notes, farmers are just as interested in the educationalaspects of agricultural tours as they are in any financial returns.
D. Farmers feel that urban consumers are out of touch with farming, Lewis says. If tourists can be educated on issues thatconcern farmers, those visits could lead topolicies more favorable to agriculture. Animalrights and the environment are examples of twoissues that concern both urban consumers andfarmers. Farm tours could help consumers getthe farmers perspective on these issues, Lewisnotes. Several Wisconsin farms already offersome type of learning experience for tourists. However, most agricultural tourismenterprises currently market their businesses independently, leading to a lack of aconcerted effort to promote agricultural tourism as an industry.
E. Lewis is conducting the study with Jean Murphy, assistant community development agent. Other participants include UW-Platteville AgriculturalEconomist Bob Acton, the Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems, UW-Extension Recreation Resources Center, the Wisconsin Rural Development Center, and HiddenValleys, a Southwestern Wisconsin regionaltourism organization. This past fall, Murphy organized several workshops with some Green and GrantCounty farmers, local business leaders, and motorcoach tour operators to discuss how best toorganize and put on farm tours. Committees were formed to look at the following:tour site evaluations, inventory of the areas resources, tour marketing, andfamiliarization of tours. The fourth committee is organizing tours for people such as tour bus guides and local reporters to help better educate them about agricultural tourism. Green County farmers already have experience hostingvisitors during the annual Monroe Cheese Days. Green county Tourism DirectorLarry Lindgren says these farmers are set to go ahead with more formalagricultural tours next year. The tours will combine a farm visit with a visit to alocal cheese factory and a picnic lunch.
F. Another farm interested in hosting an organized tour is Sinsinawa, a 200-acre Grant County farm devoted to sustainable agriculture and run by the Dominican Sisters. Education plays a major role at the farm, which has an orchard, dairy and beef cows, and hogs. Farm tours could be combined with other activities in the area such as trips to the Mississippi River and/or visits to historical towns orlandmarks, Lewis says. The project will help expose farmers to the tourism industry and farm vacations as a way to possibly supplement incomes, he adds. While farm families probably wouldnt make a lot of money through farm tours, they would be compensated for their time, says Lewis. Farmers could earn additional income through the sale of farm products, crafts, and recreational activities.
Questions 1-4
The reading Passage has six paragraphs A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letter A-F, inboxes1-4on your answer sheet.
1 About half of all the tourists would spend several days in Monroe.
2 Most visitors responded positively to a survey project on farm tour.
3 Cooperation across organisations in research for agriculture tours has beencarried out.
4 Agriculture tour assist tourists to understand moreissues concerning animal and environment.
Questions 5-9
Which of following statements belongs to the visitor categories in the boxPlease choose A, B orcfor each question.
Write the correct letterA, B orC, in boxes5-9on your answer sheet.
NB: You may use any letter more than once.
A Cheese Festival visitors
B Picnic visitors
C Both of them
---------------------
5 have focused destination
6 majority prepare well before going beforehand.
7 are comparably less keen on picnic meal
8 show interest in activities such as visiting factory tour and fruit
9 are willing to accept a variety of tour recommendation.
Questions 10-14
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes10-14on your answer sheet.
Through farm tour, visitors can better understand significant issues such as ......10....... and enviroment. In autumn, Murphy organised ......11....... and bringother participants together to develop local tour market. Larry Lindgren said the farmers already had experience of farm tours with factory visiting and a......12........ In Sinsinawa,a large area of the farmland contains an orchard, cow etc which is managed and operated by......13.......; Lewis said the project will probably bring extra......14.......for local farmers.
Section 2
Cosmetics in Ancient Past
Since cosmetics and perfumes are still in wide use today, it is interesting to compare the attitudes, customs and beliefs related tothem in ancient times to those of our own day and age. Cosmetics and perfumes have been popular since tile dawn of civilization; it is shown by the discovery of agreat deal of pertinent archeological material, dating from the third millennium BC. Mosaics, glass perfume flasks, stone vessels, ovens, cooking-pots, clay jars, etc., some inscribed by the hand of the artisan. Evidence also appears in the Bible and other classical writings, where it is written that spices and perfumes were prestigious products known throughoutthe ancient world and coveted by kingsand princes. The written and pictorialdescriptions, as well as archaeologicalfindings, all show how important bodycare and aesthetic appearance were inthe lives of the ancient people. Thechain of evidence spans many centuries,detailing the usage of cosmetics in various cultures from the earliest period ofrecorded history.
In antiquity, however, at least in the onset, cosmetics served in religious ceremonies and for healing purposes. Cosmetics werealso connected with cultic worship and witchcraft: to appease thevarious gods, fragrant ointments were applied to the statuaryimages and even to their attendants. From this, in the course oftime, developed the custom of personal use, to enhance the beautyof the face and the body, and to conceal defects.
Perfumes and fragrant spices were precious commodities in antiquity, very much in demand, and at times even exceeded silver and gold in value. Therefore, theywere luxury products, used mainly in the temples and in the homes of the nobleand the wealthy. The Judean kings kept them in treasure houses (2 Kings 20:13).
And the Queen of Sheba brought to Solomon "camels laden with spices, gold in great quantity and precious stones.(1 Kings 10:2,10). However, within time,the use of cosmetics became the custom of that period. The use of cosmeticsbecame widespread among the lower classes as well as among the wealthy; in thesame way they washed the body,80they used to care for the body withsubstances that softened the skin and anoint it with fragrant oils and ointments.
Facial treatment was highly developed and women devoted many horns to it They used to spread various scented creams on the face and to apply makeup invivid and contrasting colors. An Egyptian papyrus from the 16th century BCcontains detailed recipes to remove blemishes, wrinkles, and other signs of age.Greek and Roman women would cover their faces in the evening with a beautymaskto remove blemishes, which consisted mainly of flour mixed withflagrant spices, leaving it on their face all night. The next morning they wouldwash it off with asses' milk. The very common creams usedby women in the ancient Far East, particularly important inthe hot climate and prevalent in that area of the globe, weremade up of oils and aromatic scents. Sometimes the oil inthese creams was extracted from olives, almonds, gourds, sesame, or from treesand plants; but, for those of limited means, scented animal and fish fete werecommonly used.
Women in the ancient past commonly put colors around their eyes. Besides beautification, its purpose was also medicinal as covering the sensitive skin of the lids with coloredointments that prevailed dryness and eye diseases:the eye-paint repelled the little flies that transmittedeye inflammations. Egyptian women colored tileupper eyelid black and the lower one green, andpainted the space between the upper lid and theeyebrow gray or blue. The women of Mesopotamiafavored yellows and reds. The use of kohl forpainting the eyes is mentioned three times in theBible, always with disapproval by the sages (2Kings, 9:30; Jersniah 4:30; Ezekiel 23:40). Incontrast. Job named one of his daughters "Kerai Happukh" "ham of eye paint"(Job 42:14).
Great importance was attached to the care for hair in ancient times. Long hair was always considered a symbol of beauty, and kings, nobles and dignitaries grewtheir hair long and kept it well-groomed and cared for. Women devoted muchtime to the style of the hair; while not cutting, they would apply much care to it by arranging it skillfully in plaits and "building it up" sometimes with the help of wigs. Egyptian women generally wore their hair flowing down to their shouldersor even longer. In Mesopotamia, women cherished long hair as a part of theirbeauty, and hair flowing down their backs in a thick plait and tied with a ribbon isseen in art. Assyrian women wore their hair shorter, braiding and binding it in abun at the back. In Ancient Israel, brides would wear their hair long on thewedding day as a sign of their virginity. Ordinary people and slaves, however,usually wore their hair short, mainly for hygienic reasons, since they could notafford to invest in the kind of treatment that long hair required.
From the Bible and Egyptian and Assyrian sources, as well as the words of classical authors, it appears that the centers of the trade in aromatic resins andincense were located in the kingdoms of Southern Arabia, and even as far as India,where some of these precious aromatic plants were grown. "Dealers from Shebaand Rammah dealt with you, offering the choicest spices..." (Ezekiel 27:22). TheNabateans functioned as the important middlemen in this trade; Palestine alsoserved as a very important component, as the trade routes crisscrossed the country.It is known that the Egyptian Queen Hatsheput (15th century BC) sent a royalexpedition to the Land of Punt (Somalia) in order to bring back myrrh seedlingsto plant in her temple. In Assyrian records of tribute and spoils of war, perfumesand resins are mentioned; the text from the time of Tukulti-Ninurta II (890-884BC) refers to balls of myrrh as part of the tribute brought to the Assyrian king bythe Aramaean kings. The trade in spices and perfumes is also mentioned in theBible as written in Genesis (37:25-26), "Camels carrying gum tragacanth andbalm and myrrh".
Questions 15-21
Reading Passage 2 has 7 paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write your answers in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet.
15 recipes to conceal facial defects caused by aging
16 perfumes were presented to conquerors in war
17 long hair of girls had special meanings in marriage
18 evidence exists in abundance showing cosmetics use in ancient times
19 protecting eyes from fly-transmitted diseases
20 from witchcraft to beautification
21 more expensive than gold
Questions 22-27
Do the following statements are agree with the information give in Reading Passive 2? In boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE ifthe statement is true FALSE If the statement is false NOTGIVEN If the information is not given the passive 22 The written record for cosmetics and perfumes dates back to the third millennium BG
23 Since perfumes and spices woe luxury products, their use was exclusiveto the noble and the wealthy.
24 In ancient Far East, fish fata woe used OS cream by women from poorhouseholds.
25 The teachings in the Bible were repeatedly against the use of kohl forpainting the eye.
26Long hair as a symbol of beauty was worn solely by women of ancientcultures
27 The Egyptian Queen Hataheput sent a royal expedition to Font toestablish a trade route for myrrh
Section 3
Asian Space 2 Satellite Technology
The space age began with the launch of the Russian artificial satellite Sputnik in 1957 and developed further with the race to the moonbetween the United States and Russia. This rivalry wascharacterized by advanced technology and hugebudgets. In this process there were spectacularsuccesses, some failures, but also many spin-offs.
Europe, Japan, China, and India quickly joined this space club of the superpowers. With the advent ofrelatively low cost high performance mini-satellites andlaunchers, the acquisition of indigenous spacecapabilities by smaller nations in Asia has become possible. How, in what manner,and for what purpose will these capabilities be realized?
A. Rocket technology has progressed considerably since the days of fire arrows' (bamboo poles filled with gunpowder) first used in China around 500 BC, and, during the SungDynasty, to repel Mongol invaders at the battle ofKaifeng (Kai-fung fu) in AD 1232. These ancientrockets stand in stark contrast to the present-dayChinese rocket launch vehicles, called the LongMarch' , intended to place a Chinese astronaut inspace by 2005 and, perhaps, to achieve a Chinese moon-landing by the end of thedecade.
B. In the last decade there has been a dramatic growth in space activities in Asia both in the utilization of space-based services and the production of satellites andlaunchers. This rapid expansion has led many commentators and analysts topredict that Asia will become a world space power. The space age has haddramatic affects worldwide with direct developments in space technology influencing telecommunications, meteorological forecasting, earth resource and environmental monitoring, and disaster mitigation (flood, forest fires, and oilspills). Asian nations have been particularly eager to embrace these developments.
C. New and innovative uses for satellites are constantly being explored with potential revolutionary effects, such as in the field of health and telemedicine, distance education, crime prevention (piracy on the high seas), food and agricultural planning and production (rice crop monitoring). Space in Asia is very much influenced by the competitive commercial space sector, the emergence of low cost mini-satellites, and the globalization of industrial and financial markets. It is not evident how Asian space will develop in the coming decades in the face of these trends. It is, however, important to understand and assess the factors and forces that shape Asian space activities and development in determining its possible consequences for the region.
D. At present, three Asian nations, Japan, China, and India, have comprehensive end-to-end space capabilities and possess a complete space infrastructure: spacetechnology, satellite manufacturing, rockets, and spaceports. Alreadyself-sufficient in terms of satellite design and manufacturing, South Korea iscurrently attempting to join then ranks with its plans to develop a launch site andspaceport. Additionally, nations in Southeast Asia as well as those bordering theIndian subcontinent (Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) have, or are starting todevelop, indigenous space programmes. The Association of Southeast AsianNations (ASEAN) has, in varying degrees, embraced space applications usingforeign technology and over the past five years or so its space activities have beenexpanding. Southeast Asia is predicted to become the largest and fastest growingmarket for commercial space products and applications, driven bytelecommunications (mobile and fixed services), the Internet, and remote sensingapplications. In the development of this technology, many non-technical factors,such as economics, politics, culture, and history, interact and play important roles,which in turn affect Asian technology.
E. Asia, and Southeast Asia in particular, suffers from a long list of recurrent large-scale environmental problems including storms and flooding, forest fires anddeforestation, and crop failures. Thus the space application that has attracted themost attention in this region is remote sensing. Remote sensing satellites equippedwith instruments to take photographs of the ground at different wavelengthsprovide essential information for natural resource accounting, environmentalmanagement, disaster prevention and monitoring, land-use mapping, andsustainable development planning. Progress in these applications has been rapid and impressive. ASEAN members, unlike Japan, China, and India, do not have then own remote sensing satellites, however most of its member nations havefacilities to receive, process, and interpret such data from American and Europeansatellites. In particular, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore have world-class remote sensing processing facilities and research programmes. ASEANhas plans to develop (and launch) itsown satellites and in particularremote sensing satellites. Japan isregarded as the dominant spacepower in Asia and its record ofsuccesses and quality of technologiesare equal to those of the West Inview of the technological challenges and high risks involved in space activities, a very long, and expensive, learning curve has been followed to obtain those successes achieved. Japan' s satellitemanufacturing was based on the old and traditional defense andmilitaryprocurement methodologies as practiced in the US and Europe.
F. In recent years there have been fundamental changes in the way satellites are designed and built to drastically reduce costs. The emergence of small satellites and then quick adoption by Asian countries as a way to develop low-cost satellite technology and rapidly establish a space capability has given these countries the possibility to shorten their learning curve by a decade or more. The global increase of technology transfer mechanisms and use of readily available commercial technology to replace costlyspaceand military standard components may very well result in a highly competitive Asian satellite manufacturing industry.
G. The laws of physics ore the same to Tokyo as in Toulouse, and toe principles of electronics and mechanics know no political or cultural boundaries. However, no such immutability applies toengineering practices and management; they are -very much influenced by education, culture,and history. These factors, in turn, have an affect on costs, lead times,product designs and,eventually, international sales, Marty Aston nations are sending their engineers to be trainedin the fast Highly experienced, they return to work in toe growing Aslan space industry. Milthisacquisition of technical expertise, coupled perhaps with the world-renowned Japanesemanufacturing and management techniques, be applied to build world-class satellites andreduce costs?
Questions 28-32
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
List of Headings
i Western countries provide essential assistance
iiUnbalanced development for an essential space technology
iii Innovative application compelled by competition
iv An ancient invention which is related to the future
v Military purpose of satellite
vi Rockets for application in ancient China
vii Space development in Asia in the past
viiiNon-technology factors counts
ixcompetitive edge gained by more economically feasible satellite
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below. Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.
28 Paragraph A
29 Paragraph B
30ParagraphC
Paragraph DExample: Current space technology development in Asia
31 Paragraph E
32 Paragraph F
Questions 33-36
Match the following reasons for each question according to the information given in the passage
Write the correct letterA-F,in boxes33-36on your answer sheet.
A Because it helps administrate the crops.
B Because there are some unapproachable areas,cBecause the economic level in that area is low.
D Because there are influences from some other social factors.
E Because it can be used in non-peaceful purpose.
F Because disasters such as bush fire happened in Southeast Asia.
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33 Whyremote-photographic technologyis used to resolve environmental problems?
34 Why satellites technology is used in medicine area?
35 Why Asian countries satellite technology is limited for development?
36 Why satellites technology is deployed in agricultural area?
Questions37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the Statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 37 Ancient China had already deployed rockets as a military purpose as early as 500years ago.
38 Space technology has enhanced literacy of Asia.
39 photos taken by satellites with certain technology help predict some natural catastrophes prevention and surveillance.
40 commercial competition constitutes a boosting factor to Asian technologydevelopment.

Reading Test 10
Section 1
Koalas
A. Koalas are just too nice for their own good. And except for the occasional baby taken by birds of prey, koalas have no natural enemies. In an ideal world, the life of an arboreal couch potato would beperfectly safe and acceptable.
B. Just two hundred years ago, koalas flourished acrossAustralia. Now they seem to be in decline, but exact numbers are not available as the species would not seemto be 'under threat'. Their problem, however,has been man, more specifically, the white man.Koala and aborigine had co-existed peacefullyfor centuries.
C. Today koalas are found only in scattered pockets of southeast Australia, where they seem to be at risk on several fronts. The koala's only foodsource, the eucalyptus tree has declined. In the past 200 years, a third of Australia's eucalyptus forests have disappeared. Koalas have been killed by parasites, chlamydiaepidemicsandatumour-causingretro-virus. And every year 11000 are killed by cars, ironically most of them in wildlife sanctuaries, and thousands are killed by poachers. Someare also taken illegally as pets. The animals usually soon die,but they are easily replaced.
D. Bush fires pose another threat. The horrific ones that raged in New South Wales recently killed between 100 and 1000 koalas. Many that were taken into sanctuariesand shelters were found to have burnt their paws on the glowing embers. But zoologists say that the species should recover. The koalas will be aided by the eucalyptus, which grows quickly and is already burgeoning forth after the fires.So the main problem to their survival is their slow reproductive rate - they produceonly one baby a year over a reproductive lifespan of about nine years.
E. The latest problem for the species is perhaps more insidious. With plush, grey fur,darkambereyesand button nose, koalas are cuddliness incarnate. Australian zoos and wildlife parks have taken advantage of their uncomplaining attitudes, and charge visitors to be photographed hugging the furry bundles. Butpeople may not realise how cruel this is, but because of the koala's delicatedisposition, constant handling can push an already precariously balanced physiologyoverthe edge.
F. Koalas only eat the foliage of certain species of eucalyptus trees, between 600 and 1250 grams a day. The tough leaves are packed with cellulose, tannins, aromatic oils and precursors of toxic cyanides. To handle this cocktail, koalas have a specialised digestive system. Cellulose-digesting bacteria in thebreak down fibre, while a specially adapted gut and liver processthe toxins. To digest their food properly, koalas must sit still for 21 hours everyday.
G. Koalas are the epitome of innocence and inoffensiveness. Although they are capable of ripping open a man's arm with theirneedle-sharp claws, or giving a nasty nip, theysimply wouldn't. If you upset a koala, it may blinkor swallow, or hiccup. But attack? No way! Koalas are just not aggressive. They use their claws to grip the hard smooth bark of eucalyptus trees.
H. They are also very sensitive, and the slightest upset can prevent them from breeding, cause them to go off their food, and succumb to gutinfections. Koalas are stoic creatures and put on abrave face until they are at death's door. One day they may appear healthy, the nextthey could be dead. Captive koalas have to be weighed daily to check that they arefeeding properly. A sudden loss of weight is usually the only warning keepers havethat their charge is ill. Only two keepers plus a vet were allowed to handle LondonZoo's koalas, as these creatures are only comfortable with people they know. Arequest for the koala to be taken to meet the Queen was refused because of the distress this would have caused the marsupial. Sadly, Londons Zoo no longer has a koala. Two yearsago the female koala died of a cancer causedby a retrovirus. When they come into heat,female koalas become more active, and startlosing weight, but after about sixteen days,heat ends and the weight piles back on.London's koala did not. Surgery revealedhundreds of pea-sized tumours.
Almost every zoo in Australia has koalas - the marsupial has become the Animal Ambassador of the nation, but nowhere outside Australia would handling by the public be allowed. Koala cuddling screams in the face of every rule of good care. First, some zoos allow koalas to be passed from stranger to stranger,many children who love to squeeze. Secondly, most people have no idea of how to handlethe animals; they like to cling on to their handler, all in their own good time anduse his or her arm as a tree. For such reasons, the Association of Fauna and Marine parks, an Australian conservation society is campaigning to ban koala cuddling. Policy on koala handling isdetermined by state government authorities. "And thelargest of the numbers in the Australian NatureConservation Agency, with the aim of institutingnational guidelines. Following a wave of publicity, some zoos and wildlife parkshave stopped turning their koalas into photo.
Questions 1-5
Choose the correct letter,A,B,cor D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1. The main reason why koala declined is that they are killed EXCEPT FOR
Aby poachers
Bby diseases they got
C giving too many birth yet survived little!
Daccidents on the road
2. What can help koalas folly digest their food?
A toxic substance in the leaves
B organs that dissolve the fibres
Cremaining inactive for a period to digest
Deating eucalyptus trees
3. What would koalas do when facing the dangerous situation?
A show signs of being offended
Bcounter attack furiously
C use sharp claws to rip the man
D use claws to grip the bark of trees.
4. In what ways Australian zoos exploit koalas?
A encourage people to breed koalas as pets
B allow tourists to hug the koalas
C put them on the trees as a symbol
D establish a koala campaign
5. What would the government do to protect koalas from being endangered?
A introduce koala protection guidelines
B close some of the zoos
C encourage people to resist visiting the zoos
D persuade the public to learn more knowledge
Questions 6-12
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1
In boxes 6-12 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the Statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage  6 new coming human settlers caused danger to koalas.
7 Koalas can still be seen in most of the places in Australia.
8 it takes decade for the eucalyptus trees to recover after the fire.
9 Koalas will fight each other when food becomes scarce.
10 It is not easy to notice that koalas are ill.
11 Koalas are easily infected with human contagious disease via cuddling
12 Koalas like to hold a person's arm when they are embraced.
Questions 13
Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 13 on your answer sheet.
From your opinion this article written by
A a journalist who write for magazine
B a zoo keeper in London Zoo.
C a tourist who traveling back from Australia
D a government official who studies koalas to establish a law

Section 2
Antarctica- in from the cold?
(Updated version)
A. A little over a century ago, men of the ilk of Scott, Shackleton and Mawson battled against Antarctica's blizzards, cold and deprivation. In the name ofEmpire and in an age of heroic deeds they created an image of Antarctica thatwas to last well into the 20th century - an image ofremoteness, hardship, bleakness and isolation thatwas the province of only the most courageous ofmen. The image was one of a place removed fromeveryday reality, of a place with no apparent value to anyone.
B. As we enter the 21st century, our perception of Antarctica has changed. Although physically Antarctica is no closer and probably no warmer, and to spend time there still demands a dedication not seen in ordinary life, the continent and its surrounding ocean are increasingly seen to an integral part of Planet Earth, and a key component in the Earth System. Is this because the world seems a little smaller these days, shrunk by TV and tourism, or is it because Antarctica really does occupy a central spot on Earth's mantle? Scientific research during the past half century has revealed - and continues to reveal that Antarctica's great mass and low temperature exert a major influence on climate and ocean circulation, factors which influence the lives of millions of people all over the globe.
C. Antarctica was not always cold. The slow break-up of the super-continent Gondwana with the northward movements of Africa, South America, Indiaand Australia eventually created enough space around Antarctica for the development of an Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), that flowed from west to eastunder the influence of the prevailing westerlywinds. Antarctica cooled, its vegetationperished, glaciation began and the continenttook on its present-day appearance. Today theice that overlies the bedrock is up to 4kmthick, and surface temperatures as low as -89.2degchave been recorded. The icy blastthat howls over the ice cap and out to sea -the so-called katabatic wind - can reach 300km/hr, creating fearsome wind chill effects.
D. Out of this extreme environment come some powerful forces that reverberate around the world. The Earth's rotation, coupled to the generation of cells oflow pressure off the Antarctic coast, would allow Astronauts a view ofAntarctica that is as beautiful as it is awesome. Spinning away to thenortheast, the cells grow and deepen, whipping up the Southern Ocean intothe mountainous seas so respected by mariners. Recent work is showing thatthe temperature of the ocean may be a better predictor of rainfall in Australiathan is the pressure difference between Darwin and Tahiti - the SouthernOscillation Index. By receiving more accurate predictions, graziers innorthern Queensland are able to avoid overstocking in years when rainfallwill be poor. Not only does this limit their losses but it prevents seriouspasture degradation that may take decades to repair. CSIRO is developingthis as a prototype forecasting system, but we can confidently predict that aswe know more about the Antarctic and Southern Ocean we will be able toenhance and extend our predictive ability.
E. The ocean's surface temperature results from the interplay between deepwater temperature, air temperature and ice. Each winter between 4 and 19 million square km of sea ice form, locking up huge quantities of heat close to the continent.Only now can we start to unravel the influence ofsea ice on the weather that is experienced insouthern Australia. But in another way the extentof sea ice extends its influence far beyondAntarctica. Antarctic krill - the small shrimp-likecrustaceans that are the staple diet for baleenwhales, penguins, some seals, flighted sea birds and many fish - breed well in years when sea ice is extensive and poorly when it is not. Many species of baleen whales and flighted sea birds migratebetween the hemispheres and when the krill are less abundant they do notthrive.
F. The circulatory system of the world's oceans is like a huge conveyor belt, moving water and dissolved minerals and nutrients from one hemisphere tothe other, and from the ocean's abyssal depths to the surface. The ACC is thelongest current in the world, and has the largest flow. Through it, the deepflows of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans are joined to form part of asingle global thermohaline circulation. During winter, the howling katabaticssometimes scour the ice off patches of the sea's surface leaving large ice-locked lagoons, or 'polynyas'. Recent research has shown that as fresh sea iceforms, it is continuously stripped away by the wind and may be blown up to90km in a single day. Since only fresh water freezes into ice, the water thatremains becomes increasingly salty and dense, sinking until it spills over thecontinental shelf. Cold water carries more oxygen than warm water, so whenit rises, well into the northern hemisphere, it reoxygenates and revitalises theocean. The state of the northern oceans, and their biological productivity, owemuch to what happens in the Antarctic.
Questions 14-18
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-F,in boxes14-18on your answer sheet.
14 The example of research on weather prediction on agriculture
15 Antarctic sea ice brings life back to the world oceans' vitality.
16 A food chain that influence the animals living pattern based on Antarctic fresh sea ice
17 The explanation of how atmosphere pressure above Antarctica can impose effect onglobal climate change
18 Antarctica was once thought to be a forgotten and insignificant continent
Questions 19-21
Summary
Please match the natural phenomenon with correct determined factor Choose the correct answer from the box; Write the correct letterA-F,in boxes19-21on your answer sheet.
19 Globally, mass Antarctica's size and......................influence theclimatechange
20 ......................contributory towesternwind
21 Southern Oscillation Index based on aừ pressure can predict.....................in Australia
-------------------
A. Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)
B. katabatic winds
C.rainfall
D. temperature
E.glaciers
F. pressure
Questions 22-26
Choose the correct letter. A,B,corD.
Write your answers in boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet.
22. In the paragraph B, the author want to tell which of the following truth aboutAntarctic?
A. To show Antarctica has been a central topic of global warming in Mass media
B.To illustrate its huge see ice brings food to million lives to places in the world
C.To show it is the heart and its significance to the global climate and current
D.To illustrate it locates in the central spot on Earth geographically
23. Why do Australian farmers keep an eye on the Antarctic ocean temperature ?
A. Help farmers reduce then economic or ecological losses
B.Retrieve grassland decreased in the overgrazing process
C.Prevent animal from dying
D.A cell provides fertilizer for the grassland
24. What is the final effect of katabatic winds?
A. Increase the moving speed of ocean current
B.Increase salt level near ocean surface
C.Bring fresh ice into southern oceans
D.Pile up the mountainous ice cap respected by mariners
25. The break of the continental shelf is due to the
A. Salt and density increase
B.Salt and density decrease
C.global warming resulting a rising temperature
D.fresh ice melting into ocean water
26. The decrease in number of Whales and seabirds is due to
A. killers whales are more active around
B.Sea birds are affected by high sea level salty
C. less sea ice reduces productivity of food source
D.seals fail to reproduce babies
Section 3
Language strategy In Multinational Company
A. The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of globalcoordination as a source of competitive advantageand language remains the ultimate barrier toaspirations of international harmonization. Beforeattempting to consider language managementstrategies, companies will have to evaluate themagnitude of the language barrier confrontingthem and in doing so they will need to examine it in three dimensions: the LanguageDiversity, the Language Penetration and the Language Sophistication. Companiesnext need to turn their attention to how they should best manage language. There is arange of options from which MNCs can formulate their language strategy.
B. Lingua Franca: The simplest answer, though realistic only for English speaking companies, is to rely on ones native tongue. As recently as 1991 a survey of Britishexporting companies found that over a third used English exclusively in dealings withforeign customers. This attitude that one language fits all has also been carriedthrough into the Internet age. A survey of the web sites of top American companiesconfirmed that over half made no provision forforeign language access, and another found that less than 10% of leading companies were able to respond adequately to emails other than in the companys language. Widespread though it is however, reliance on a single language is a strategy that is fatally flawed. It makes noallowance for the growing trend in Linguistic Nationalismwhereby buyers in Asia, South America and the Middle Eastin particular are asserting their right to work in the languageof the customer. It also fails to recognize the increasingvitality of languages such as Spanish, Arabic and Chinese thatovertime are likely to challenge the dominance of English as a lingua franca. In the IT arena it ignores the rapid globalization of the Internet where the number of English-language e-commerce transactions, emails and web sites, israpidly diminishing as a percentage of the total. Finally, the total reliance on a singlelanguage puts the English speaker at risk in negotiations. Contracts, rules andlegislation are invariably written in the local language, and a company unable tooperate in that language is vulnerable.
C. Functional Multilingualism: Another improvised approach to Language is to rely on what has beentermed "Functional Multilingualism". Essentiallywhat this means is to muddle through, relying on amix of languages, pidgins and gestures tocommunicate by whatever means the parties have at
their disposal. In a social context such a shared effort to make one another understand might be considered an aid to the bonding process with the frustration ofcommunication being regularly punctuated by moments of absurdity and humor.However, as the basis for business negotiations it appears very hit-and-nuts. And yetHagens recent study suggests that 16% of international business transaction; areconducted in a "cocktail of languages." Functional Multilingualism shares the samedefects as reliance on a lingua franca and increases the probability of cognitivedivergence between the parties engaged in the communication.
D. External Language Resources: A more rational and obvious response to the language barrier is to employ external resources such as translators and interpreters,and certainly there are many excellent companies specialized in these fields.However, such a response is by no means an end to the language barrier. For a startthese services can be very expensive with a top Simultaneous Interpreter,commanding daily rates as high as a partner in an international consulting company.Secondly, any good translator or interpreter will insist that to be fully effective theymust understand the context of the subject matter. This is not always possible. Insome cases it is prohibited by the complexity or specialization of the topic.Sometimes by lack of preparation time but most often the obstacle is the reluctance ofthe parties to explain the wider context to an outsider". Another problem is thatunless there has been considerable pre-explaining between the interpreter and hisclients it is likely that there will be ambiguity and cultural overtones in the sourcemessages the interpreter has to work with. They will of course endeavour to provide ahi-fidelity translation but in this circumstance the intelpreterhas to use initiative and guess work. This clearly injects apotential source of misunderstanding into the proceedings.Finally while a good interpreter will attempt to convey notonly the meaning but also the spirit of any communication,there can be no doubt that there is a loss of rhetorical power when communications go through a third party. Soin situations requiring negotiation, persuasion, humor etc. the use of an interpreter is a poor substitute for direct communication.
E. Training: Theimmediateand understandable reaction to any skills-shortage in a business is to consider personnel development and certainly thelanguage training industry is well developed. Offering programs at almost every level and in numerous languages. However, without doubting thevalue of language training no company should be deluded into believing this to be assured of success. Training in most companies is geared to the economic cycle. When times are good, money is invested in training.When belts get tightened training is one of the first "luxuries" to be pared down. In astudy conducted across four European countries, nearly twice as many companiessaid they needed language training in coming years as had conducted training in pastyears. This disparity between "good intentions" and "actual delivery", underlines theproblems of relying upon training for language skills. Unless the company is totallycommitted to sustaining the strategy even though bad times, it will fail.
F. One notable and committed leader in the field of language training has been the Volkswagen Group. They have developed alanguage strategy over many years and in many respects can beregarded as a model of how to manage language professionally. However, the Volkswagen approach underlines that language training has to be considered a strategic rather than a tacticalsolution. In their system to progress from "basics" to "communications competence"in a language requires the completion of 6 language stages each one demandingapproximately 90 hours of refresher course, supported by many more hours of self-study, spread over a 6-9 month period. The completion of each stage is marked by apost-stage achievement test, which is a pre-requisite for continued training. So eventhis professionally managed program expects a minimum of three years of fairlyintensive study to produce an accountant. Engineer, buyer or salesperson capable ofworking effectively in a foreign language. Clearly companies intending to pursue thisroute need to do so with realistic expectations and with the intention of sustaining theprogram over many years. Except in terms of "brush-up" courses for people who werepreviously fluent in a foreign language, training cannot be considered a quick fix and
Questions 27-32
Summary
Complete the following summary of the Whole Paragraphs of Reading Passage, choosingA-Lwords from the following options. Write your answers in boxes 27-32 onyour answer sheet.
MNCs often encounter language barrier in their daily strategy, then they seek several approachesto solve such problems. First, native languagegives them a realistic base in a different languagespeaking country, but problem turned up when they deal with oversea_____27_____. For example, operation on translation of some key_____28_____, itisinevitableto generate differences by rules from different countries. Another way is to rely on a combination of spoken language and____29____, yet a report written that over one-tenth business _______30_____processed in a party language setting. Third way: hire translators. However, firstly it is ______31______, besidesiftheyare not well-prepared, they have to resort to his/her own _____32_____work.
A.gestures
B.clients
C.transaction
D.understanding and assumption
E. accurate
F. documents
G. managers
H.body language
I.long-term
J.effective
K. rivals
L. costly
Questions 33-39
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
33 What understandable reaction doesTrainingpay attention to according to the author?
34 In what term does the writer describe training during economy depression?
35 What contribution does Volkswagen Group set up for multinational companies?
36 What does Volkswagen Group consider language training as in their company?
37 How many stages are needed from basic course to advanced in training?
38 How long does a refresher course (single stage) need normally?
39 At least how long is needed for a specific professional to acquire a foreign language?
Questions 40
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 40 on your answer sheet.
40What is the Main function of this passage?
A. to reveal all kinds of language problems that companies may encounter
B. to exhibits some well-known companies successfully dealing with languagedifficulties
C. to evaluate various approaches for language barrier in multinational companies
D. to testify that training is only feasible approach to solve language problem

Reading Test 11
Section 1
THE ORIGIN OF WRITING

Writing was first invented by the Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia before 3,000 BC. It was also independently invented in Meso-America before 600 BC and probably independently invented in China before 1,300 BC. It may have been independently invented in Egypt around 3,000 BC although given the geographical proximity between Egypt and Mesopotamia the Egyptians may have learnt writing from the Sumerians.

There are three basic types of writing systems. The written signs used by the writing system could represent either a whole word, a syllable or an individual sound. Where the written sign represents a word the system is known as logographic as it uses logograms which are written signs that represent a word. The earliest writing systems such as the Sumerian cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphics and Mayan glyphs are predominantly logographics as are modem Chinese and Japanese writing systems. Where the written sign represents a syllable the writing system is known as syllabic. Syllabic writing systems were more common in the ancient world than they are today. The Linear A and B writing systems of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece are syllabic. The most common writing systems today are alphabetical. These involve the written sign (a letter) representing a single sound (known as a phoneme). The earliest known alphabetical systems were developed by speakers of semetic languages around 1700 BC in the area of modem day Israel and Palestine. All written languages will predominately use one or other of the above systems. They may however partly use the other systems. No written language is purely alphabetic, syllabic or logographic but may use elements from any or all systems.

Such fully developed writing only emerged after development from simplier systems. Talley sticks with notches on them to represent a number of sheep or to record a debt have been used in the past. Knotted strings have been used as a form of record keeping particularly in the area around the Pacific rim. They reached their greatest development with the Inca quipus where they were used to record payment of tribute and to record commercial transactions. A specially trained group of quipu makers and readers managed the whole system. The use of pictures for the purpose of communication was used by native Americans and by the Ashanti and Ewe people in Africa. Pictures can show qualities and characteristics which can not be shown by tally sticks and knot records. They do not however amount to writing as they do not bear a conventional relationship to language.

An alternative idea was that a system by which tokens, which represented objects like sheep, were placed in containers and the containers were marked on the outside indicating the number and type of tokens within the container gave rise to writing in Mesopotamia. The marks on the outside of the container were a direct symbolic representation of the tokens inside the container and an indirect symbolic representation of the object the token represented. The marks on the outside of the containers were graphically identical to some of the earliest pictograms used in Sumerian cuneiform, the worlds first written language. However cuneiform has approximately 1,500 signs and the marks on the ouside of the containers can only explain the origins of a few of those signs.

The first written language was the Sumerian cuneiform. Writing mainly consisted of records of numbers of sheep, goats and cattle and quantites of grain. Eventually clay tablets were used as a writing surface and were marked with a reed stylus to produce the writing. Thousands of such clay tablets have been found in the Sumerian city of Uruk. The earliest Sumerian writing consists of pictures of the objects mentioned such as sheep or cattle. Eventually the pictures became more abstract and were to consist of straight lines that looked like wedges.

The earliest cuneiform was an accounting system consisting of pictograms representing commodities such as sheep and a number. The clay tablets found might for example simply state ten sheep. Such writing obviously has its limitations and would not be regarded as a complete writing system. A complete writing system only developed with the process of phonctization. This occurs when the symbol ceases to represent an object and begins to represent a spoken sound, which in early cuneiform would be a word. This process was assisted when the symbols which initally looked very like the object they represented gradually became more abstract and less clearly related to an object. However while the symbol became more closely connected to words, it was words dealing with objects, such as sheep, bird or pot. It was still not possible to write more abstract ideas such as father, running, speech or foreigner.

The solution to this problem was known as the rebus principle. Words with the same or similar pronuciation to an abstract word could be used to represent the abstract word. The sign for eye could be used to represent the word I. The sign for deer could represent the word dear. Which word is referred to by the picture is decided by an additional sign. Pictographs which originally represented a word began to represent the sound of the word. The rebus principle is used to represent abstract words in all word writing systems in Sumer, Egypt, China and in the Aztec and Mayan writing in central America.

The Rebus principle lead to cuneiform becoming a form of logo-syllabic writing consisting of both logograms and syllabic writing. The effect of the change from logographic to logo-syllabic writing was substantial. Logographic writing cannot produce normal prose and is resticted to nouns, numbers, names and adjectives. The vast majority of early Sumerian writing consisted of bureaucratic records of products received or products distributed. Only when syllabic writing was introduced into cuneiform did it become possible to write prose such as myths and royal propaganda.

The next major development in writing in the old world was the development of the alphabet. The alphabet was developed out of Egyptian hieroglyphs which contained 24 signs for 24 Egyptian consonants. About 1700 BC Semites who knew Egyptian hieroglyphs began making certain changes in their writing system. They put the letters in a particular sequence and gave them simple names to assist learning and ease of memory. They also dropped the logograms and other signs used in hieroglyphs and just kept the Egyptian consonants and resticted the signs to those for individual consonants. Finally, they introduced vowels into their alphabet. Alphabets were soon to spread over most of the world as they provide both flexibility and simplicity for a writing system.

Question 1-3

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 1 - 3 on your answer sheet.

There are three types of writing systems. Logography utilizes written signs representing a 1.Syllabic writing systems were more common in the ancient world, as they adopt
written sign symbolizing a 2The most common alphabetical systems use a letter to
represent a 3

Question 4- 10

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
On your answer sheet please write
TRUEifthe statement is true
FALSEifthe statement is false
NOT GIVENif the information is not given in the passage
4. There is no language that adopts elements from only one writing system.
5. Inca quipus used talley sticks to track payments and commercial transactions.
6. The marks on the outside of the containers originated from pictograms used in Sumerian cuneiform.
7. The first written language was created to document the quantities and types of livestock and food.
8. Cuneiform could not express abstract concepts at all.
9. Affected by the rebus principle, cuneiform combined the elements of both logograms and syllabic writing.
10. Most countries adopt alphabetical writing systems due to their flexibility and simplicity.

Question 11 - 14

Use the information in the passage to match the options (listed A - E) with statements (listed 11-14) below.
Write the appropriate letter (A - E) in boxes 11 - 14 on your answer sheet.

NB Some options may match more than one statement.

A. Egyptians
B. Native Americans
C. Semites
D. Chinese
E. Sumerians

11..developed the alphabet from Egyptian hieroglyphs.
12..used pictures for the purpose of communication.
13..invented a written language which consisted of signs looked like wedges.
14..might have independently invented writing 5,000 years ago.
Section 2
Aqua product: New Zealands Igae Biodiesel
A. The worlds first wild algae biodiesel produced in New Zealand by Aquaflow BionomicCorporation, was successfully test driven inWellington by the Minister for Energy and ClimateChange Issues, David Parker. In front of a crowd ofinvited guests, media and members of the public, the Minister filled up a diesel-powered Land Rover with Aquaflow B5 blend bio-diesel and then drove the car around the forecourt of Parliament Buildings in Central Wellington. Green Party co-leader, Jeanette Fitzsimonswas also on board. Marlborough-based Aquaflow announced in May 2006 thatit had produced the worlds first bio-diesel derived from wild microalgaesourced from local sewage ponds.
B. We believe we are the first company in the world to test drive a car powered by wild algae-based biodiesel. This will come as a surprise to some internationalbio-diesel industry people who believe that this break-through is still yearsaway explains Aquaflow spokesperson Barrie Leay. A bunch of inventiveKiwis, and an Aussie, have developedthis fuel in just over a year, hecomments. This is a huge opportunityfor New Zealand and a great credit tothe team of people who saw thepotential in this technology from dayone.
C. Bio-diesel based on algae could Vegetable oil E10 Diesel eventually become a sustainable, low cost, cleaner burning fuel alternative forNew Zealand, powering family cars, trucks, buses and boats. It can also be used for other purposes such as heating or distributed electricity generation. There is now a global demand for billions of litres of biodiesel per year. Algae are alsoreadily available and produced in huge volumes in nutrient rich waste streamssuch as at the settling ponds of Effluent Management Systems (EMS). It is arenewable indigenous resource ideally suited to the production of fuel and otheruseful by-products. The breakthrough comes after technology start-up, Aquaflow,agreed to undertake a pilot with Marlborough District Council late last year toextract algae from the settling ponds of its EMS based in Blenheim. By removingthe main contaminant to use as a fuel feedstock, Aquaflow is also helping cleanup the councils water discharge - a process known as bio-remediation. Dairyfarmers, and many food processors too, can benefit in similar ways by applyingthe harvesting technology to their nutrient- rich waste streams.
D. Blended with conventional mineral diesel, bio-diesel can run vehicles without the need for vehicle modifications. Fuel derived from algae can also help meet the Government B5 (5% blended) target, with the prospect of this increasing over time as bio-fuel production increases. Our next step is to increase capacity to produce one million litres of bio-diesel from the Marlborough sewerage ponds over the next year says Leay. Aquaflow will launch a prospectus pre-Christmas as the company has already attracted considerable interest from potential investors. The test drive bio-diesel was used successfully in a static engine test at Massey Universitys Wellington campus on Monday, December 11.
E. Today Algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers, soil conditioners and livestock feed. Aquatic and microscopic species are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and are either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Naturally growing seaweeds are an importantsource of food, especially in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B, B2, B6,niacinandc,and are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesiumandcalcium. In addition commercially cultivated microalgae, including bothAlgae and Cyan-bacteria, are marketed as nutritional supplements, such asSpirulina Chlorellaand the Vitamin-C supplement, Dunaliella, high in beta-carotene. Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including choy,acyano-bacteriumconsidered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species. The natural pigmentsproduced by algae can be used as an alternative to chemical dyes and coloringagents.
F. Algae are the simplest plant organisms that convert sunlight and carbon dioxide in the air aroundUSinto stored energy through the well understood process ofphotosynthesis. Algae are rich in lipids and other combustible elements andAquaflow is developing technology that will allow these elements to be extracted in a cost effective way. The proposed process is the subject of a provisional patent. Althoughalgae are good at taking most of the nutrientsout of sewage, too much algae can taint thewater and make it smell. So, councils have to find a way of cleaning up the excess algae in their sewerage outflows and then either dispose of it or find alternative uses for it.And thats where Aquaflow comes in.
G. Unlike some bio-fuels which require crops to be specially grown and thereby compete for land use with food production, and use other scarce resources of fuel,chemicals and fertiliser, the source for algae-based biodiesel already existsextensively and the process produces a sustainable net energy gain by capturingfree solar energy from the sun.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15- 27 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Questions 15-19
Reading Passage 2 contains 7 paragraphs A -G.
Which paragraphs stale the following information?
Write the appropriate letters A - G in boxes 15-19 on your answer sheet.
You may use any letter more than once
15 It is unnecessary to modify vehicles driven by bio-diesel.
16 Some algae are considered edible plants.
17 Algae could be part of a sustainable and recycled source.
18 Algae bio-diesel is superior to other bio-fuels in lot a ways.
19 overgrown algea also can be a potential threat to environment
Questions 20-24
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingmore than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes20-24on your answer sheet.
Bio-diesel based on algae could become a substitute for 20............in New Zealand. It could be used to 21............ vehicles suchascarsandboats. As a result, billions of litres of bio-diesel are required world wide each year. Algae can be obtained from 22.............. with nutrient materials. With the technology breakthrough, algae are extracted and the 23 removed from the settling ponds. Dairy farmers, and many food processors can adopt such 24............ technology.
Question 25 -27
Choose words from the passage to answer the questions25 -27. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
25 What environmental standard would bio-diesel vehicles are to meet?
26 What is to do as the immediate plan for coming years for Aquaflow?
27 Through what kind of process do algae obtain and store energy?
Section 3
British Architecture 2
A. Architecture is about evolution, not revolution. It used to be thought that once the Romans pulled out of Britain in the fifth century, their elegant villas, carefully-planned towns and engineering marvels like Hadrian's Wall simply fell into decay as British culture was plunged into the Dark Ages.It took the Norman Conquest of 1066 to bring back the light, and the ốothic cathedral-builders of the Middle Ages played an important part in therevival of British culture. However, the truth is not as simple as thatRomano-British culture - and that included architecture along with language,religion, political organization and the arts - survived long after the Romanwithdrawal. And although the Anglo-Saxons had a sophisticated building style oftheir own, little survives to bear witness to their achievements as the vastmajority of Anglo-Saxon buildings were made of wood.
B. Even so, the period between the Norman landing at Pevensey in 1066 and the day in 1485 when Richard III lost his horse and his headat Bosworth, ushering in the Tudors and the /EarlyModern period, marks a rare flowering of Britishbuilding. And it is all the more remarkable becausethe underlying ethos ofmedieval architecture was 'fitness for purpose'. The great cathedrals and parish churches that lifted up their towers to heaven were not only acts of devotion in stone; they were also fiercely functional buildings.Castles served their particular purpose and their battlements and turrets were for use rather than ornament. In a sense, the buildings of the 16th century were also governed by fitness for purpose - only now, the purpose was verydifferent. In domestic architecture, in particular, buildings were used to displaystatus and wealth.
C. This stately and curious workmanship showed itself in various ways. A greater sense of security led to more outward-looking buildings, as opposed to the medieval arrangement where the need for defense created houses that facedinward onto a courtyard or series of courtyards. This allowed for much more inthe way of exterior ornament. The rooms themselves tended to be bigger andlighter - as an expensive commodity, the use of great expanses of glass was initself a statement of wealth. There was also a general move towards balanced andsymmetrical exteriors with central entrances.
D.With the exception of Inigo Jones (1573-1652), whose confident handling of classical detail and proportion set him apart from allother architects of the period, most early 17thcentury buildings tended to take the innocentexuberance of late Tudor work one step further. /Butduring the 1640s and 50s the Civil War and its aftermath sent many gentlemen and nobles to the Continent either to escape the fighting or, when the war was lost, to follow Charles II into exile. There theycame into contact with French, Dutch and Italian architecture and, withCharles's restoration in 1660, there was a flurry of building activity as royalistsreclaimed their property and built themselves houses reflecting the latestEuropean trends. The British Baroque was a reassertion of authority, anexpression of absolutist ideology by men who remembered a world turned upsidedown during the Civil War. The style is heavy and rich, sometimes overblown andmelodramatic. The politics which underpin it are questionable, but its productsare breathtaking.
/E. The huge glass-and-iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton to house the Great Exhibition of 1851, shows another strand to 19th century architecture -one which embraced new industrial processes. But it wasn't long before even this confidence in progress came to be regarded with suspicion. Mass production resulted inbuildings and furnishings that were tooperfect, as the individual craftsman nolonger had a major role in their creation.Railing against the dehumanising effects ofindustrialisation, reformers like John Ruskin and William Morris made aconcerted effort to return to hand-crafted, pre-industrial manufacturingtechniques. Morris's influence grew from the production of furniture andtextiles, until by the 1880s a generation of principled young architects wasfollowing his call for good, honest construction.
F. The most important trends in early 20th century architecture simply passed Britain by. Whilst Gropius was working on cold, hard expanses of glass, and LeCorbusier was experimenting with the use of reinforced concrete frames, we hadstaid establishment architects like Edwin Lutyens producing Neo-Georgian andRenaissance country houses for an outmoded landed class. In addition there wereslightly batty architect-craftsmen, the heirs of William Morris, still trying toturn the clock back to before the Industrial Revolution by making chairs andspurning new technology. Only a handful of Modern Movement buildings of anyreal merit were produced here during the 1920s and 1930s, and most of thesewere the work of foreign architects such as Serge Chermayeff, BertholdLubetkin and Erno Goldf inger who had settled in this country.
G.After the Second World War the situation began to change. The Modern Movement's belief in progress and the future struck a chord with the mood ofpost-war Britain and, as reconstruction began under Attlee's Labour governmentin 1945, there was a desperate need for cheap housing whichcould be produced quickly. The use of prefabricatedelements, metal frames, concrete cladding and the absenceof decoration - all of which had been embraced byModernists abroad and viewed with suspicion by the British -were adopted to varying degrees for housing developmentsand schools. Local authorities, charged with the task ofrebuilding city center,became important patrons ofarchitecture. This represented a shift away from the private individuals who haddominated the architectural scene for centuries.
H.Since the War it has been corporate bodies like these local authorities, together with national and multinational companies, and largeeducational institutions, which have dominatedBritish architecture. By the late 1980s the ModernMovement, unfairly blamed for the socialexperiments implicit in high-rise housing, had lost outto irony and spectacle in the shape of post-modernism, with its cheerful borrowings from anywhere and any period. But now, in the new Millennium, even post-modernism is showing signs of age. Whatcomes next? Post-post-modernism?
Questions 28-34
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 28-34 on your answer sheet.
28 The Anglo-Saxon architecture failed to last because the buildings were constructed in........
29 Different from the medieval architecture, the buildings of the 16thcentury represents...........
30 The costly glass was applied widely as an..............in that years
31 Inigo Jones was skilled at handling........style.
32 William Morris favored the production of ......... made in pre-industrial manufacturing techniques.
33 The architects such as...........provided the landlord with conservative houses.
34 After World War Two, the architect commission shifted from individual to..............
Questions 35-40
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.
35 The feature of medieval architecture was
A. immense
B. useful
C.decorative
D. bizarre
36 What contributes to the outward-looking buildings in the 16thcentury?
A. safety
B. beauty
C.quality
D. technology
37 Why were the buildings in the 1660s influenced by the latest European trends?
A. Because the war was lost.
B. Because the craftsman came from all over the Europe,
C.Because the property belongs to the gentlemen and nobles.
D. Because the monarch came back from the continent.
38 What kind of sense did the British Baroque imply?
A. tough
B. steady
C.mild
D. conservative
39 The individual craftsman was no more the key to creation for the appearance of
A. Crystal Palace
B. preindustrial manufacturing return
C.industrial process in scale
D. ornament
40 The building style changed after World War Two as a result of
A. abundant materials
B. local authority
C.shortage of cheap housing
D. conservative views
Reading Test 12
Section 1
Radio Automation forerunner of the integrated circuit
Today they are everywhere. Production lines controlled by computers and operated by robots. There's no chatter of assembly workers, justthe whirr and click of machines. In the mid-1940s,the workerless factory was still the stuff of sciencefiction. There were no computers to speak of andelectronics was primitive. Yet hidden away in theEnglish countryside was a highly automatedproduction line called ECME, which could turn out1500 radio receivers a day with almost no help fromhuman hands.
A. John Sargrove, the visionary engineer who developed the technology, was way ahead of his time. For more than a decade, Sargrove had been trying tofigure out how to make cheaper radios. Automating the manufacturing process would help. But radios didn't lend themselves to such methods:there were too many parts to fittogether and too many wires tosolder. Even a simple receiver mighthave 30 separate components and 80hand-soldered connections. At everystage, things had to be tested andinspected. Making radios requiredhighly skilled labourand lots of it.
B. In 1944, Sargrove came up with the answer. His solution was to dispense with most of the fiddly bits by inventing a primitive chipa slab of Bakelitewith all the receiver's electrical components and connections embedded in it.This was something that could be made by machines, and he designed thosetoo. At the end of the war, Sargrove built an automatic production line,which he called ECME (electronic circuit-making equipment), in a smallfactory in Effingham, Surrey.
ECME line
C. An operator sat at one end of each ECME line, feeding in die plates. She didn't need much skill, only quick hands. From now on, everything wascontrolled by electronic switches and relays. Firststop wasthe sandblaster,which roughened the surface of the plasticBOthat molten metal would stick to it The plates were then cleaned to removeany traces of grit The machine automaticallychecked that the surface was rough enoughbefore sending the plate to the spraying section. There, eight nozzles rotatedintoposition and sprayed molten zinc over both sides of the plate. Again, the nozzles only began to spray when a plate was in place. Theplate whizzed on. The next stop was the milling machine, which groundaway the surface layer of metal to leave the circuit and other components inthe grooves and recesses. Now the plate was a composite of metal andplastic. It sped on to be lacquered andhave its circuits tested. By the time it emerged from the end of the line, robot hands had fitted it with sockets to attach components such as valves and loudspeakers.When ECME was working flat out; the whole process took 20 seconds.
D. ECME was astonishingly advanced. Electronic eyes, photocells that generated a small current when a panel arrived, triggered each step in theoperation,BOavoiding excessive wear and tear on the machinery. The plates were automatically tested at each stage as they moved along the conveyor. And if morethan two plates in succession were duds, themachines were automatically adjustedor ifnecessary halted In a conventional factory, I workers would test faultycircuits and repair them. But Sargrove's assembly line produced circuits socheaply they just threw away the faulty ones. Sargroves circuit board waseven more astonishing for the time. It predated the more familiar printedcircuit, with wiring printed on aboard, yet was more sophisticated. Itsbuilt-in components made it more like a modem chip.
E. When Sargrove unveiled his invention at a meeting of the British Institution of Radio Engineers in February 1947, the assembled engineers wereimpressed. So was the man from The Times. ECME, he reported thefollowing day, "produces almost without human labour, a complete radioreceiving set. This new method of production can be equally well applied totelevision and other forms of electronic apparatus.
F. The receivers had many advantages over their predecessors, wit components they were more robust. Robots didn't make the sorts of mistakes human assembly workers sometimes did. "Wiring mistakes justcannot happen," wrote Sargrove. No wừes also meant the radios werelighter and cheaper to ship abroad. And with no soldered wires to comeunstuck, the radios were more reliable. Sargrove pointed out that the drcuitboards didn't have to be flat. They could be curved, opening up the prospectof building the electronics into the cabinet of Bakelite radios.
G. Sargrove was all for introducing this type of automation to other products. It could be used to make more complex electronic equipment than radios, heargued. And even if only part of a manufacturing process were automated,the savings would be substantial. But while his invention was brilliant, histiming was bad. ECME was too advanced for its own good. It was onlycompetitive on huge production runs because each new job meant retoolingthe machines. But disruption was frequent. Sophisticated as it was, ECMEstill depended on old-fashioned electromechanical relays and valveswhichfailed with monotonous regularity. The state of Britain's economy added toSargrove's troubles. Production was dogged by power cuts and post-warshortages of materials. Sargrove's financial backers began to get cold feet.
H. There was another problem Sargrove hadn't foreseen. One of ECME's biggest advantagesthe savings on the cost of labour—also accelerated itsdownfall. Sargrove's factory had two ECME production lines to produce thetwo cữcuits needed for each radio. Between them these did what a thousandassembly workers would otherwise have done. Human hands were neededonly to feed the raw material in at one end and plug the valves into thensockets and fit the loudspeakers at the other. After that, the only job left wasto fit the pair of Bakelite panels into a radio cabinet and check that itworked.
I. Sargrove saw automation as the way to solve post-war labour shortages. With somewhat Utopian idealism, he imagined his new technology wouldfree people from boring, repetitive jobs on the production line and allowthem to do more interesting work. "Don't get the idea that we are out to robpeople of then jobs," he told the Daily Mnror. "Our task is to liberate menand women from being slaves of machines."
J. The workers saw things differently. They viewed automation in the same light as the everlasting light bulb or the suit that never wears outas a threatto people's livelihoods. If automation spread, they wouldn't be released todo more exciting jobs. They'd be released to join the dole queue. Financialbacking for ECME fizzled out. The money dried up. And Britain lost its leadin a technology that would transform industry just a few years later.
Questions 1-7
Summary
The following diagram explains the process of ECME:
Complete the following chart of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers inboxes 1-7 on your answer sheet
Diagram for ECME line on Bakelite

Questions 8-11
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage. using TOmore than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Writs your answersinboxes 8-11 on your answer sheet
Summary
Sargrove had been dedicated to create a......8......radio by automation of manufacture. The old version of radio had a large number of independent.......9....... After thisinnovationmade,wireless-style radios became.......10.......and inexpensive to export oversea. As the Saigrove saw it, the real benefit of ECMEs radio was that it reduced......11......of manual work; which can be easily copied to other industries of manufacturing electronic devices.
Questions 12-13
Choose the correct letterA,B, corD.
Write your answers inboxes 12-13 on your answer sheet
12 What were workers attitude towardsECME Model initialy
A anxious
B welcoming
C boring
D inspiring
13 What is the main idea of this passage?
A approach to reduce the price of radio
B a new generation of fully popular products and successful business
C in application of die automation in the early stage
D ECME technology can be applied in many product fields
Section 2
Bestcom CONSIPERATE COMPUTING
A. YOUR BATTERY IS NOW FULLY CHARGED, ANNOUNCED THE LAPTOP COMPUTER to its owner, Donald A. Norman, withenthusiasmperhaps even a hint of pride? in its synthetic voice. To be sure,distractions and multitasking are hardly new to the human condition. Acomplicated life, continually interrupted by competing requests for attention, is as old as procreation, laughsTed Selker of theMassachusetts Institute ofTechnology Media Lab. But increasingly, it is not just ourkids pulling us three ways at once; it is also a relentlessbarrage of e-mail, alerts, alarms, calls, instant messages andautomated notifications, none of them coordinated and all of them oblivious towhether we are busyor even present. Its ridiculous that my own computercant figure out whether Im in front of it, but a public toilet can, exclaims RoelVertegaal of Queens University in Ontario.
B. Humanity has connected itself through roughly three billion networked telephones, computers, traffic lights even refrigerators and picture frames because thesethings make life more convenient and keepUSavailable to those we care about. Soalthough we could simply turn off the phones, close the e-mail program, and shutthe office door when it is time for a meeting or a stretch of concentrated work, weusually dont. We just endure the consequences.
C. Numerous studies have shown that when people are unexpectedly interrupted, they not only work less efficiently but also make more mistakes. It seems to addcumulatively to a feeling of frustration, Picard reports, and that stress responsemakes it hard to regain focus. It isnt merely a matter ofproductivity and the pace of life. For pilots, drivers, soldiers anddoctors, errors of inattention can be downright dangerous. If wecould just give our computers and phones some understanding ofthe limits of human attention and memory, it would make themseem a lot more thoughtful and courteous, says Eric Horvitz ofMicrosoft Research. Horvitz, Vertegaal, Selker and Picard are among a small but growing number of researches trying to teach computers, phones, care and other gadgets to behave less like egocentric oafs and more likeconsiderate colleagues.
D. Attentive" computing systems have begun appearing in newer Volvos and IBM has introduced Websphere communications software with a basic busyness sense.Microsoft has beat running extensive in-house tests of a much more sophisticatedsystem since 2003. Within a few years, companies may be able to offer everyoffice worker a software version of the personal receptionist that only comer-suiteexecutives enjoy today. But if such an offer should land in your inbox, be sure toread the print before you sign. An attentive system, by definition, is one that ỈBalways watching. That considerate computer may come to know more about yourwork habits than you do.
E. Most people aren't as busy as they think they are, which is why we can usually tolerateinterruptions from our inconsiderate electronic paraphernalia. JamesFogarty and Scott E. Hudson of Carnegie Mellon University recently teamed up with Jennifer Lai of IBM Research to study 10 managers, researchers and interns at work. Theyvideotaped the subjects and periodically hadthem rate then interruptibility. The amount of time the workers spent in leave-me-alone mode varied from person to person and day to day, ranging from 10 to 51 percent. Onaverage, the subjects wanted to work without interruption aboutone third of the time. In studies of Microsoft employees, Horvitz has similarly found that they typically spend morethan65 percentof theft day in a state of low attention.
F. Todays phones and computers, winch naively assume that die user is never too busy to take a call, read an email, or click OK on an alert box, thus are probablycorrect about two thirds of time. To be useful, then, considerate systems will haveto be more than 65 percent accurate in sensing when their users are near theftcognitive limits.
G. Bestcom/Enhanced Telephony, a Microsoft prototype based on Horvitzs weak, digs a little deeper into each users computer to find clues about what they are upto. Microsoft launched an internal beta test of the system in mid-2003. By lastOctober, Horvitz says, about 3,800 people were using the system to field theirincoming phone calls.
H. Horvitz himself is one of those testers, and while we talk in his office in Redmond, Wash, Bestcom silently handles one call afteranother. First it checks whether the caller islisted in his address book, the company directory, or its log of people he has called recently. Triangulating these sources, it tries to deduce their relationship. Family members, supervisors and people hecalled earlier today ring through Others see a message on their computer that heis in a meeting and wont be available until 3 RM. The system scans Horvitzs andthe callers calendar and offers to reschedule thecall at a time that is open for both Some callerschoose that option; others leave voice mail. E-mail messages get a similar screening. When Horvitz is out of the office, Bestcom automatically offers to forward selected callers to his cellphoneunless his calendar and other evidence suggest that he is in a meeting.
I. Most large companies already use computerized phone systems and standard calendar and contact management software, so tapping into those sensors" shouldbe straightforward. Not all employees will like the idea of having a microphone onall the time in them office, however, nor will everyone want to expose themdatebook to some program they do not ultimately control. Moreover, somemanagers might be tempted to equate a state of low attention with goofing offand punish those who seem insufficiently busy.
Questions 14-19
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement ừ false

NOT GIVEN
if the information is not given in the passage

14 According to Ted Selker, human productivity has been disturbed by officecompetitors frequently.
15 If people are interrupted by calls or E-mails, they usually put up with it instead oftaking uncooperative action
16 Microsoft is now investigating a software which is compatible with ordinaryoffice units
17 People usually have misperception about whether they are busy or not.
18 Researches conducted showed concentration-time span in office takes up onlyaverage a bit over than 65%.
19 Advanced phone and computer system will install a shortcut key for peoplereceive information immediately.
Question 20-26
Answer the questions in the diagram below.
Choose ONLY ONE WORDS AND/ORANUMBER from like passage for each answer.


Section 3
Environmentally-friendly! Vihicles
In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the government of California's"clean air agency", began a push for morefuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electricvehicles. In response, automakersdeveloped electric models, including theChrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickuptruck, GM EV1 and S10 EV pickup, HondaEV Plus hatchback, Nissan lithium-battery Altra EV miniwagon andToyota RAV4 EV. Ford Fusion is manufactured at Ford's HermosilloStamping & Assembly plant, located in Sonora Mexico. I thought goinggreen was supposed to provide theu.s.with more jobs.
B. The automakers were accused of pandering to the wishes of CARB in order to continue to be allowed to sell cars in the lucrative Californianmarket, while failing to adequately promote their electric vehicles in orderto create the impression that the consumers were not interested in thecars, all the while joining oil industry lobbyists in vigorously protestingCARB's mandate. GM's program came under particular scrutiny; in anunusual move, consumers were not allowed to purchase EVls, but wereinstead asked to sign closed-end leases, meaning that the cars had to bereturned to GM at the end of the lease period, with no option to purchase,despite lesser interest in continuing to own the cars. Chrysler, Toyota, anda group of GM dealers sued CARB in Federal court, leading to theeventual neutering of CARB's ZEV Mandate.
C. After public protests by EV drivers' groups upset by the repossession of then cars, Toyotaoffered the last 328 RAV4-EVS for sale to thegeneral public during six months, up untilNovember 22, 2002. Almost all other production electric cars were withdrawn from the market and were in some cases seen to have been destroyed by the manufacturers. Toyota continues to support the severalhundred Toyota RAV4-EV in the hands of the general public and in fleetusage. GM famously de-activated the few EVls that were donated toengineering schools and museums.
D. Throughout the 1990s, appeal of fuel-efficient or environmentally friendly cars declined among Americans, who instead favored sport utilityvehicles, which were affordable to operate despite their poor fuelefficiency thanks to lower gasoline prices. American automakers chose tofocus their product lines around the truck-based vehicles, which enjoyedlarger profit margins than the smaller cars which were preferred in placeslike Europe or Japan. In 1999, the Honda Insight hybrid car became thefirst hybrid to be sold in North America since the little-known Woodshybrid of 1917.
E. In 1995, Toyota debuted a hybrid concept car at the Tokyo Motor Show, with testing following a year later. The first Prius, model NHW10, wenton sale on December 10,1997. It was available only in Japan, though it hasbeen imported privately to at least the United Kingdom, Australia, andNew Zealand. The first generation Prius, at itslaunch, became the world's first mass-producedgasoline-electric hybrid car. The NHW10 Priusstyling originated from California designers, whowere selected over competing designs from other Toyota design studios.
F. In the United States, the NHW11 was the first Prius to be sold. The Prius was marketed between the smaller Corolla and the larger Camry. Thepublished retail price of the car was US$19,995. The NHWU Prius becamemore powerful partly to satisfy the higher speeds and longer distancesthat Americans drive. Air conditioning and electric power steering werestandard equipment. The vehicle was the second mass-produced hybridon the American market, after the two-seat Honda Insight While thelarger Prius could seat five, its battery pack restricted cargo space.
G. Hybrids, which featured a combined gasoline and electric powertrain, were seen as a balance, offering an environmentally friendly image andimproved fuel economy, without being hindered by the low range ofelectric vehicles, albeit at an increased price over comparable gasolinecars. Sales were poor, the lack of interest attributed to the car's small sizeand the lack of necessity for a fuel-efficient car at the time. The 2000senergy crisis brought renewed interest in hybrid and electric cars. In America, sales of the Toyota Prius jumped, and a variety of automakers followed suit, releasing hybrid models of theữ own. Several began toproduce new electric car prototypes, as consumers called for cars thatwould free them from the fluctuations of oil prices.
H. In 2000, Hybrid Technologies, later renamed Li-ion Motors, started manufacturing electric cars in Mooresville, North Carolina. There has been increasing controversy with Li-ion Motors though due to the ongoing 'Lemon issues'regarding their product. And their attempt tocover it up. California electric car maker TeslaMotors began development in 2004 on the TeslaRoadster, which was first delivered to customersin 2008. The Roadster remained the onlyhighway-capable EV in serial production and available for sale until 2010.Senior leaders at several large automakers, including Nissan and GeneralMotors, have stated that the Roadster was a catalyst which demonstratedthat there is pent-up consumer demand for more efficient vehicles. GMVice Chairman Bob Lutz said in 2007 that the Tesla Roadster inspired himto push GM to develop the Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid sedanprototype that aims to reverse years of dwindling market share andmassive financial losses for America's largest automaker. In an August2009 edition of The New Yorker, Lutz was quoted as saying, "All thegeniuses here at General Motors kept saying lithium-ion technology is 10years away, and Toyota agreed withUS-- and boom, along comes Tesla.So I said, 'How come some tiny little California startup, run by guys whoknow nothing about the car business, can do this, and we can't?' That wasthe crowbar that helped break up the logjam."
Question 27-30
Choose the correct letter,A,B,cor D.
27 What does the author think of the factory in Sonora in Mexico where the ford fusion is manufactured?
A the factory should be helpful in the US soil business!
B Employment of US will be created as consumers change their awareness;
C More competitive cars will be introduced into the market!
D this issue is hard to give a predict
28 In 1990s, what dropped in America for the environmentally friendly vehicles?
A production
B Attractiveness
C Announcement
D Expectation
29 What did GM notably send to engineering schools and museums?
A EV 1
B CARB
C RAV4
D MINI E
30 Nissan and GM high level leaders declared the real reason for the popularity of Roadster is its
A legendary concept
B huge population in market
C bursting demand
D artistic design
Questions 31-35
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage In boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet,write
YES if the Statement is true no if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 
31 Some automakers mislead and suppressed the real demand for electric cars ofkeeping profit in certain market by luring the want of CARB.
32 Toyota started to sell 328 RAV4-EVS for taking up the market share.
33 In some countries, American auto-makers would like grab opportunity to earnmoney in vehicle of bigger litre engine cars rather than smaller ones
34 Hybrids cars are superior vehicles that combine impression of a environmentallyfriendly electric power engine and a lower price in unit sale.
35 an inspiration to make effort to produce hybrid cars is to coping with economicdifficulties result from an declining market for General Motors.
Questions 36-40
Complete the summary using the of words,A-Lbelow.
Write the correct letter, A-L in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
A .........36.......... was firstly introduced by Car maker Toyota in 1995. Then it started for sale in 1997 with a new first generation model. Not only in Japan, but included other countries such as .........37..........and Oceania in whichthe Prius was imported to. The first generation Prius was the first car in mass production which is powered by.........38...........The modelNHW10wasdesignedbyawinning Californian designer The innovated NHW 11 Prius has considerably higher running velocity and.........39..........than American counterparts. Still, the load capacity of current Prius version was limited in its .........40..........
A electric car
BUnited Kingdom
C Market
Dconceptcar
E longer distances
F Emissions
G battery
H Consumers
I gasoline-electricity
J inspiration
K cargo space
L orientation

Reading Test 13
Section 1
Bondi Beach
A. Bondi Beach, Australias most famous beach, is located in the suburb of Bondi, in the Local Government Area of Waverley, sevenkilometers from the centre of Sydney. "Bondi" or"Boondi" is an Aboriginal word meaning waterbreaking over rocks or the sound of breakingwaves. The Australian Museum records thatBondi means place where a flight of nullas tookplace. There are Aboriginal Rock carvings on thenorthern end of the beach at Ben Buckler and south of Bondi Beach near McKenzies Beach on die coastal walk.
B. The indigenous people of the area at the time of European settlement have generally been welcomed to as the Sydney people or the Eora (Eora means "thepeople"). One theory describes the Eora asa sub-group of the Darug language groupwhich occupied the Cumberland Plainwest to the Blue Mountains. However, another theory suggests that they were adistinct language group of then own. There is no clear evidence for the name ornames of the particular band(s) of the Eora that roamed what is now the Waverleyarea, A number of place names within Waverley, most famously Bondi, have beenbased on words derived from Aboriginal languages of the Sydney region.
C. From the mid-1800s Bondi Beach was a favourite location for family outings and picnics. The beginnings of the suburb go back to 1809, when the early roadbuilder, William Roberts, received from Governor Bligh a grant of 81 hectares ofwhat is now most of the business and residential area of Bondi Beach. In 1851,Edward Smith Hall and Francis O'Brien purchased 200 acres of the Bondi areathat embracedalmost the whole frontage of Bondi Beach, and it was named the"The Bondi Estate." Between 1855 and 1877 O'Brien purchased Hall's share ofthe land, renamed the land the "O'Brien Estate," and made the beach and thesurrounding land available to the public as a picnic ground and amusement resort.As the beach became increasingly popular, O'Brien threatened to stop public beach access. However, die Municipal Council believed that the Government needed to intervene to make the beach a public reserve.
D. During the 1900s beach became associated with health, leisure and democracy - a playground everyone could enjoy equally. Bondi Beach was a working classsuburb throughout most of the twentieth century with migrant people from NewZealand comprising the majority of the local population. The first tramwayreached the beach in 1884. Following this,tram became the first public transportationin Bondi- As an alternative, this actionchanged die rule that only rich people canenjoy the beach- By the 1930s Bondi was drawing not only local visitors but alsopeople from elsewhere in Australia and overseas. Advertising at the time referredto Bondi Beachasthe "Playground of the Pacific".
E. There is a growing trend that people prefer having relax near seaside instead of living unhealthily in cities. The increasing popularity of sea bathing during thelate 1800s and early 1900s raised concerns about public safety and how toprevent people from drowning. In response, the world's first formally documentedsurf lifesaving club, the Bondi Surf Bathers' life Saving Club, was formed in1907. This was powerfully reinforced by the dramatic events of "Black Sunday"at Bondi in 1938. Some 35,000 people were on the beach and a large group oflife savers were about to start a surf race when three freak waves hit the beach,sweeping hundreds of people out to sea. Lifesavers rescued 300 people. Thelargest mass rescue in the history of surf bathing, it confirmed the place of thelife saver ỉn the national imagination.
F. Bondi Beach Is the end point of the City to Surf Fun Run which is held each year in August Australian surf carnivals further instilled this image. A Royal SurfCarnival was held at Bondi Beach for the Queen Elizabeth n during her firstvisited in Australia, in 1954. Since 1867, there have been over fifty visits by amember of the British Royal Family to Australia. In addition to many activities,the Bondi Beach Markets is open every Sunday. Many wealthy people spendChristmas Day at the beach. However, the shortage of houses occurs when lots ofpeople crushed to seaside. Manly is the seashore town which solved this problem.However, people still choose Bondi as the satisfied destination rather than Manly.
G. Bondi Beach has a commercial area along Campbell Parade and adjacent side streets, featuring many popular cafes, restaurants, and hotels, with views of thecontemporary beach. It is depicted as wholly modem and European. In the lastdecade, Bondi Beaches' unique position has Been a dramatic rise in svelte housesand apartments to take advantage of the views and scent of the sea. The valleynaming down to the beach is famous world over for its view of distinctive red tiled roofs. Those architectures are deeply influenced by British costal town.
H. Bondi Beach hosted the beach volleyball competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics. A temporary 10,000-seat stadium, a much smaller stadium, 2 warm-upcourts, and 3 training courts were set up to host the tournament. The Bondi BeachVolleyball Stadium was constructed for it and stood for just six weeks.Campaigners oppose both the social and environmental consequences of thedevelopment. The stadium will divide the beach in two and seriously restrictpublic access for swimming, walking, and other forms of outdoor recreation.People protest for their human rights of having a pure seaside and argue forhealth life in Bondi.
I. "They're prepared to risk lives and risk the Bondi beach environment for the sake of eight days of volleyball", said Stephen Uniacke, a construction lawyer involved in the campaign. Other environmental concerns include the possibility that soil dredged up from below the sand will acidify when brought to the surface.
Questions 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the Statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 1 The name of the Bondi beach is first called by the British settlers.
2 The aboriginal culture in Australia is different when compared with Europeanculture.
3 Bondi beach area holds many contemporary hotels
4 The seaside town in Bondi is affected by British culture for its characteristic redcolor.
5 Living near Bondi seashore is not beneficial for health.
Questions 6-9
Answer the questions below usingNO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR NUMBERSfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 6-9 onyour answer sheet
6 At the end of 19thcentury, which public transport did people use to go to bondi?
7 When did the British Royalty first visit Bondi?
8 Which Olympic event did Bondi hold in 2000 Sydney Olympic games?
9 What would be damaged if the stadium was built for that Olympic event?
Questions 10-13
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more thantwo wordsfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
Bondi beach holds the feature sport activities every year, which attracts lot of......10.........choosing to live at this place during holidays. But local accommodation cannot meet with the expanding population, a nearby town of.......11.........is the first suburb site to support the solution, yet people prefer .......12.........as their best choice. Its seaside buildings are well-known in the world for the special scenic colored..13. on buildings and the joyful smell from the sea

Section 2
Hunting Perfume inMadagascar!
A. Ever since theunguentariplied their trade in ancient Rome, perfumers have to keep abreast of changing fashions. These days they have several thousand ingredients to choose from whencreating new scents, but there is always demand for new combinations.The bigger the "palette7of smells, the better the perfumer's chance of creating something fresh and appealing. Even with everyday products such asshampoo and soap, kitchen cleanersand washing powders, consumers arebecoming increasingly fussy. And manyof today's fragrances have to survivetougher treatment than ever before,resisting the destructive power ofbleach or a high temperature wash cycle. Chemists can create new smellsfrom synthetic molecules, and a growing number of the odours on theperfumer's palette are artificial. But nature has been in the business farlonger.
B. The island ofMadagascar is an evolutionary hot spot; 85% of its plants are unique, making it an ideal source for novel fragrances.Last October, Quest International, acompany that develops fragrancesfor everything from the mostdelicate perfumes to cleaningproducts, sent an expedition toMadagascar in pursuit of some ofnature's most novel fragrances. Withsome simple technology, borrowedfrom the pollution monitoring industry, and a fair amount of ingenuity,the perfume hunters bagged 20 promising new aromas in the Madagascanrainforest. Each day the team set out from their "hotel"a wooden hut litby kerosene lamps, and trailed up and down paths and animal tracks,exploring the thick vegetation up to 10 meters on either side of the trail.Some smells came from obvious places, often big showy flowers within easy reach- Others were harder to pin down. "Often it was the very small flowers that were much more interesting, says Clery. After theluxurianceoftherainforest,the little-known island of Nosy Hara was a stark, dry place geologically and biologically very different from the mainland, "Apart from two beaches, the rest of the Island Isimpenetrable, except by hacking through the bush, says Clery. One of thebiggest prizes here was a sweet-smelling sap weeping from the gnarledbranches of some ancient shrubby trees in theparched Interior. So far no one has been able toidentify the plant.
C. With most flowers or fruits, the hunters used a technique originally designed to trap and identify air pollutants. The technique itself isrelatively simple. A glass bell jar or flaskỈSfitted over the flower. Thefragrance moleculesare trapped in this “headspace” and can be extracted by pumping the air out over a series of filters which absorb different types of volatile molecules. Back home in the laboratory, themolecules are flushed out of the filters and injected into a gaschromatograph for analysis. If it Is Impossible to attach the headspacegear, hunters fix an absorbent probe close to the source of the smell. Theprobe looks something like a hypodermic syringe, except that the 'needle'is made of silicone rubber which soaks up molecules from the air. After afew hours, the hunters retract the rubber needle and seal the tube,keeping the odour molecules inside until they can.be injected into the gaschromatograph in the laboratory.
D. Some of the most promising fragrances were those given, off by resins that oozed from the bark of trees. Resins are the source of many traditional perfumes, including frankincense and myrrh. The most exciting resin came from a Calophyllumtree, which produces a strongly scented medicinal oil. The sap of this Calophyllum smelt rich and aromatic, a little like church incense. But It also smelt of something the fragrance industry has learnt to live without castoreumasubstance extracted from the musk glands of beavers and once a key ingredient in many perfumes. The company does not useanimal products any longer, but was wonderful to find a tree with ananimal smell.
E. The group also set out from the island to capture the smell of coral reefs. Odors that conjure up sun kissed seas are highly sought after by the perfume industry. "From the ocean, the only thing we have is seaweed, and that has a dark and heavy aroma. We hope to find somethingunique among the corals," says Dir. The challenge for the hunters was toextract a smell from water rather than air. This was an opportunity to tryClery's new "aquaspace" apparatusasetoffiltersthatwork underwater. On Nosy Hara, jars were fixed over knobs of coral about 2 meters down and water pumped out over the absorbent filters. So whatdoes coral smell like? "It's a bit like lobster and crab," says Clery. Theteam's task now is to recreate the best of then captured smells. First theymust identify the molecules that make up each fragrance. Someingredients may be quite common chemicals. But some may becompletely novel, or they may be too complex or expensive to make in thelab. The challenge then is to conjure up the fragrances with more readilyavailable materials. "We can avoid the need to import plants from therainforest by creating the smell with a different set of chemicals fromthose in the original material," says Clery. "If we get it right, you can sniffthe sample and it will transport you straight back to the moment yousmelt it in the rainforest."
Questions 14-19
The reading passage has seven paragraphs A-E
Which paragraphs contains the following details Write the correct number, A-E, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14 One currently preferred spot to pick up plants for novel finding
15 A new task seems to be promising yet producing limited finding in fragrance source
16 The demanding conditions for fragrance to endure.
17 A substitute for substance no longer available to the perfume manufacture
18 Description of an outdoor expedition on land chasing new fragrances.
Questions 19-23
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN if the statement is true
if the statement is false
if the information is not given in the passage 19 Manufacturers can choose to use synthetic odours for the perfume nowadays.
20 Madagascar is chosen to be a place for hunting plants which are rare in other parts of the world.
21 Capturing the smell is one of the most important things for creating new aromas.
22 The technique the hunters used to trap fragrance molecules is totally out of their ;ingenuity.
23 Most customers prefer the perfume made of substance extracted from the musk Iglands of animals.
Questions 24-26
Filling the blanks and answer the questions below withonly one word.


Section 3
The Exploration of Mars
A. In 1877, Giovanni Schiaparelli, an Italian astronomer, made drawings and maps of the Martian surface that suggested strange features. The images from telescopes at this time were not as sharp as today's. Schiaparelli said he could see a network of lines, or canali. In 1894, an American astronomer, Percival Lowell, made a series of observations of Mars from his own observations of Mars from his own observatory at Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. Lowell was convinced a great network of canals had been dug to irrigate crops for the Martian race! He suggested that each canal had fertile vegetation on either side, making them noticeable from Earth. Drawings and globes he made show a network of canals and oases all over the planet.
B. The idea that there was intelligent life on Mars gained strength in the late 19th century. In 1898, H.G. Wells wrote a science fiction classic, The War of the Worlds about an invading force of Martians who try to conquer Earth. They use highly advanced technology (advancedfor 1898) to crush human resistance in their path. In1917, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote the first in a seriesof 11 novels about Mars. Strange beings and rampagingMartian monsters gripped the public's imagination. Aradio broadcast by Orson Welles on Halloween night in1938 of The War of the Worlds caused widespreadpanic across America. People ran into the streets in their pyjamas-millionsbelieved the dramatic reports of a Martian invasion.
C. Probes are very important to our understanding of other planets. Much of our recent knowledge comes from these robotic missions into space. The first imagessent back from Mars came from Mariner 4 in July 1965. They showed a crateredand barren landscape, more like the surface of our moon than Earth. In 1969,Mariners 6 and 7 were launched and took 200 photographs of Mars's southernhemisphere and pole on fly-by missions. But these showed little moreinformation. In 1971, Mariner 9's mission was to orbit the planet every 12 hours.In 1975, The USA sent two Viking probes to the planet, each with a lander and anorbiter. The Landers had sampler arms to scoop up Maritain rocks and did experiments to try and find signs of life. Although no life was found, they sent back the first colour pictures of the planets surface and atmosphere from pivotingcameras.
D. The Martian meteorite found in Earth aroused doubts to the above analysis. ALH84001 meteorite was discovered in December 1984 in Antarctica, by members of the ANSMET project; The sample was ejected from Mars about 17 million years ago and spent 11,000 years in or on theAntarctic ice sheets. Composition analysisby NASA revealed a kind of magnetite that on Earth, is only found in associationwith certain microorganisms. Some structures resembling the mineralized casts ofterrestrial bacteria and their appendages fibrils or by-products occur in the rims ofcarbonate globules and pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration regions. The size andshape of the objects is consistent with Earthly fossilized nanobacteriabut the existence of nanobacteria itself is still controversial.
E. In 1965, the Mariner 4 probe discovered that Mars had no global magnetic field that would protect the planet from potentially life-threatening cosmic radiation and solar radiation; observations made in the late 1990s by the Mars Global Surveyor confirmed this discovery. Scientists speculate that the lack of magnetic shielding helpedthe solar wind blow away much of Mars'satmosphere over the course of several billion years.After mapping cosmic radiation levels at variousdepths on Mars, researchers have concluded that anylife within the first several meters of the planet'ssurface would be killed by lethal doses of cosmicradiation. In 2007, it was calculated that DNA andRNA damage by cosmic radiation would limit life on Mars to depths greater than7.5 metres below the planet's surface. Therefore, the best potential locations fordiscovering life on Mars may be at subsurface environments that have not beenstudied yet. Disappearance of the magnetic field may played an significant role inthe process of Martian climate change. According to the valuation of the scientists,the climate of Mars gradually transits from warm and wet to cold and dry aftermagnetic field vanished.
F. NASA's recent missions have focused on another question: whether Mars held lakes or oceans of liquid water on its surface in the ancient past. Scientists havefound hematite, a mineral that forms in the presence of water. Thus, the mission ofthe Mars Exploration Rovers of 2004 was not to look for present or past life, butfor evidence of liquid water on the surface of Mars in the planet's ancient past. Liquid water, necessary for Earth life and for metabolism as generally conducted by species on Earth, cannot exist on the surface of Mars under its present lowatmospheric pressure and temperature, except at the lowest shaded elevations forshort periods and liquid water does not appear at the surface itself. In March 2004,NASA announced that its rover Opportunity had discovered evidence that Marswas, in the ancient past, a wet planet. This had raised hopes that evidence of pastlife might be found on the planet today. ESA confirmed that the Mars Expressorbiter had directly detected huge reserves of water ice at Mars south pole inJanuary 2004.
G. Researchers from the Center of Astrobiology (Spain) and the Catholic University of the North in Chile have found an oasis of microorganisms two meters belowthe surface of the Atacama Desert, SOLID, a detector for signs of life which couldbe used in environments similar to subsoil on Mars. We have named it amicrobial oasis because we found microorganisms developing in a habitat thatwas rich in rock salt and other highly hygroscopic compounds that absorb waterexplained Victor Parro, researcher from the Center ofAstrobiology in Spain. If there are similar microbes onMars or remains in similar conditions to the ones wehave found in Atacama, we could detect them with instruments like SOLID Parro highlighted.
H. Even more intriguing, however, is the alternative scenario by Spanish scientists: If those samples could be found to that use DNA, as Earthly life does, as their geneticcode. It is extremely unlikely that such a highlyspecialised, complex molecule like DNA could haveevolved separately on the two planets, indicating that theremust be a common origin for Martian and Earthly life. Lifebased on DNA first appeared on Mars and then spread to Earth, where it thenevolved into the myriad forms of plants and creatures that exist today. Ifthis was found to be the case, we would have to face the logical conclusion: weare all Martian. If not, we would continue to search the life of signs.
Questions 27-32
The reading Passage has seven paragraphsA-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A- H, in boxes27-32on your answer sheet.
27 Martian evidence on Earth
28 Mars and Earth may share the same life origin
29 certain agricultural construction was depicted specifically
30 the project which aims to identify life under similar condition of Mars
31 Mars had experienced terrifying climate transformation
32 Attempts in scientific investigation to find liquid water
Questions 33-36
Choose the correct letter,A, B, corD.
Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
33 How didPercival Lowelldescribe Mars in this passage?
A.Perfect observation location is in Arizona.
B.Canals of Mars are broader than that of the earth,
C.Dedicated water and agriculture trace is similar to the earth.
D.Actively moving Martian lives are found by observation.
34 How did people change their point of view towards Marsfrom 19th century?
A. They experienced Martian attack.
B.They learned knowledge of mars through some literature works.
C.They learned new concept by listening famous radio program.
D.They attended lectures given by famous writers.
35 In 1960s, which information is correct about Mars by a number of Probes sent tothe space?
A. It has a landscape full of rock and river
B.It was not as vivid as the earth
C.It contained the same substance as in the moon
D.It had different images from the following probes
36What is the implication of project proceeded by technology calledSOLIDinAtacama Desert?
A. It could be employed to explore organisms under Martian condition.
B.This technology could NOT be used to identify life on similar condition of Mars.
C.Atacama Desert is the only place that has a suitable environment for organisms.
D.Life had not yet been found yet in Atacama Desert.
Questions 37-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement istrue
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
37 Technology of Martian creature was superior than what human had at that timein every field according toThe War of the Worlds.
38 Proof sent by Viking probes has not been challenged yet.
39 Analysis on meteorite from Mars found a substance which is connected to somegerms.
40 According to Victor Parro, their project will be deployed on Mars after theyidentified DNA substance on earth.

Reading Test 14
Section 1
Traditional Farming System in Africa
A. By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals, but as in many other parts of Africa is allocated by the headman or headwoman of a village to people of either sex, according to need. Since land is generally prepared by hand, one ulupwa cannot take on a very large area; in this sense land has not been a limiting resource over large parts of the province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a scarcity of land for cultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership patterns are becoming prevalent.
B. Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula, as in the Bemba area to the east, is based on citemene, a system whereby crops are grownon the ashes of tree branches. As a rule, entire trees arenot felled, but are pollarded so that they can regenerate. Branches are cut over an area of varying size early in the dry season, and stacked to dry over a rough circleabout a fifth to a tenth of the pollarded area. The woodis fired before the rains and in the first year plantedwith the African cereal finger millet (Eleusinecoracana).
C. During the second season, and possibly for a few seasons more the area is planted to variously mixed combinations of annuals such as maize, pumpkins (Telfiriaoccidentalis) and other cucurbits, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, Phaseolus beansand various leafy vegetables, grown with a certain amount of rotation. Thediverse sequence ends with vegetable cassava, which is often planted into thedeveloping last-but-one crop as a relay.
D. Richards (1969) observed that the practice of citemene entails a definite division of labour between men and women. A man stakes out a plot in an unobtrusivemanner, since it is considered provocative towards one's neighbours to markboundaries in an explicit way. The dangerous work of felling branches is the men's province, and involves much pride. Branches are stacke by the women, and fired by the men. Formerly women and men cooperated in the planting work, butthe harvesting was always done by the women. At the beginning of the cycle littleweeding is necessary, since the firing of the branches effectively destroys weeds.As the cycle progresses weeds increase and nutrients eventually become depletedto a point where further effort with annual crops is judged to be not worthwhile:at this point the cassava is planted, since it can produce a crop on nearlyexhausted soil. Thereafter the plotis abandoned, and a new areapollarded for the next citemenecycle.
E. When forest is not available - this is increasingly the case nowadays- various ridging systems (ibala)are built on small areas, to beplanted with combinations ofmaize, beans, groundnuts and sweet potatoes, usually relayed with cassava. These plots are usually tended by women, and provide subsistence. Where their roots have year-round access towater tables mango, guava and oil-palm trees often grow around houses, forminga traditional agroforestry system. In season some of the fruit is sold by theroadside or in local markets.
F. The margins of dambos are sometimes planted to local varieties of rice during the rainy season, and areas adjacent to vegetables irrigated with water from thedambo during the dry season. The extent of cultivation is very limited, no doubtbecause the growing of crops under dambo conditions calls for a great deal ofskill. Near towns some of the vegetable produce is sold in local markets.
G. Fishing has long provided a much needed protein supplement to the diet of Luapulans, as well as being the one substantial source of cash. Much fish is dried for sale to areas away from the main waterways. The Mweru and Bangweulu Lake Basins are the main areas of year-round fishing, but the Luapula River is also exploited during the latter part of the dry season. Several previously abundant and desirable species, such as the Luapula salmon or mpumbu (Labeo altivelis) and pale (Sarotherodon machochir) have all but disappeared from Lake Mweru, apparently due to mismanagement.
H. Fishing has always been a far more remunerative activity in Luapula that crop husbandry. A fisherman may earn more in a week than a bean or maize grower ina whole season. I sometimes heard claims that the relatively high earnings to beobtained from fishing induced an easy come, easy go outlook among Luapulanmen. On the other hand, someone who secures good but erratic earnings may feelthat their investment in an economically productive activity is not worthwhilebecause Luapulans fail to cooperate well in such activities. Besides, a fishermanwith spare cash will find little in the way of working equipment to spend hismoney on. Better spend one's money in the bars and have a good time!
I. Only small numbers of cattle or oxen are kept in the province owing to the prevalence of the tse-tse fly. For the few herds, the dambos provide subsistencegrazing during the dry season. The absence of animal draft power greatly limitspeoples' ability to plough and cultivate land: a married couple can rarely manageto prepare by hand-hoeing. Most people keep freely roaming chickens and goats.These act as a reserve for bartering, but may also be occasionally slaughtered forceremonies or for entertaining important visitors. These animals are not a regularpart of most peoples' diet.
J. Citemene has been an ingenious system for providing people with seasonal production of high quality cereals and vegetables in regions of acid, heavilyleached soils. Nutritionally, the most serious deficiency was that of protein. Thiscould at times be alleviated when fish was available, provided that cultivatorslived near the Valley and could find the means of bartering for dried fish. Thecitemene/fishing system was well adapted to the ecology of the miombo regionsand sustainable for long periods, but only as long as human population densitiesstayed at low levels. Although population densities are still much lower than inseveral countries of South-East Asia, neither the fisheries nor the forests andwoodlands of Luapula are capable, with unmodified traditional practices, ofsupporting the people in a sustainable manner.
Overall, people must learn to intensify and diversify their productive systems while yet ensuring that these systems will remain productive in the future, when even morepeople will need food. Increasing overall production offood, though a vast challengein itself, will not be enough, however. At the same time storage and distributionsystems must allow everyone access to at least a moderate share of the total.
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 1-13, which are based on reading passage 1 on the following pages.
Questions 1-4
Complete the sentences below with words taken from Reading Passage!.
ChooseNO MORE THAN TWO WORDSfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1 In Luapula land allocation is in accordance with..........
2The citemene system provides the land with.......where crops are planted.
3 During the second season, the last planted crop is.........
4 Under suitable conditions, fruit trees are planted near..........
Questions 5-8
Classify the following items with the correct description.Write your answers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet
A. fish
B. oxen
C.goats
------------------
5. be used in some unusual occasions, such as celebrations.
6. cannot thrive for being affected by the pests.
7. be the largest part of creating profit.
8. be sold beyond the local area.
Questions 9-12
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 9-12 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT QVEN if there is no information on this 9. People rarely use animals to cultivate land.
10. When it is a busy time, children usually took part in the labor force.
11. The local residents eat goats on a regular time.
12. Though citemene has been a sophisticated system, it could not provide enoughprotein.
Questions 13
Choose the correct letter. A, B,cor D.
Write the correct letter in the box 13 on your answer sheet.
What is the writers opinion about the traditional ways of practices?
A. They can supply the nutrition that people need.
B. They are not capable of providing adequate support to the population,
C.They are productive systems that need no more improving.
D. They will be easily modified in the future.
Section 2
Griffith and American films
Movies are key cultural artifacts that offer a window into American cultural and social history. A mixture of art, business, and popular entertainment, the movies provide a host of insights intoAmericans shifting ideals, fantasies, and preoccupations

A. Many films of the early silent era dealt with gender relations. Before 1905, as Kathy Peiss has argued, movie screens were filled with salacious sexual imagery and risque humor, drawnfrom burlesque halls and vaudeville theaters. Early filmsoffered many glimpses of women disrobing or of passionatekisses. As the movies' female audience grew, sexual titillationand voyeurism persisted. But an ever increasing number offilm dealt with the changing work and sexual roles of womenin a more sophisticated manner. While D.w. Griffith's filmspresented an idealized picture of the frail Victorianchild-woman, and showed an almost obsessive preoccupation with female honor and chastity, other silent movies presented quite different images of femininity. These ranged from the exotic, sexually aggressive vamp to the athletic, energetic"serial queen"; the street smart urban working gal, who repels the sexual advances of herlascivious boss; and cigarette-smoking, alcohol drinking chorus girls or burlesque queens.
B. In early 1910, director D.w. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, MaryPickford, Lionel Barrymore, and others. While there, the company decided to explore newterritories, traveling several miles north to Hollywood, a little village that was friendly andenjoyed the movie company filming there. By focusing the camera on particular actors andactresses, Griffith inadvertently encouraged the development of the star system. As early as1910, newspapers were deluged with requests for actors' names. But most studios refused todivulge their identities, fearing the salary demands of popular performers. As one industryobserver put it, "In the 'star' your producer gets not only a 'production' value...but a'trademark' value, and an 'insurance' value which are...very potent in guaranteeing the sale ofthis product." As the star system emerged, salaries soared. In the course of just two years, thesalary of actress Mary Pickford rose from less than $400 a week in 1914 to $10,000 a weekin 1916. This action made Griffith believe the big potential in movieindustry. Thus many competitors completely copy the same systemas Griffith used, for the considerable profits. Additionally, they alsostudy the theory and methods which Griffith suggested.
C. From the moment America entered the war, Hollywood feared that the industry would be subject to heavy-handed government censorship. But the government itself wanted no repeat of World War I, when the Committee on Public Information had whipped up anti-Germanhysteria and oversold the war as "a Crusade not merely to re-win the tomb of Christ, but tobring back to earth the rule of right, the peace, goodwill to men and gentleness he taught.
D. The formation of the movie trust ushered in a period of rationalization within the film industry. Camera and projecting equipment was standardized; film rental fees were fixed;theaters were upgraded; which improved the quality of movies by removing damaged printsfrom cnculation. This was also a period intense artistic and technical innovation, aspioneering directors like David Wark Griffith and others created a new language of film andrevolutionized screen narrative.
E. With just six months of film experience, Griffith, a former stage actor, was hired as a director by the Biograph Companyand promised $50 a week andone-twentieth of a cent for every foot offilm sold to a rental exchange. Each week, Griffith turned out two or three one-reelers. While earlier directors hadused such cinematic devices as close ups,slow motion, fade-ins and fade-outs,lighting effects, and editing before, Griffith's great contribution to the movie industry was to show how these techniques could be used to create a wholly new style of storytelling, distinct from the theater. Griffith's approachto movie storytelling has been aptly called "photographic realism. "This is not to say that hemerely wished to record a story accurately; rather he sought to convey the illusion of realism.He demanded that his performers act less in a more lifelike manner, avoiding the broad,exaggerated gestures and pantomiming of emotions that characterized the nineteenth centurystage. He wanted his performers to take on a role rather than directly addressing the camera.Above all, he used close-ups, lighting, editing, and other cinematic techniques conveysuspense and other emotions and to focus the audience's attention on individual performers.
F. During the 1920s and 1930s, a small group of film companies consolidated then control. Known as the "Big Five" - Paramount, Warner Brothers, RKO, 20th Century-Fox, andLowe's (MGM) and the "Little Three" - Universal, Columbia, and United Artists, they formedfully integrated companies. The old film companys opposition was shocked by newtycoons. The confusion of tongues in the foreign version of American films deepened whenAmerican directors themselves embarked on the shooting of the new version. They did notusually speak Spanish (or the given target language) and, at that time, there were only fewtranslators at the studios disposal. For this reason, it was more general to contract Spanishdirectors, actors, and screenwriters to produce American films in Spanish for Latin Americanaudiences and for the public in the Iberian Peninsula. Hollywood had depended on overseasmarkets for as much as 40 percent of its revenue. But in an effort to nurture then own film industries and prevent an excessive outflow of dollars, Britain, France, and Italy imposed stiff import tariffs and restrictive quotas on imported American movies.
G. A basic problem facing today's Hollywood is the rapidly rising cost of making and marketing a movie: an average of $40 million today. The immense cost of producing movies has led the studios to seek guaranteed hits: blockbuster loaded with high-tech special effects, sequels, and remakes of earlier movies, foreign films, and even old TV shows. Hollywood has also sought to cope with rising costs by focusing ever more intently on its core audiences. Since the mid-1980s, the movie going audience has continued to decrease in size. Ticket sales fell from 1.2 billion in 1983 to 950 million in 1992, with the biggest drop occurring among adults. And since over half of Hollywood's profits are earned overseas, the target market has to be changed due to the increasing costs and salary of making a film. The industry has concentrated much of its energy on crude action films easily understood by an international audience, featuring stars like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone.
Questions 14-19
Reading passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i. Detailed description for film system
ii. Griffith's contribution to American films
iii. The gender in development of American film
iv. Change the view of the American movie
V. People's reaction to making movies in the war period
vi.The increasing market of film in society
vii.Griffith improved the gender recognition in society
-----------------
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16Paragraphc
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
19 Paragraph F
Questions 20-23
Use the information in the passage to match the companies (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A, B, c or D in boxes 20-23on your answer sheet
A. old company's opposition
B. huge drop happens among adults
C. the pressure to change its market
D. completely copy his system
-------------------
20 Griffith's successful in 1910s, led his rivals
21 The growing costs and salary in Hollywood which shows it has
22 The increasing new movie industries have a big impact on
23 In 1992, ticket sales declined dramatically, due to
Questions 24-26
Choose the correct letter. A, B, c or D. Write your answer in boxes 36-38 on your answer sheet
24. Why Griffith believe the potential in making movies?
A. The gender development in American films
B.He used the star system successfully
C.He prefer the advanced movie techniques
D.He earns lots of money
25. What are other competitors reaction to Griffith?
A. Adopt Griffiths theory and methods in making films
B.Completely copy his theory and methods
C.Try to catch up their innovations
D.Find a new system to against Griffith
26. What is the great change in films industries during 1920s and 1930s?
A. Try to seek the high-tech special efforts
B.Dismiss the needs of overseas audiences
C.Changed its goal market
D.Improved the foreign version of American movies

Section 3
The Persuaders
AWe have long lived in an age where powerful images, catchy soundbites and too-good-to miss offers bombardfrom every quarter. All aroundUSthe persuaders are atwork. Occasionally their methods are unsubtletheplanting kiss on a babys head by a wannabe politicalleader, or a liquidation sale in a shop that has been closingdown for well over a year, but generally the persuadersknow what they are about and are highly capable. Be theypoliticians, supermarket chains, salespeople or advertisers, they know exactly what todo to sell us their images, ideas or produce. When it comes to persuasion, these giantsrule supreme. They employ the most skilled image-makers and use the bestpsychological tricks to guarantee that even the most cautious amongUSare open tomanipulation.
B. We spend more time in them than we mean to, we buy 75 percent of our food from them and end up with products that we did not realize we wanted. Right form thestart, supermarkets have been ahead of the game. For example, when Sainsburyintroduced shopping baskets into its 1950s stores, it was a stroke of marketing genius.Now shoppers could browse and pick up items they previously would have ignored.Soon after came trolleys, and just as new roads attract more traffic, the same appliedto trolley space. Pro Merlin Stone, IBM Professor of Relationship Marketing atBristol Business School, says aisles are laid out to maximize profits. Stores pander toour money-rich, time-poor lifestyle. Low turnover products clothes and electricalgoods are stocked at the back while high turnover items command position at thefront.
C. Stone believes supermarkets work hard to stallUSbecause the more time we spend in them, the more we buy. Thus, great efforts are made to make the environmentpleasant. Stores play music to relaxUSand some even pipe air from the in-store bakery around the shop. In the USA, fake aromas are sometimes used. Smell is both the most evocative andsubliminal sense. In experiments, pleasant smells areeffective in increasing our spending. A casino thatfragranced only half its premise saw profit soar in the aromafilled areas. The other success story from the supermarkets perspective is the loyalty card. Punters may assume that they are being rewarded for their fidelity,but all the while they are trading information about their shopping habits. Loyalshoppers could be paying 30% more by sticking to their favourite shops for essentialcosmetics
D. Research has shown that 75 percent of profit comes from just 30 percent of customers. Ultimately, reward cards could be used to identify and betteraccommodate these elite shoppers. It could also be used to make adverts morerelevant to individual consumersrather like Spielbergs futuristic thriller MinorityReport, in which Tom Cruises character is bombarded with interactive personalizedads. If this sounds far-fetched, the data-gathering revolution has already seen theintroduction of radiofrequency identificationaway to electronically tag productsto see who is buying what, FRID means they can follow the product into peoplehomes.
E. No matter how savvy we think we are to then ploys, the ad industry still wins. Adverts focus on what products do or on how they makeUSfeel. Researcher LauretteDube, in the Journal of Advertising Research, says when attitudes are base oncognitive foundations (logical reasoning), advertisers use informative appeals. Thisworks for products with little emotional draw but high functionality, such as bleach.Where attitude are based on effect (i.e, emotions), ad teams try to tap into ourfeelings. Researchers at the University of Florida recently concluded that ouremotional responses to adverts dominate over cognition.
F. Advertisers play on our need to be safe (commercials for insurance), to belong (make customer feel they are in the group in fashion ads) and for self-esteem (aspirationaladverts). With time and space at a premium, celebrities are often used as a quick wayof meeting these needseither because the celeb epitomizes success or because theyseem familiar and so make the product seem safe. A survey of 4,000 campaignsfound ads with celebs were 10 percent more effective than without. Humor alsostimulates a rapid emotional response. Hwiman Chung, writing in the InternationalJournal of Advertising, found that funny ads were remembered for longer thanstraight ones. Combine humor with sexual imageryas in Wonderbras Hello Boysadsand you are on to a winner.
G. Slice-of-life ads are another tried and tested methodthey paint a picture of life as you would like it, but still one that feels familiar. Abhilasha Mehta, in the Journal ofAdvertising Research, noted that the more ones self-imagetallies with the brand being advertised, the stronger thecommercial. Ad makers also use behaviorist theories,recognizing that the more sensation we receive from an object,the better we know it. If an advert for a chocolate bar fails tocause salivation, it has probably failed. No wonder advertisements have been dubbed the nervous system of the business world.
H. Probably all ofUScould make a saleifthe product was something we truly believed in, but professional salespeople are in a different league the best of them can always sell different items to suitable customers in a best time. They do this by using very basic psychological techniques. Stripped to its simplest level, selling works by heightening the buyers perception of how much they need a product or service. Buyers normally have certain requirements by which they will judge the suitability of a product. The seller therefore attempts to tease out what theseconditions are and then explains how then products benefit can meet theserequirements.
I. Richard Hession, author of Be a Great Salesperson says it is human nature to prefer to speak rather to listen, and good salespeople pander to this. They ask punters aboutthen needs and offer to work with them to achieve then objectives. As a result, thebuyer feels they are receiving a consultation rather than a sales pitch. All the while,the salesperson presents with a demeanour that takes it for granted that the sale willbe made. Never will the words if you buy be used, but rather when you buy.
J. Dr Rob Yeung, a senior consultant at business psychologists Kiddy and Partner, says most salespeople will build up a level of rapport by asking questions about hobbies,family and lifestyle. This has the double benefit of making the salesperson likeablewhile furnishing him or her with more information about the clients wants. Yeungsays effective salespeople try as far as possible to match their style of presentingthemselves to how the buyer comes across. If the buyer cracks jokes, the salespeoplewill respond in kind. If the buyer wants detail, the seller provides it, if they are moreinterested in the feel of the product, the seller will focus on this. At its most extreme,appearing empathetic can even include the salesperson attempting to mirror thehobby language of the buyer.
K. Whatever the method used, all salespeople work towards one aim: closing the deal. In fact, they will be looking for closing signals through then dealings with potentialclients. Once again the process works by assuming success. The buyer is not askedare you interested? as this can invite a negative response. Insteadthe seller takes it for granted that the deal is effectively done: whenthe salesman asks you for a convenient delivery date or asks whatcolor you want, you will probably respond accordingly. Onlyafterwards might you wonder why you proved such a pushover.
Questions 27-29
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answer in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet.
27 What is the supermarkets purpose of using basket in paragraph B?
A Create a convenient atmosphere of supermarket
B Make customers spend more time on shopping
C. Relieve pressure on supermarkets traffic
D More than half items bought need carried
28 What is the quality of a best salesman possessed according to this passage?
A Sell the right product to right person
B Clearly state the instruction of a product
C Show professional background of one product
D Persuade customers to buy the product they sell
29 Whats the opinion of Richard Hession?
A Pretend to be nice instead of selling goods
B Prefer to speak a lot to customers
C Help buyers to conclude then demands for ideal items
D Show great interpersonal skill
Questions 30-35
Reading Passage 3 has 7 paragraphs A-K. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write your answers in boxes 30-35 on your answer sheet.
NB: You may use any letter morethanonce.
30 how do supermarkets distract consumers
31 how to build a close relationship between salespeople and buyer
32 people would be impressed by humor advertisement
33 methods for salespeople to get the order
34 how questions work for salespeople
35 different customer groups bring different profits
Questions 36-40

Complete the notes below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.
Write your answers in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
Trolleys are bom for the increasing traffic in supermarket. The width of 36...............in supermarketsisbroadened in order to generate the most profits. Research from 37..............., satisfying aromas can motivate people buy more products. Except the effort of creating a comfortable surroundings, 38............... is another card that supermarkets play to reward their regular customers. For example, loyal customers spend 30% more in their loved shops for everyday necessary 39.................Clothes shops use advertisements to make buyer think they are belonging to part of a 40...............; researchfrom4,000campaignsreflect that humor advertisement received more emotional respect.

Reading Test 15
Section 1
Teaand IndustrialRevolution
A.Alan Macfarlane thinks he could rewrite history. The professor of anthropological science at King's College, Cambridge has, like other historians, spent decades trying to understand the enigma of the IndustrialRevolution. Why did this particular important event - the world-changing birth of industry - happen in Britain? And why did it happen at the end of the 18th century?
B. Macfarlane compares the question to a puzzle. He claims that there were about 20different factors and all of them needed to bepresent before the revolution could happen. The chief conditions are to be found in history textbooks. For industry to 'take off', thereneeded to be the technology and power todrive factories, large urban populations to provide cheap labour easy transport to move goods around, an affluent middle-class willing to buy mass-produced objects, a market-driven economy,and a political system that allowed this to happen. While this was the case forEngland, other nations, such as Japan, Holland and France also met some ofthese criteria. All these factors must have been necessary but not sufficient tocause the revolution. Holland had everything except coal, while China alsohad many of these factors.
C. Most historians, however, are convinced that one or two missing factors are needed to solve the puzzle. The missing factors, he proposes, are to befound in every kitchen cupboard. Tea and beer, two of the nation's favoritedrinks, drove the revolution. Tannin, the active ingredient in tea, and hops,used in making beer, both contain antiseptic properties. This -plus the fact that both are made with boiled water- helped prevent epidemics of waterborne diseases, such as dysentery, in densely populated urban areas.The theory initially sounds eccentric but his explanation of the detective workthat went into his deduction and the fact his case has been strengthened by afavorable appraisal of his research by Roy Porter (distinguished medicalhistorian) the skepticism gives way to wary admiration.
D. Historians had noticed one interesting factor around the mid-18th century that required explanation. Between about 165D and 1740, the population was static. But then there was a burst in population. The infant mortality rate halved in the space of 20 years, and this happened in both rural areas and cities, and across all classes. Four possible causes have been suggested. There could have been a sudden change in the viruses and bacteria present at that time, but this is unlikely. Was there a revolution in medical science? But this was a century before Lister introduced antiseptic surgery. Was there a change in environmental conditions? There were improvementsin agriculture that wiped out malaria, but these were small gains. Sanitationdid not become widespread until the 19th century. The only option left wasfood. But the height and weight statistics show a decline. So the food gotworse. Efforts to explain this sudden reduction in child deaths appeared todraw a blank.
E. This population burst seemed to happen at just the right time to provide labor for the Industrial Revolution. But why? Whenthe Industrial Revolution started, it was economicallyefficient to have people crowded together formingtowns and cities. But with crowded living conditionscomes disease, particularly from human waste. Someresearch in the historical records revealed that therewas a change in the incidence of waterborne disease atthat time, the English were protected by the strongantibacterial agent in hops, which were added to makebeer last. But in the late 17th century a tax wasintroduced on malt. The poor turned to water and gin, and in the 1720s themortality rate began to rise again.
F. Macfarlane looked to Japan, which was also developing large cities about the same time, and also had no sanitation. Waterborne diseases in the Japanese population were far fewer than those in Britain. Could it be the prevalence of tea in their culture? That was when Macfarlane thought about the role of tea in Britain. The history of tea in Britain provided an extraordinary coincidence of dates. Tea was relatively expensive until Britain started direct hade with China in the early 18th century. By the 1740s, about the time that infant mortality was falling, the drink was common. Macfarlane guesses that the fact that water had to be boiled, together with the stomach-purifying properties of tea so eloquently described in Buddhist texts,meant that the breast milk provided by mothers was healthier than it had everbeen. No other European nation drank tea so often as the British, which, byMacfarlane's logic, pushed the other nations out of the race for the IndustrialRevolution.
G. But, if tea is a factor in the puzzle, why didn't this cause an industrial revolution in Japan? Macfarlane notes that in the 17th century, Japan hadlarge cities, high literacy rates and even a futures market. However, Japandecided against a work-based revolution, by giving up labor-saving deviceseven animals, to avoid putting people out of work. Astonishingly, the nationthat we now think of as one of the most technologically advanced, entered the19th century having almost abandoned the wheel. While Britain wasundergoing the Industrial Revolution, Macfarlane notes wryly, Japan wasundergoing an industrious one.
Questions 1-7
Reading passage 1 has seven paragraphs,A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A -G from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet
List of headings
i Cases of Japan, Holland and France
ii City development in Japan
iii Tea drinking in Japan and Britain
iv Failed to find a plausible cause for mystery about lower mortality rate
V Preconditions necessary for industrial revolution
vi Time and place of industrialization
vii Conclusion drawn from the comparison with Japan
viii Relation between population and changes of drink in Britain
ix Two possible solutions to the puzzle
---------------
1 Paragraph A
2 Paragraph B
3Paragraphc
4 Paragraph D
5 Paragraph E
6 Paragraph F
7 Paragraph G
Questions 8-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 
8 The industrialization did not happen in China because of its inefficient railwaytransportation.
9 Tea and beer contributed to protect people from waterborne disease.
10 Roy Porter disagreed with the proposed theory about the missing factors
11 The reason of lower child deaths is fully explained by food.
12 The British made beer by themselves.
13 Tax on malt indirectly affected the increase of population in late 17thcentury
Section 2
Fossil files: "The Paleobiology Database"
A. Are we now living through the sixth extinction as our own activities destroy ecosystems and wipe out diversity? That'sthe doomsday scenario painted by manyecologists, and they may well be right. The trouble is we don't know for sure because we don't have a clear picture ofhow life changes between extinctionevents or what has happened in previousepisodes. We don't even know how manyspecies are alive today, let alone the rate atwhich they are becoming extinct. A new project aims to fill some of the gaps. The Paleobiology Database aspires to be an online repository of information about every fossil ever dug up. It is a hugeundertaking that has been described asbiodiversity's equivalent of the HumanGenome Project. Its organizers hope thatby recording the history of biodiversity they will gain an insight into howenvironmental changes have shaped life on Earth in the past and how they mightdo so in the future. The database may even indicate whether life can rebound nomatter what we throw at it, or whether a human induced extinction could bewithout parallel, changing the rules that have applied throughout the rest of theplanet's history.
B. But already the project is attracting harsh criticism. Some experts believe it to be seriously flawed. They point out that a database is only as good as the data fedinto it, and that even if all the current fossil finds were catalogued, they wouldprovide an incomplete inventory of life because we are far from discovering everyfossilised species. They say that researchers should get up from their computersand get back into the dirt to dig up new fossils. Others are more sceptical still,arguing that we can never get the full picture because the fossil record is riddledwith holes and biases.
C. Fans of the Paleobiology Database acknowledge that the fossil record will always be incomplete. But they see value in looking for global patterns that show relativechanges in biodiversity. "The fossil record is the best tool we have forunderstanding how diversity and extinction work in normal times," says JohnAlroy from the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in SantaBarbara. "Having a background extinction estimate gives US a benchmark forunderstanding the mass extinction that's currently under way. It allows us to sayjust how bad it is in relative terms."
D. To this end, the Paleobiology Database aims to be the most thorough attempt yet to come up with good global diversity curves. Every daybetween 10 and 15 scientists around the world addinformation about fossil finds to the database. Since it gotup and running in 1998, scientists have entered almost340,000 specimens, ranging from plants to whales toinsects to dinosaurs to sea urchins. Overall totals areupdated hourly atwww.paleodb.org. Anyone can downloaddata from the public part of the site and play with the numbers to their heart'scontent. Already, the database has thrown up some surprising results. Looking atthe big picture, Alroy and his colleagues believe they have found evidence thatbiodiversity reached a plateau long ago, contrary to the received wisdom thatspecies numbers have increased continuously between extinction events. "Thetraditional view is that diversity has gone up and up and up," he says. "Ourresearch is showing that diversity limits were approached many tens of millions ofyears before the dinosaurs evolved, much less suffered extinction." This suggeststhat only a certain number of species can live on Earth at a time, filling aprescribed number of niches like spaces in a multi-storey car park. Once it's full,no more new species can squeeze in, until extinctions free up new spaces orsomething rare and catastrophic adds a new floor to the car park.
E. Alroy has also used the database to reassess the accuracy of species names. His findings suggest that irregularities in classification inflate the overall number ofspecies in the fossil record by between 32 and 44 per cent. Single species oftenend up with several names, he says, due to misidentification or poorcommunication between taxonomists in different countries. Repetition like this can distort diversity curves. "If you have really bad taxonomy in one short interval, it will look like adiversity spikea big diversification followed by a bigextinction-when all that has happened is a change inthe quality of names," says Alroy. For example, his statistical analysis indicatesthat of the 4861 North American fossil mammal species catalogued in thedatabase, between 24 and 31 per cent will eventually prove to be duplicates.
F. Of course, the fossil record is undeniably patchy. Some places and times have left behind more fossil-filled rocks than others. Some have been sampled morethoroughly. And certain kinds of creaturesthose with hard parts that lived inoceans, for example--are more likely to leave a record behind, while others, likejellyfish, will always remain a mystery. Alroy has also tried to account for this. Heestimates, for example, that only 41 per cent of North American mammals thathave ever lived are known from fossils, and he suspects that a similar proportionof fossils are missing from other groups, such as fungi and insects.
G. Not everyone is impressed with such mathematicalwizardry.Jonathan Adrainfrom the University of Iowa in Iowa Citypoints out that statisticalwranglinghas beenknown to create mass extinctions where noneoccurred. It is easy to misinterpret data. Forexample, changes in sea level or inconsistent sampling methods can mimic major changes in biodiversity. Indeed, a recent and thorough examination of the literature on marine bivalve fossils has convincedDavid Jablonsky from the University of Chicago and his colleagues that theirdiversity has increased steadily over the past 5 million years.
H. With an inventory of all living species, ecologists could start to put the current biodiversity crisis in historical perspective. Although creating such a list would bea task to rival even the Palaeobiology Database, it is exactly what the SanFrancisco-based ALL Species Foundation hopes to achieve in the next 25 years.The effort is essential, says Harvard biologist Edward o. Wilson, who is alarmedby current rates of extinction. "There is a crisis. We've begun to measure it, and it'svery high," Wilson says. "We need this kind of information in much more detail toprotect all of biodiversity, not just the ones we know well." Let the countingcontinue.
Questions 14-19
The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-F
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-Ffrom the lừt below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Potential error exists in the database
ii Supporter of database recleared its value
iiiThe purpose of this paleobiology data
iv Reason why some certain species were not included in it
v Duplication of breed but with different names
viAchievement of Paleobiology Databasesince
viiCriticism on the project which is waste of fund
----------------
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16Paragraphc
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
19 Paragraph F
Questions 20-22
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 20-22 on your answer sheet.
A. Jonathan Adrain
B. John Alroy
C.David Jablonsky
D. Edwardo.Wilson
---------------------
20 Creating the Database would help scientist to identify connections of all species.
21 Believed in contribution of detailed statistics should cover beyond the knownspecies.
22 reached a contradictory finding to the tremendous species die-out.
Questions 23-24
Choose the TWO correct letter following
Write your answers in boxes 23-24 on your answer sheet.
Please choose TWO CORRECT descriptions about theThe Paleobiology Databasein this passage:
A. almost all the experts welcome this project
B. intrigues both positive and negative opinions from various experts
C.all different creature in the database have uniquename
D. aims to embrace all fossil information globally
E. get more information from record ratherthanthe field
Question 25-26
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 25-26 on your answer sheet.
25 According to the passage, jellyfish belongs to which category ofThePaleobiology Database?
A. repetition breed
B. untraceable species
C.specifically detailed species
D. currently living creature
26 What is the author's suggestionaccording to the end of passage?
A. continue to complete counting the number of species in the Paleobiology Database
B. stop contributing The Paleobiology Database
C.try to create a database of living creature
D. study more in the field rather than in the book
Section 3
Communication in science
A. Science plays an increasingly significant role in people's lives,making the faithful communicationof scientific developments moreimportant than ever. Yet suchcommunication is fraught withchallenges that can easily distortdiscussions, leading to unnecessaryconfusion and misunderstandings.
B. Some problems stem from the esoteric nature of current research and theassociated difficulty of findingsufficiently faithful terminologyAbstraction and complexity are not signsthat a given scientific direction is wrong,as some commentators have suggested,but are instead a tribute to the success ofhuman ingenuity in meeting theincreasingly complex challenges thatnature presents. They can, however, makecommunication more difficult. But manyof the biggest challenges for sciencereporting arise because in areas ofevolving research, scientists themselvesoften only partly understand the fullimplications of any particular advance or development. Since that dynamic applies to most of the scientificdevelopments that directly affect people'slives global warming, cancer research, dietstudies learning how to overcome it iscritical to spurring a more informedscientific debate among the broaderpublic.
C. Ambiguous word choices are the source of some misunderstandings. Scientists oftenemploy colloquial terminology, which theythen assign a specific meaning that isimpossible to fathom without propertraining. The term "relativity," for example,is intrinsically misleading. Many interpretthe theory to mean that everything isrelative and there are no absolutes. Yetalthough the measurements any observermakes depend on his coordinates andreference frame, the physical phenomenahe measures have an invariant descriptionthat transcends that observer's particularcoordinates. Einstein's theory of relativityis really about finding an invariantdescription of physical phenomena. True,Einstein agreed with the idea that histheory would have been better named"Invarianten theorie."But the term"relativity" was already entrenched at thetime for him to change.
D."The uncertainty principle" is another frequently abused term. It is sometimes interpreted as a limitation on observers and their ability to make measurements.
E. But it is not about intrinsic limitations on any one particular measurement; it isabout the inability to precisely measureparticular pairs of quantitiessimultaneously? The first interpretationis perhaps more engaging from aphilosophical or political perspective. Itsjust not what the science is about.
F. Even the word "theory" can be a problem. Unlike most people, who usethe word to describe a passing conjecturethat they often regard as suspect,physicists have very specific ideas inmind when they talk about theories. Forphysicists, theories entail a definitephysical framework embodied in a set offundamental assumptions about the worldthat lead to a specific set of equations andpredictions ones that are borne out bysuccessful predictions. Theories arentnecessarily shown to be correct orcomplete immediately. Even Einsteintook the better part of a decade todevelop the correct version of his theoryof general relativity. But eventually boththe ideas and the measurements settledown and theories are either provencorrect, abandoned or absorbed intoother, more encompassing theories.
G."Global warming" is another example of problematic terminology. Climatologistspredict more drastic fluctuations intemperature and rainfall not necessarilythat every place will be warmer. Thename sometimes subverts the debate, sinceit lets people argue that their winter wasworse, so how could there be globalwarming? Clearly "global climatechange" would have been a better name.But not all problems stem solely from poorword choices. Some stem from theintrinsically complex nature of much ofmodem science. Science sometimestranscends this limitation: remarkably,chemists were able to detail the precisechemical processes involved in thedestruction of the ozone layer, making theevidence that chlorofluorocarbon gases(Freon, for example) were destroying theozone layer indisputable.
H.A better understanding of the mathematical significance of results and less insistenceon a simple story would help to clarifymany scientific discussions. For severalmonths, Harvard was tortured months.Harvard was tortured by empty debates over the relative intrinsicscientific abilities ofmen and women.One of the moreamusing aspects ofthe discussion wasthat those who believed in the differencesandthose whodidn't used the same evidence about gender-specific special ability. How could that be? The answer is that the data shows no substantial effects.Social factors might account for these tinydifferences, which in any case have anunclear connection to scientific ability. Notmuch of a headline when phrased that way, is it? Each type of science has its own source of complexity and potential formiscommunication. Yet there are steps wecan take to improve public understandingin all cases. The first would be to inculcategreater understanding and acceptance ofindirect scientific evidence. Theinformation from an unmanned spacemission is no less legitimate than theinformation from one in which people areon board.
I.This doesn't mean never questioning an interpretation, but it also doesn't meanequating indirect evidence with blindbelief, as people sometimes suggest.Second, we might need different standardsfor evaluating science with urgent policyimplications than research with purelytheoretical value. When scientists say theyare not certain about their predictions, itdoesn't necessarily mean they've foundnothing substantial. It would be better ifscientists were more open about themathematical significance of their resultsand if the public didn't treat math as quiteso scary; statistics and errors, which tell us the uncertainty in a measurement, give us the tools to evaluate new developmentsfairly.
J. But most important, people have to recognize that science can be complex. If we acceptonly simple stories, the description willnecessarily be distorted. When advances aresubtle or complicated, scientists should bewilling to go the extra distance to give properexplanations and patient about the truth. Even so, some difficulties are unavoidable. Most developments reflectwork in progress, so the story is complexbecause no one yet knows the big picture.
Questions 27-31
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
27 Why the faithful science communication Important?
A Science plays an increasingly significant role in people's lives.
B Science is fraught with challenges public are interested in.
CThe nature of complexity in science communication leads to confusion.
D Scientific inventions are more important than ever before.
28 What is the reason that the author believe for the biggest challenges forscience reporting
A phenomenon such as global warming, cancer research, diet studies are too complex
B Scientists themselves often only partly understand theTheory of Evolution
CScientists do not totally comprehend the meaning of certain scientific evolution
D Scientists themselves often partly understand the esoteric communication nature
29 According to the 3rdparagraph, the reference to the term and example of "theory of relativity" is to demonstrate
A theory of relativity is about an invariant physical phenomenon
B common people may be misled by the inaccurate choice of scientific phrase
Cthe term "relativity," is designed to be misleading public
D everything is relative and there is no absolutes existence
30 Which one Is a good example of appropriate word choice:
A Scientific theory foruncertainty principle
B phenomenon ofGlobal warming
Cthe importance ofozone layer
DFreon'sdestructive process on environmental
31 What Is surprising finding of the Harvard debates In the passage?
A There are equal intrinsic scientific abilities of men and women.
B The proof applied by both sides seemed to be of no big difference,
CThe scientific data usually shows no substantial figures to support a debated idea.
D Social factors might have a clear connection to scientific ability.
Questions32-35
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes32-35 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
32 "Global warming" scientifically refers to greater fluctuations in temperature andrainfall rather than a universal temperature rise.
33 More media coverage of "global warming" would help public to recognize thephenomenon.
34 Harvard debates should focus more on femalescientist and male scientists
35 Public understanding and acceptance of indirect scientific evidence in all caseswould lead to confusion
Questions 36-40
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes36-40on your answer sheet.
Science Communication is fraught with challenges that can easily distort discussions, leading to unnecessary confusion and misunderstandings.Firstly, Ambiguous 36.............are thesourceof some misunderstandings. Common people without proper training do not understand clearly or deeply a specific scientific meaning via the 37scientistsoftenemployed.Besides,the measurements any 38.............makes can not be confined to describe in a(n) constant 39.............yet thephenomenoncan be. What's more, even the word "theory" can be a problem. Theories aren't necessarily shown to be correct or complete immediately since scientists often evolved better versions of specific theories, a good example can be the theory of 40 ............ Thus, mostimportantlypeoplehaveto recognize that science can be complex.

Reading Test 16
Section 1
Can We Hold Back theFlood?
A. LAST winter's floods on the rivers of central Europe were among the worst since the Middle Ages, and as winter storms return, the spectre of floods is returning too. Just weeks ago, the river Rhone in south-east France burst its banks, driving 15,000 people from their homes, and worse could be on the way. Traditionally, river engineers have gone for Plan A: get rid of the water fast, draining it off the land and down to the sea in tall-sided rivers re-engineered as high-performance drains. But however big they dig city drains, however wide and straight they make the rivers, and however high they build the banks, the floods keep coming back to taunt them, from the Mississippi to theDanube. And when the floods come, they seem to be worse than ever.
B. No wonder engineers are turning to Plan B: sap the water's destructive strength by dispersing itinto fields, forgotten lakes, flood plains andaquifers. Back in the days when rivers took amore tortuous path to the sea, flood waters lost impetus and volume while meandering across flood plains and idling through wetlands and inland deltas. But today the water tends to have an unimpeded journeyto the sea. And this means that when it rams in the uplands, the water comes downall at once. Worse, whenever we close off more flood plain, the rivers flow fartherdownstream becomes more violent and uncontrollable. Dykes are only as good astheir weakest link - and the water will unerringly find it.
C. Today, the river has lost 7 per cent of its original length and runs up to a thứd faster. When it rains hard in the Alps, the peak flows from several tributaries coincide inthe main river, where once they arrived separately. And with four-fifths of the lowerRhine's flood plain barricaded off, the waters rise ever higher. The result is morefrequent flooding that does ever-greater damage to the homes, offices and roads thatsit on the flood plain. Much the same has happened in the US on the mightyMississippi, which drains the world's second largest river catchment into the Gulf ofMexico.
D. The European Union is trying to improve rain forecasts and more accurately model how intense rains swell rivers. That may help cities prepare, but it won't stop thefloods. To do that, say hydrologists, you need a new approach to engineering not just
Agency - country 1 billion - puts it like this: "The focus is now on working with the forces of nature. Towering concrete wallsare out, and new wetlands are in." To help keep London's upstream and reflooding 10 square k outside Oxford. Nearer to London it has spent 100 million creating new wetlands and a relief channel across 16 kilometres.
E. The same is taking place on a much grander scale in Austria, in one of Europe's largest river restorations to date. Engineers are regenerating flood plains along 60 kilometres of the river Drava as it exits the Alps. They are also widening the river bed and channelling it back into abandoned meanders, oxbow lakes and backwaters overhung with willows. The engineers calculate that the restored flood plain can now store up to 10 million cubic metres of flood waters and slow storm surges coming out of the Alps by more than an hour, protecting towns as far downstream as Slovenia and Croatia.
F. "Rivers have to be allowed to take more space. They have to be turned fromflood-chutes into flood-foilers," saysNienhuis. And the Dutch, for whompreventing floods is a matter of survival,have gone furthest. A nation built largely ondrained marshes and seabed had the fright ofits life in 1993 when the Rhine almostoverwhelmed it. The same happened againin 1995, when a quarter of a million peoplewere evacuated from the Netherlands. But a new breed of "soft engineers" wants our cities to become porous, and Berlin is theft governed by tough new rules to prevent its drains becoming overloaded after heavy rains. Harald Kraft, an architect working in the city, says: "We now see rainwater as giant Potsdamer Platz, a huge new commercial redevelopment by DaimlerChrysler in the heart of the city.
G. Los Angeles has spent billions of dollars digging huge drains and concreting river beds to carry away the water from occasional intense storms. "In LA we receive halfthe water we need in rainfall, and we throw it away. Then we spend hundreds ofmillions to import water," says Andy Lipkis, an LA environmentalist whokick-started the idea of the porous city by showing it could work on one house.Lipkis, along with citizens groups like Friends of the Los Angeles River andUnpaved LA, want to beat the urban flood hazard and fill the taps by holding ontothe city's flood water. And it's not just a pipe dream. The authorities this yearlaunched a $100 million scheme to road-test the porous city in one flood-hitcommunity in Sun Valley. The plan is to catch the rain that falls on thousands ofdriveways, parking lots and rooftops in the valley. Trees will soak up water fromparking lots. Homes and public buildings will capture roof water to irrigate gardensand parks. And road drains will empty into old gravel pits and other leaky places thatshould recharge the city's underground water reserves. Result: less flooding andmore water for the city. Plan B says every city should be porous, every river shouldhave room to flood naturally and every coastline should be left to build its owndefences. It sounds expensive and utopian, until you realise how much we spendtrying to drain cities and protect our watery margins - and how bad we are at it.
Questions 1-6
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letterA-G,in boxes1-6on your answer sheet
1 A new approach carried out in the UK
2 Reasons why twisty path and dykes failed
3 Illustration of an alternative Plan in LA which seems much unrealistic
4 Traditional way of tackling flood
5 Effort made in Netherlands and Germany
6 One project on a river benefits three nations
Questions 7-11

Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage,using no more than two wordsfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 7-11 on your answer sheet.
Flood makes river shorter than it used to be, which means faster speed and more damage to constructions on flood plain. Not onlyEuropean river poses such threat but the same things happens to thepowerful____7_____in the US.
In Europe, one innovative approach carried out by UK's Environment Agency, for example a wetland instead of concrete walls is generated not far from the city of____8_____to protect it from flooding. In 1995, Rhine flooded again and thousands of people left the country of_____9______. A league of engineers suggested that cities should be porous, _____10____set an good example for others. Another city devastated by heavy storms casually is ______11______, though its government pours billions of dollars each year in order to solve the problem.
Questions 12-13

Choose TWO correct letter, write your answers in boxes 12-13 on your answer sheet

WhatTWO benefitswill the new approach in the UK and Austria bring toUSaccording to this passage?
A We can prepare before flood comes

B It may stop the flood involving the whole area
cDecrease strong rainfalls around Alps simply by engineering constructions
D Reserve water to protect downstream townsE Store tons of water in downstream area
Section 2
When the Tulip Bubble Burst
Tulips are spring-blooming perennials that grow from bulbs. Depending on the species, tulip plants can grow as short as 4 inches (10 cm) or as high as 28 inches (71 cm). The tulip's large flowers usually bloom on scapes or sub-scapose stems that lack bracts. Most tulips produce only one flower per stem, but a few species bear multiple flowers on their scapes (e.g. Tulipa turkestanica). The showy, generally cup or star-shaped tulip flower has three petals and three sepals, which are often termed tepals because they are nearly identical. These six tepals are often marked on the interior surface near the bases with darker colorings. Tulip flowers come in a wide variety of colors, except pure blue (several tulips with "blue" in the name have a faint violet hue)
A. Long before anyone ever heard of Qualcomm, CMGI, Cisco Systems, or the other high-tech stocks that have soared during the current bull market, there wasSemper Augustus. Both more prosaic and more sublimethananystock or bond, it was a tulip of extraordinary beauty, its midnight-blue petals topped by a band of pure white and accented with crimson flares. To denizens of 17thcentury Holland, little was as desirable.
B. Around 1624, the Amsterdam man who owned the only dozen specimens was offered 3,000 guildersforonebulb.Whilethere'sno accurate way to render that in today's greenbacks, the sum was roughly equal to the annual income of a wealthy merchant. (A few years later, Rembrandt received about half thatamount for painting The Night Watch.) Yet the bulb's owner, whose name is nowlost to history, nixed the offer.
C. Who was crazier, the tulip lover who refused to sell for a small fortune orthe one who was willing to splurge. That's a question that springs tomind after reading Tulip mania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower and the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused byBritish journalist Mike Dash. In recent years, as investors have intentionallyforgotten everything they learned in Investing 101 in order to load up onunproved, unprofitable dot-com issues, tulip maniahasbeeninvoked frequently. In this concise, artfully written account, Dash tells the real history behind the buzzwordandindoing so, offers a cautionary tale for our times.
D. The Dutch were not the first to go gaga over the tulip. Long before the first tulip bloomed in Europe-in Bavaria, it turns out, in 1559-the flower had enchanted thePersians and bewitched the rulers of the Ottoman Empire. It was in Holland,however, that the passion for tulips found its most fertile ground, for reasons thathad little to do with horticulture.
E. Holland in the early 17th century was embarking on its Golden Age. Resources that had just a few years earlier gone toward fighting for independence from Spainnow flowed into commerce. Amsterdam merchants were at the center of thelucrative East Indies trade, where a single voyage could yield profits of 400%.They displayed their success by erecting grand estates surrounded by flowergardens. The Dutch population seemed tom by two contradictory impulses: ahorror of living beyond one's means and the love of a long shot.
F. Enter the tulip. "It is impossible to comprehend the tulip mania without understanding just how different tulips were from every other flower known tohorticulturists in the 17th century," says Dash. "The colors they exhibited were more intense and more concentrated than those of ordinary plants." Despite the outlandishprices commanded by rare bulbs, ordinary tulipswere sold by the pound. Around 1630, however, anew type of tulip fancier appeared, lured by talesof fat profits. These "florists," or professional tulip traders, sought out flowerlovers and speculators alike. But if the supply of tulip buyers grew quickly, thesupply of bulbs did not. The tulip was a conspiratorinthe supply squeeze:Ittakes seven years to grow one from seed. And while bulbs can produce two or three clones, or "offsets," annually, the mother bulb only lasts a few years.
G. Bulb prices rose steadily throughout the 1630s, as ever more speculators into the market. Weavers and farmers mortgaged whatever they could to raise cash to begin trading. In 1633, a farmhouse in Hoorn changedhands for three rare bulbs. By 1636 any tulip-even bulbs recently considered garbage-could be sold off, often for hundreds of guilders. A futures market for bulbs existed, and tulip traders could be found conducting their business inhundreds of Dutch taverns. Tulip mania reached its peak during the winter of1636-37, when some bulbs were changing hands ten times in a day. The zenithcame early that winter, at an auction to benefit seven orphans whose only assetwas 70 fine tulips left by then father. One, a rare Violetten Admirael vanEnkhuizen bulb that was about to split in two, sold for 5,200 guilders, the all-timerecord. All told, the flowers brought in nearly 53,000 guilders.
H. Soon after, the tulip market crashed utterly, spectacularly. It began in Haarlem, at a routine bulb auction when, for the first time, the greater fool refused to show up and pay. Withindays, the panic had spread across the country. Despite the efforts of traders to prop up demand, the market for tulips evaporated. Flowers that had commanded 5,000 guilders a few weeks before now fetched one-hundredth that amount. Tulip mania is not without flaws. Dash dwells too long on the tulip's migration from Asia to Holland. But he does a service with this illuminating, accessible account of incredible financial folly.
I. Tulip mania differed in one crucial aspect from the dot-com craze that grips our attention today: Even at its height,the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, well-established in 1630, wouldn't touch tulips. "The speculation in tulip bulbs always existed at the margins of Dutch economic life," Dash writes. After the market crashed, a compromise was brokered that let most traders settle then debts for a fraction of then liability. The overall fallout ontheDutch economy was negligible. Will we say the same when Wall Street's current obsession finally runs its course?
Questions 14-18
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-I,in boxes14-18on your answer sheet.
14 Difference between bubble burst impacts by tulip and byhigh-techshares
15 Spread of tulip before 17th century
16 Indication of money offered for rare bulb in 17th century
17 Tulip was treated as money in Holland
18 Comparison made between tulip and other plants
Questions 19-23
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 19 In 1624, all the tulip collection belonged to a man in Amsterdam.
20 Tulip was first planted in Holland according to this passage.
21 Popularity of Tulip in Holland was much higher than any other countries in 17thcentury.
22 Holland was the most wealthy country in the world in 17th century.
23 From 1630, Amsterdam Stock Exchange started to regulate Tulips exchangemarket.
Questions 24-27
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
Dutch concentrated on gaining independence by ____24____ against Spain in the early 17th century; consequently spare resources entered the area of _____25_____. Prosperous traders demonstrated their status by building great _____26____ and withgardensinsurroundings. Attracted by the success of profit on tulip, traders kept looking for______27_____and speculator for sale.
Section 3
The Secrets of Persuasion
A. Our mother may have told you the secret to getting what you ask for was to say please. The reality is rather more surprising. Adam Dudding talks to a psychologist who has made a life's work from the science of persuasion. Some scientists peer at things through high-powered microscopes. Others goad rats through mazes, or mix bubbling fluids in glass beakers. Robert Cialdini, for his part, does curious things with towels, and believes that by doing so he is discovering important insights into how society works.
B. Cialdini's towel experiments (more of them later), are part of his research into how we persuade others to say yes. He wants to know why some people have a knack forbending the will of others, be it a telephone cold-caller talking to you abouttimeshares, or a parent whose children are compliant even without threats of extremeviolence. While he's anxious not to be seen as the man who's written the bible forsnake-oil salesmen, for decades the Arizona State University social psychologyprofessor has been creating systems for the principles and methods of persuasion, andwriting bestsellers about them. Some people seem to be born with the skills;Cialdini's claim is that by applying a little science, even those of US who aren't shouldbe able to get our own way more often. "All my life I've been an easy mark for theblandishment of salespeople and fundraisers and I'd always wondered why they couldget me to buy things I didn't want and give to causes I hadn't heard of," says Cialdinion the phone from London, where he is plugging his latest book.
C. He found that laboratory experiments on the psychology of persuasion were telling only part of the story, so he began to research influence in the real world, enrolling insales-training programmes: "I learn how to sell automobiles from a lot, how to sellinsurance from an office, how to sell encyclopedias door to door." He concluded therewere six general "principles of influence" and has since put them to the test underslightly more scientific conditions. Most recently, that has meant messing about with towels. Many hotels leave a little card in each bathroom asking guests to reuse towels and thusconserve water and electricity and reduce pollution. Cialdini and his colleagues wanted to test the relative effectiveness of different words on those cards. Would guests be motivated to co-operate simply because it would help save the planet, or were other factors more compelling? To test this, the researchers changed the card's message from an environmental one to the simple (and truthful) statement that the majority ofguests at the hotel had reused their towel at least once. Guests given this messagewere 26% more likely to reuse their towels than those given the old message. InCialdini's book"Yes! 50 Secrets from the Science of Persuasion",co-written withanother social scientist and a business consultant, he explains that guests wereresponding to the persuasive force of "social proof', the idea that our decisions arestrongly influenced by what we believe other people likeUSare doing.
D. So much for towels. Cialdini has also learnt a lot from confectionery. Yes! cites the work of New Jersey behavioural scientist David Strohmetz, who wanted to see howrestaurant patrons would respond to a ridiculously small favour from their foodserver, in the form of an after-dinner chocolate for each diner. The secret, it seems, isin how you give the chocolate. When the chocolates arrived in a heap with the bill,tips went up a miserly 3% compared to when no chocolate was given. But when thechocolates were dropped individually in front of each diner, tips went up 14%. Thescientific breakthrough, though, came when the waitress gave each diner onechocolate, headed away from the table then doubled back to give them one moreeach, as if such generosity had only just occurred to her. Tips went up 23%. This is"reciprocity" in action: we want to return favours done toUS,often without botheringto calculate the relative value of what is being received and given.
E. Geeling Ng, operations manager at Auckland's Soul Bar, says she's never heard of Kiwi waiting staff using such a cynical trick, not least because New Zealand tippingculture is so different from that of the US: "If you did that in New Zealand, as dinerswere leaving they'd say 'can we have some more?" ' But shecertainly understands the general principle of reciprocity. The way to a diner's heart is "to give them something they're not expecting in the way of service. It might besomething as small as leaving a mint on their plate, or itmight be remembering that last time they were in theywanted their water with no ice and no lemon. "In Americait would translate into an instant tip. In New Zealand ittranslates into a huge smile and thank you." And no doubt,return visits.
THE FIVE PRINCIPLES OF PERSUASION
F. Reciprocity: People want to give back to those who have given to them. The trick here is to get in first. That's why charities put a crummy pen inside a mailout, andwhy smiling women in supermarkets hand out dollops of free food. Scarcity: Peoplewant more of things they can have less of. Advertisers ruthlessly exploit scarcity("limit four per customer", "sale must end soon"), and Cialdini suggests parents dotoo: "Kids want things that are less available, so say 'this is an unusual opportunity;you can only have this for a certain time'."
G. Authority: We trust people who know what they're talking about. So inform people honestly of your credentials before you set out to influence them. "You'd be surprised how many people fail to do that," says Cialdini. "They feel it's impolite to talk about then expertise." In one study, therapists whose patients wouldn't do then exercises were advised to display then qualification certificates prominently. They did, and experienced an immediate leap in patient compliance.
H. Commitment/consistency: We want to act in a way that is consistent with the commitments we have already made. Exploit this to get a higher sign-up rate whensoliciting charitable donations. Ffrst ask workmates if they think they will sponsoryou on your egg-and-spoon marathon. Later, return with the sponsorship form tothose who said yes and remind them of their earlier commitment/
I. Liking: We say yes more often to people we like. Obvious enough, but reasons for "liking" can be weird. In one study, people were sent survey forms and asked toreturn them to a named researcher. When the researcher gave a fake name resemblingthat of the subject (eg, Cynthia Johnson is sent a survey by "Cindy Johansen"),surveys were twice as likely to be completed. We favour people who resembleUS,even if the resemblance is as minor as the sound of theirname.
J. Social proof: We decide what to do by looking around to see what others just likeUSare doing. Useful for parents,says Cialdini. "Find groups of children who are behaving in a way that you would like your child to, because the child looks to the side, rather than at you." More perniciously, social proof is the force underpinning thecompetitive materialism of "keeping up with the Joneses"
Questions 28-31
Choose the correct letter.A,B,cor D.
Write youranswers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
28. The main purpose ofCiadinis research of writing is to
A. explain the reason way researcher should investigate in person
B. explore the secret that why some people become the famous sales person
C.help people to sale products
D. prove maybe there is a science in the psychology of persuasion
29. Which of statement is CORRECT according toCiadinisresearch methodology
A. he checked data in a lot of latest books
B. he conducted this experiment in laboratory
C.he interviewed and contact with many sales people
D. he made lot phone calls collecting what he wants to know
30. Which of the followings is CORRECT according to towel experiment in the passage?
A. Different hotel guests act in a different response
B. Most guests act by idea of environment preservation
C.more customers tend to cooperate as the message requires than simply actenvironmentally
D. people tend to follow the hotels original message more
31. Which of the followings is CORRECT according to the candy shop experiment inthe passage?
A. Presenting way affects diner's tips
B. Regular customer gives tips more than irregulars
C.People give tips only when offered chocolate
D. Chocolate with bill got higher tips
Questions 32-35
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the Statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage /
32 Robert Cialdini experienced "principles of influence" himself in realistic life.
33 Principle of persuasion has different types in different countries.
34 In New Zealand, people tend to give tips to attendants after being served a chocolate.
35 Elder generation of New Zealand is easily attracted by extra service of restaurants byprinciple of reciprocity.
Questions 36-40
Use the information in the passage to match the category (listed A-E) with correct description below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 32-37 on answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
A. Reciprocity of scarcity
B. Authority
C.previous comment
D. Liking
-----------------
36 Some expert may reveal qualification in front of clients.
37 Parents tend to say something that other kids are doing the same.
38 Advertisers ruthlessly exploit the limitation of chances
39 Use a familiar name in a survey.
40 Ask colleagues to offer a helping hand

Reading Test 17
Section 1
MENTAL GYMNASTICS
A. THE working day has just started at the head office of Barclays Bank in London. Seventeen staff are helpingthemselves to a buffet breakfast as young psychologistSebastian Bailey enters the room to begin the morning'sframing session. But this is no ordinary training session. He's not here to sharpen their finance or management skills. He's here to exercise their brains.
B. Todays workout, organised by a company called the Mind Gym in London, is entitled "having presence". What follows is an intense 90-minute session in which this ratherabstract concept is gradually broken down into a concrete set of feelings, mental tricksand behaviours. At one point the bankers are instructed to shut then eyes and visualisethemselves filling the room and then the building. They finish up by walking around theroom acting out various levels of presence, from low-key to over the top.
C. It's easy to poke fun. Yet similar mental workouts are happening in corporate seminar rooms around the globe. The Mind Gym alone offers some 70 different sessions,including ones on mental stamina, creativity for logical thinkers and "zoom learning".Other outfits draw more directly on the exercise analogy, offering "neurobics" courseswith names like "brain sets" and "cerebral fitness". Then there are books with titles likePumping Ions, full of brainteasers that claim to "flex your mind", and software packagesoffering memory and spatial-awareness games.
D. But whatever the style, the companies' sales pitch is invariably the samefollow our routines to shape and sculpt your brain or mind, just as you might tone and train yourbody. And, of course, they nearly all claim that their mental workouts draw on seriousscientific research and thinking into how the brain works.
E. One outfit, Brainergy of Cambridge, Massachusetts (motto: "Because your grey matter matters") puts it like this: "Studies have shown that mental exercise can cause changes inbrain anatomy and brain chemistry which promote increased mental efficiency andclarity. The neuroscience is cutting-edge." And on its website, Mind Gym trades on aquote from Susan Greenfield, one of Britain's best known neuroscientists: "It's a bit likegoing to the gym, if you exercise your brain it will grow."
F. Indeed, die Mind Gym originally planned to hold its sessions in a local health club, until its founders realised where the real money was to be made. Modem companies needflexible, bright thinkers and will seize on anything that claims to create them, especiallyif it looks like a quick fix backed by science. But are neurobic workouts really backed byscience? And do we need them?
G. Nor is there anything remotely high-tech about what Lawrence Katz, co-author of Keep Your Brain Alive, recommends. Katz, a neurobiologist at Duke University Medical School in North Carolina, argues that just as many of US fail to get enough physical exercise, so we also lack sufficient mental stimulation to keep our brain in trim. Sine we are busy with jobs, family and housework. But most of this activity is repetitive routine. And any leisure time is spent slumped in front of the TV.
H. So, read a book upside down. Write or brush your teeth with your wrong hand. Feel your way around the room with your eyes shut. Sniff vanilla essence while listening intently toorchestral music. Anything, says Katz, to break your normal mental routine. It will helpinvigorate your brain, encouraging its cells to make new connections and pump outneuroteophins, substances that feed and sustain brain circuits.
I. Well, up to a point it will. "What I'm really talking about is brain maintenance rather than bulking up your IQ," Katz adds. Neurobics, in other words, is about letting your brainfulfill its potential. It cannot create super-brains. Can it achieve even that much, though?Certainly the brain is an organ that can adapt to the demands placed on it. Tests on animalbrain tissue, for example, have repeatedly shown that electrically stimulating the synapsesthat connect nerve cells thought to be crucial to learning and reasoning, makes themstronger and more responsive. Brain scans suggest we use a lot more of our grey matterwhen carrying out new or strange tasks than when we're doing well-rehearsed ones. Ratsraised in bright cages with toys sprout more neural connections than rats raised in barecages suggesting perhaps that novelty and variety could be crucial to a developingbrain. Katz, And neurologists have proved time and again that people who lose brain cellssuddenly during a stroke often sprout new connections to compensate for thelossespecially if they undergo extensive therapy to overcome any paralysis.
J. Guy Claxton, an educational psychologist at the University of Bristol, dismisses most of the neurological approaches as "neuro-babble". Nevertheless, there are specific mentalskills we can learn, he contends. Desirable attributes such as creativity, mental flexibility,and even motivation, are not the fixed faculties that most ofUSthink. They are thoughthabits that can be learned. The problem, says Claxton, is that most ofUSnever get propertraining in these skills. We develop our own private set of mental strategies for tacklingtasks and never learn anything explicitly. Worse still, because any learned skill evendriving a car or brushing our teeth-quickly sinks out of consciousness, we can no longersee the very thought habits we're relying upon. Our mental tools become invisible to US.
K. Claxton is the academic adviser to the Mind Gym. So not surprisingly, the company espouses his solution-that we must return our thought patterns to a conscious level,becoming aware of the details of how we usuallythink. Only then can we start to practisebetter thought patterns, until eventually these become our new habits. Switchingmetaphors, picture not gym classes, but tennis or football coaching.
L. In practice, the training can seem quite mundane. For example, in one of the eight different creativity workouts offered by the Mind Gymentitled "creativity for logicalthinkers" one of the mental strategies taught is to make a sensible suggestion, thenimmediately pose its opposite. So, asked to spend five minutes inventing a new pizza, agroup soon comes up with no topping, sweet topping, cold topping, price based on timeof day, flat-rate prices and so on.
M. Bailey agrees that the trick is simple. But it is surprising how few such tricks people have to call upon when they are suddenly asked to be creative: "They tend to just labelthemselves as uncreative, not realising that there are techniques that every creative personemploys." Bailey says the aim is to introduce people to half a dozen or so such strategiesin a session so that what at first seems like a dauntingly abstract mental task becomes aset of concrete, learnable behaviours. He admits this is not a short cut to genius.Neurologically, some people do start with quicker circuits or greater handling capacity.However, with the right kind of training he thinks we can dramatically increase howefficiently we use it.
N. It is hard to prove that the training itself is effective. How do you measure a change in an employee's creativity levels, or memory skills? But staff certainly report feeling that suchclasses have opened their eyes. So, neurological boosting or psychological training? Atthe moment you can pay your money and take your choice. Claxton for one believes thereis no reason why schools and universities shouldn't spend more time teaching basicthinking skills, rather than trying to stuff heads with facts and hoping that effectivethought habits are somehow absorbed by osmosis.
Questions 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 
1 Mind Gym coach instructed employees to imagine that they are thebuilding.
2 Mind Gym uses the similar marketing theory that is used all round
3 Susan Greenfield is the founder of Mind Gym.
4 All business and industries are using Mind Gym's session globally.
5 According to Mind Gym, extensive scientific background supports theirmental training sessions.
Questions 6-13
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 6-13 on your answer sheet.
A. Guy Claxton
B. Sebastian Bailey
C.Susan Greenfield
D. Lawrence Katz
NB:You may use any letter more than once
6 We do not have enough inspiration to keep our brain fit.
7 The more you exercise your brain like exercise in the gym, the more brainwill grow.
8 Exercise can keep your brain health instead of improving someone's IQ.
9 It is valuable for schools to teach students about creative skills besidesbasic known knowledge.
10 We can develop new neuron connections when we lose old connectionsvia certain treatment.
11 People usually mark themselves as not creative before figuring out thereare approaches for each person.
12 An instructor in Mind Gym who guided the employees to exercise.
13 Majority of people don't have appropriate skills-training for brain.
Section 2
Finding Our Way
A. "Drive 200 yards, and then turn right, says the cars computer voice. You relax in the driver's seat, follow the directions and reach your destination without error. Its certainly nice to have the Global Positioning System (GPS) to direct you to within a few yards of your goal. Yet if the satellite service's digital maps become even slightly outdated, you can become lost. Then you have to rely on the ancient human skill of navigating in three-dimensional space. Luckily, your biological finder has an important advantage over GPS: it does not go awry if only one part of the guidance system goes wrong, because it works in various ways. You can ask questions of people on the sidewalk. Or follow a street that looks familiar. Or rely on a navigational rubric: "If I keep the East River on my left, I will eventually cross 34th Street." The human positioning system is flexible and capable of learning. Anyone who knows the way from point A to point Band from A to Ccan probably figure out how to get from B toc,too.
B. But how does this complex cognitive system really work? Researchers are looking at several strategies people use to orientthemselves in space: guidance, path integration and route following. We may useall three or combinations thereof. And as experts learn more about thesenavigational skills, they are making the case that our abilities may underlie ourpowers of memory and logical thinking. Grand Central, Please Imagine that youhave arrived in a place you have never visited-New York City. You get off thetrain at Grand Central Terminal in midtown Manhattan. You have a few hours toexplore before you must return for your ride home. You head uptown to seepopular spots you have been told about: Rockefeller Center, Central Park, theMetropolitan Museum of Art. You meander in and out of shops along the way.Suddenly, it is time to get back to the station. But how?
C. If you ask passersby for help, most likely you will receive information in many different forms. A person who orientsherself by a prominent landmark would gesture southward:"Look down there. See the tall, broad MetLife Building? Headfor that the station is right below it." Neurologists call this navigational approach "guidance," meaning that a landmark visible from a distance serves as the marker for one's destination.
D. Another city dweller might say: "What places do you remember passing? ... Okay. Go toward the end of Central Park, then walk down to St. Patrick's Cathedral. Afew more blocks, and Grand Central will be off to your left." In this case, you arepointed toward the most recent place you recall, and you aim for it. Once thereyou head for the next notable place and so on, retracing your path. Your brain isadding together the individual legs of your trek into a cumulative progress report.Researchers call this strategy "path integration." Many animals rely primarily onpath integration to get around, including insects, spiders, crabs and rodents. Thedesert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employthismethodto return from foraging as far as 100 yards away. They note the general direction they came from and retrace then steps, using the polarization of sunlight to orient themselves evenunder overcast skies. On their way back they are faithful to this inner homingvector. Even when a scientist picks up an ant and puts it in a totally different spot,the insect stubbornly proceeds in the originallydetermined direction until it has gone "back" all ofthe distance it wandered from its nest. Only then doesthe ant realize it has not succeeded, and it begins towalk in successively larger loops to find its wayhome.
E. Whether it is trying to get back to the anthill or the train station, any animal using path integration mustkeep track of its own movements so it knows, whilereturning, which segments it has already completed. As you move, your brain gathers data from your environmentsights, sounds, smells, lighting, muscle contractions, a sense of time passingto determine which way your body has gone. The church spire, the sizzling sausages on that vendor's grill, the opencourtyard, and the train stationall represent snapshots of memorable juncturesduring your journey.
F. In addition to guidance and path integration, we use a third method for finding our way. An office worker you approach for help on a Manhattan street comer mightsay: "Walk straight down Fifth, turn left on 47th, turn right on Park, go throughthe walkway under the Helmsley Building, then cross the street to the MetLifeBuilding into Grand Central." This strategy, called route following, useslandmarks such as buildings and street names, plus directions-straight, turn, gothroughfor reaching intermediate points. Route following is more precise thanguidance or path integration, but if you forget the details and take a wrong turn, the only way to recover is to backtrack until you reach a familiar spot, because you do notknow the general direction or have a reference landmark for your goal.The route-following navigation strategy truly challenges the brain. We have tokeep all the landmarks and intermediate directions in our head. It is the mostdetailed and therefore most reliable method, but it can be undone by routinememory lapses. With path integration, our cognitive memory is less burdened; ithas to deal with only a few general instructions and the homing vector. Path integration works because it relies most fundamentally on our knowledge of our body's general direction of movement,and we always have access to these inputs. Nevertheless, people often choose togive route-following directions, in part because saying "Go straight that way!" justdoes not work in our complex, man-made surroundings.
G. Road Map or Metaphor? On your next visit to Manhattan you will rely on your memory to get around. Most likely you will use guidance, path integration androute following in various combinations. But how exactly do these constructsdeliver concrete directions? Do we humans have, as an image of the real world, akind of road map in our headswith symbols for cities, train stations andchurches; thick lines for highways; narrow lines for local streets? Neurobiologistsand cognitive psychologists do call the portion of our memory that controlsnavigation a "cognitive map." The map metaphor is obviously seductive: maps arethe easiest way to present geographic information forconvenient visual inspection. In many cultures, maps weredeveloped before writing, and today they are used inalmost every society. It is even possible that maps derivefrom a universal way in which our spatial-memorynetworks are wired.
H. Yet the notion of a literal map in our heads may be misleading; a growing body of research implies that the cognitive map is mostly a metaphor. It may be more likea hierarchical structure of relationships.To get back to Grand Central, you first envisionthelarge scale-that is, you visualize the general direction of the station. Within that system you then imagine the route to the last place you remember. After that, you observeyour nearby surroundings to pick out a recognizable storefront or street comer thatwill send you toward that place. In this hierarchical, or nested, scheme, positionsand distances are relative, in contrast with a road map, where the sameinformation is shown in a geometrically precise scale.
Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the category of each navigation method (listed A-C) with correct statement. Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 14-18on your answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A. Guidance
B. Path integration,
C.Route following
----------------------
14 Using basic direction from starting point and light intensity to move on.
15 Using combination of place and direction heading for destination.
16 Using an iconic building near your destination as orientation.
17 Using a retrace method from a known place if a mistake happens.
18 Using a passed spot as reference for a new integration.
Questions 19-21
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
19. What does the ant ofCataglyphisrespond if it has been taken to another locationaccording to the passage?
A. Changes the orientation sensors improvingly
B.Releases biological scent for help from others
C.Continues to move by the original orientation
D.Totally gets lost once disturbed
20. Which of the followings is true about "cognitive map" in this passage?
A. There is not obvious difference contrast by real map
B. It exists in our head and is always correct
C.It only exists under some cultures
D. It was managed by brain memory
21. Which of following description of way findings correctly reflects the function ofcognitive map?
A. It visualises a virtual route in a large scope
B. It reproduces an exact details of every landmark
C.Observation plays a more important role
D. Store or supermarket is a must in file map

Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statementisfalse NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 22 Biological navigation has a state of flexibility.
23 You will always receive good reaction when you ask direction.
24 When someone follows a route, he or she collects comprehensive perceptionalinformation in mind on the way.
25 Path integration requires more thought from brain compared withroute-following.
26 In a familiar surrounding, an exact map of where you are will automaticallyemerge in your head.



Section 3
Mystery in Easter
A. One of the world's most famous yet least visited archaeological sites, Easter Island is a small, hilly, now treeless island of volcanic origin.Located in the Pacific Ocean at 27 degrees south of the equator and some2200 miles (3600 kilometers) off the coast of Chile, it is considered to bethe world's most remote inhabited island. The island is, technically speaking, a single massive volcano rising over ten thousandfeet from the Pacific Ocean floor. The island received its most well-known current name, EasterIsland, from the Dutch seacaptain Jacob Roggeveen whobecame the first European to visitEaster Sunday, April 5,1722.
B. In the early 1950s, the Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl popularized the idea that the island had been originally settled by advanced societiesof Indians from the coast of South America. Extensive archaeological,ethnographic and linguistic research has conclusively shown thishypothesis to be inaccurate. It is now recognized that the originalinhabitants of Easter Island are of Polynesianstock (DNA extracts from skeletons have confirmed this,that they most probably came from the Marquesasor Society islands, and that they arrived as early as 318 AD (carbon datingof reeds from a grave confirms this). At the time oftheir arrival, much of the island was forested, wasteeming with land birds, and was perhaps the mostproductive breeding site for seabirds in the Polynesiaregion. Because of the plentiful bird, fish and plant 'food sources, the human population grew and gaverise to a rich religious and artistic culture.
C. That culture's most famous features are its enormous stone statues called moai, at least 288 of which once stood upon massive stone platformscalledahu.There are some 250 of theseahuplatforms spacedapproximately one half mile apart and creating an almost unbroken line around the perimeter of the island. Another 600 moai statues, in variousstages of completion, are scatteredaround the island, either in quarriesor along ancient roads betweenthe quarries and the coastal areaswhere the statues were mostoften erected. Nearly all the moai are carved from the tough stone of theRano Rarakuvolcano. The average statue is 14 feet and 6 inches tall andweighs 14 tons. Some moai were as large as 33 feet and weighed morethan 80 tons. Depending upon the size of the statues, it has beenestimated that between 50 and 150 people were needed to drag themacross the countryside on sleds and rollers madefrom the island's trees.
D. Scholars are unable to definitively explain the function and use of the moai statues. It is assumedthat their carving and erection derived from an idea rooted in similarpractices found elsewhere in Polynesia but which evolved in a uniqueway on Easter Island. Archaeological and iconographic analysis indicatesthat the statue cult was based on an ideology of male, lineage-basedauthority incorporating anthropomorphic symbolism. The statues werethus symbols of authority and power, both religious and political. Butthey were not only symbols. To the people who erected and used them,they were actual repositories of sacred spirit. Carved stone and woodenobjects in ancient Polynesian religions, when properly fashioned andritually prepared, were believed to be charged by a magical spiritual essence calledmana.The ahu platforms of Easter Island were the sanctuaries of the people, and the moai statues were the ritually charged sacred objects of those sanctuaries.
E. Besides its more well-known name, Easter Island is also known as Te-Pito-O-Te-Henua, meaning 'The Navel of the World', and as Mata-Ki-Te-Rani,meaning ' Eyes Looking at Heaven '. These ancient name and a host of mythological details ignored by mainstream archaeologists, point to the possibility that the remote island may once have been a geodetic marker and the site of an astronomical observatory of a long forgotten civilization. In his book. Heaven's Mirror, Graham Hancock suggests that Easter Island may once have been a significant scientific outpost of this antediluvian civilization and that its location had extreme importance in a planet-spanning, mathematically precise grid of sacred sites. Two other alternative scholars, Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas, have extensively studied the location and possible function of these geodetic markers. In their fascinating book, Uriel's Machine, they suggest that one purpose of the geodetic markers was as part of global network of sophisticatedastronomical observatories dedicated to predicting and preparing forfuture commentary impacts and crystal displacement cataclysms.
F. In the latter years of the 20th century and the first years of the 21st century various writers and scientists have advanced theories regardingthe rapid decline of Easter Island's magnificent civilization around thetime of the first European contact. Principal among these theories, andnow shown to be inaccurate, is that postulated by Jared Diamond in hisbookCollapse: How Societies Choose to or Survive.Basically these theories state that afew centuries after Easter Island's initial colonization the resource needsof the growing population had begun to outpace the island's capacity torenew itself ecologically. By the 1400s the forests had been entirely cut,the rich ground cover had eroded away, the springs had dried up, and the vast flocks of birds coming to roost on the island had disappeared. With no logs to build canoesfor offshore fishing, with depleted bird andwildlife food sources, and with declining crop yields becauseof the erosion of good soil, the nutritional intake of the peopleplummeted. First famine, then cannibalism, set in. Because theisland could no longer feed the chiefs,bureaucrats and priests who kept the complex societyrunning, the resulting chaos triggered a social andcultural collapse. By 1700 the population dropped tobetween one-quarter and one-tenth of its formernumber, and many of the statues were toppled during supposed "clanwars " of the 1600 and 1700s.
G. The faulty notions presented in these theories began with the racist assumptions of Thor Heyerdahl and have been perpetuated by writers,such as Jared Diamond, who do not have sufficient archaeological andhistorical understanding of the actual events which occurred on EasterIsland. The real truth regarding the tremendous social devastation whichoccurred on Easter Island is that it was a direct consequence of theinhumane behavior of many of the first European visitors, particularly theslavers who raped and murdered the islanders, introduced small pox andother diseases, and brutally removed the natives to mainland SouthAmerica.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
The reading passage has seven paragraphs,A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
NBThere are more headings than paragraphs,soyouwillnotusethem
List of Headings
i The famous moai
ii The status represented symbols of combined purposes
iii The ancient spots which indicates scientific application
ivThe story of the name
v Early immigrants, rise and prosperity
viThe geology of Easter Island
viiThe begin of Thor Heyerdahls discovery
viiiThe countering explaination to the misconceptionspolitaically manipulated
ixSymbols of authority and power
x The Navel of the World
xiThe norweigian Invaderslegacy
Questions 27-3
Example Answer
Paragraph A iv
27 Paragraph B
28 Paragraph D
29 Paragraph E
30 Paragraph G
Questions 31-36
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 31 -36on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
31 The first inhabitants of Easter Island are Polynesian, from the Marquesasor Society islands.
32 Construction of some moai statues on the island was not finished.
33 The Moai can be found not only on Easter Island but also elsewhere inPolynesia.
34 Most archeologists recognised the religious and astronomical functionsfor an ancient society
35 The structures on Easter Island work as an astronomical outpost forextraterrestrial visitors.
36 the theory that depleted natural resources leading to the fail of EasterIsland actual has a distorted perspective

Questions 37-40
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingNO MORE THAN THREE WORDSfrom the Reading Passage for eachanswer. Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
Many theories speculated that Easter Islands fall around the era of the initial European contact. Some say the resources are depleted by a 37............; The erroneous theories began with a root of the 38............ advanced by some scholars. Early writers did not have adequate 39............. understandings to comprehend the true result of 40..nature of events on the island. The social devastation was in fact a direct of the first European settlers.
Reading Test 18
Section 1
The Mozart Effect
A. Music has been used for centuries to heal the body. In theEbers Papyrs(one of the earliest medical documents, circa 1500 B.C.), it was recorded that physicianschanted to heal the sick (Castleman, 1994). In various cultures, we have observedsinging as part of healing rituals. In the world of Western medicine, however, usingmusic in medicine lost popularity until the introduction of the radio. Researchersthen started to notice that listening to music could have significant physical effects.Therapists noticed music could help calm anxiety and researchers saw that listening to music could cause a drop in blood pressure. In addition to these two areas, music has been usedwith cancer chemotherapy to reduce nausea, duringsurgery to reduce stress hormone production, duringchildbirth, and in stroke recovery (Castleman, 1994and Westley, 1998). It has been shown to decreasepain as well as enhance the effectiveness of theimmune system. In Japan, compilations of musicare used as medication, of sorts. For example, if you want to cure a headache ormigraine, the album suggested Mendelssohn's "Spring Song," Dvorak's"Humoresque," or part of George Gershwin's "An American in Paris" (Campbell,1998). Music is also being used to assist in learning, in a phenomenon called theMozart Effect.
B. Frances H. Rauscher, Ph.D., first demonstrated the correlation between music and learning in an experiment in 1993. His experiments indicated that a 10 minute dose of Mozart could temporarily boost intelligence. Groups of students were given intelligence tests after listening to silence, relaxation tapes, or Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major for a short time. He found that after silence, the average IQ score was 110, and after the relaxation tape, scores rose a point. After listening to Mozart, however, the scores jumped to 119 (Westley, 1998). Even students who did not like the music still had an increased score on the IQ test. Rauscher hypothesized that "listening to complex, non-repetitive music, like Mozart, may simulate neural pathways that are important in thinking" (Castleman, 1994).
C. The same experiment was repeated on rats by Rauscher and Hong Hua Li from Stanford. Rats also demonstrated enhancement in their intelligence performance.These new studies indicate that rats that were exposed to Mozart showed "increasedgene expression of BDNF (a neural growth factor), CREB (a learning and memorycompound), and Synapsin I(a synaptic growth protein)" in the brain's hippocampus,compared with rats in the control group, which heard only white noise (e.g. thewhooshing sound of a radio tuned between stations)
D. How exactly does the Mozart affect work? Researchers are still trying to determine the actual mechanisms for the formation of these enhanced learning pathways. Neuroscientists suspect that music can actually help build and strengthen connections between neurons in the cerebral cortex in a process similar to what occurs in brain development despite its type. When a baby is born, certain connections have already been made - like connections for heartbeat and breathing. As new information is learned and motor skills develop, new neural connections are formed. Neurons that are not used will eventually die while those used repeatedly will form strong connections. Although a large number of these neural connections require experience, they also must occur within a certain time frame. For example, a child born with cataracts cannot develop connections within the visual cortex. If the cataracts are removed by surgery right away, the child's vision develops normally. However, after the age of 2, if the cataracts are removed, the child will remain blind because those pathways cannot establish themselves.
E. Music seems to work in the same way. In October of 1997, researchers at the University of Konstanz in Germany found that music actually rewires neuralcircuits (Begley, 1996). Although some of these circuits are formed for physicalskills needed to play an instrument, just listening to music strengthens connectionused in higher-order thinking. Listening to music can then be thought of as"exercise" for the brain, improving concentration and enhancing intuition.
F. If you're a little skeptical about the claims made by supporters of the Mozart Effect, you're not alone. Many people accredit the advanced learning of some children whotake music lessons to other personality traits, such as motivation and persistence,which is required in all types of learning. There have also been claims of thatinfluencing the results of some experiments.
G. Furthermore, many people are critical of the role the media had in turning an isolated study into a trend for parents and music educators. After Mozart Effect waspublished to the public, the sales of Mozart CDs stayed on the top of the hit list for three weeks. In an article by Michael Linton, he wrote that the research that began this phenomenon (thestudy by researchers at the University of CaliforniaIrvine) showed only a temporary boost in IQ, whichwas not significant enough to even last throughout thecourse of the experiment. Using music to influenceintelligence was used in Confucian civilization andPlato alluded to Pythagorean music when hedescribed is ideal state inThe Republic.In both ofthese examples, music did not have caused any overwhelmingchanges, and thetheory eventually died out. Linton also asks, "If Mozart's Music were able toimprove health, why was Mozart himself so frequently sick? If listening to Mozart'smusic increases intelligence and encourages spirituality, why aren't the world'ssmartest and most spiritual people Mozart specialists?" Linton raises an interestingpoint, if the Mozart Effect causes such significant changes, why isn't there moredocumented evidence?
H. The "trendiness" of the Mozart Effect may have died out somewhat, but there are still strong supporters (and opponents) of the claims made in 1993. Since that initialexperiment, there has not been a surge of supporting evidence. However, manyparents, after playing classical music whilepregnant or when theft children are young,will swear by the Mozart Effect. A classmateof mine once told me that listening toclassical music while studying will help with memorization. If we approach this controversy from a scientific aspect, although there has been some evidence that music does increase brain activity, actualimprovements in learning and memory have not been adequately demonstrated.
Questions 1-5
Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?Write thecorrect letter A-H in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1Music influences brain development of baby.
2 Popularity of public to the introduction of Mozart Effect
3 Description of the pioneer experiment of a person
4 Music is helpful as a healing method in some places
5 Learning needs other qualities though
Questions 6-8
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 6-8 on your answer sheet.
In the experiment carried out by Frances Rauscher, participants were immersed in the music for a ............6..............period of time before they were tested. Rauscher suggested that enhancement of their performance is related to the............7..............nature ofMozart'smusic.After that, another parallel experiment was also conducted on............8..............
Questions 9-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1

In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information ừ not given in the passage

9 Music has the power to improve people's brain performance according to thepassage.
10 All neural connections are built up after a baby's born instead of thetime he orshe had born.
11 There is no one who questions Mozart Effect so far.
12 Michael Linton carried out further experiment on Mozart's life to support hisviewpoint
13 Not sufficient evidence supports Mozart Effect from the very first experiment tillnow.
Section 2
London Swaying Footbridge
A. In September 1996 a competition was organized by the Financial Times in association with the London Borough of Southwark to design a new footbridgeacross the Thames. The competition attracted over 200 entries and was won by ateam comprising Arup (engineers), Foster and Partners (architects) and thesculptor Sir Anthony Caro.
B. The bridge opened to the public on 10 June 2000. Up to 100,000 people crossed it that day with up to 2000 people on the bridge at any one time. At first, the bridge was still. Then it began to sway just slightly. Then, almost from one moment to the next, when large groups of people were crossing, the wobble intensified. This movement became sufficiently large for people to stop walking to retain their balance and sometimes to hold onto the hand rails for support. It was decided immediately to limit the number of people on the bridge, but even so the deck movement was sufficient to be uncomfortable and to raise concern for public safety so that on 12 June the bridge was closed until the problem could be solved.
C. The embarrassed engineers found the videotape that day which showed the center spanswaying about 3 inches side to side every second. The engineers first thought that winds might beexerting excessive force onthe many large flags and bannersbedecking the bridge for its gala premiere. Whats more, they also discovered that the pedestrians also played a key role. Human activities, such as walking, running, jumping, swaying, etc. could cause horizontal force which in turn could cause excessive dynamic vibration in the lateral direction in the bridge. As the structure began moving, pedestriansadjusted their gait to the same lateral rhythm as thebridge. The adjusted footsteps magnifiedthe motion - just like when fourpeople all stand up in a small boat at the same time. As more pedestrians lockedinto the same rhythm, the increasing oscillations led to the dramaticswaying captured on film.
D.In order to design a method of reducing the movements, the force exerted by the pedestrians had to be quantified and related tothe motion of the bridge. Although there aresome descriptions of this phenomenon inexisting literature, none of these actuallyquantifies the force. So there was noquantitative analytical way to design thebridge against this effect. An immediateresearch program was launched by the bridge'sengineering designers Ove Arup, supported bya number of universities and researchorganizations.
E. The tests at the University of Southampton involved a person walking on the spot on a small shake table. The tests at Imperial College involved persons walking along a specially built, 7.2m-long platformwhich could be driven laterally at differentfrequencies (n and amplitudes. Eachtype of test had its limitations. The Imperial Collegetests were only able to capture 7-8 footsteps, and thewalking on the spot tests, although monitoring many footsteps, could not investigate normalforward walking.Neither test could investigate any influence of other people in a crowd on the behavior of the individual being tested.
F. The results of the laboratory tests provided information which enabled the initial design of a retro- fit to be progressed. However, the limitations of these tests was clear and it was feltthat the only way to replicate properly the precise conditions of the MillenniumBridge was to carry out crowd tests on the bridge deck itself. These tests done by the Arupengineers could incorporate factors not possible in the laboratory tests. The first of these was carried out with 100 people in July 2000. The results of these tests were used to refine the load model for thepedestrians. A second series of crowd tests was carried outon the bridge in December 2000. The purpose of these testswas to further validate the design assumptions and to loadtest a prototype damper installation. The test was carried outwith 275 people.
G. Unless the usage of the bridge was to be greatly restricted, only two generic options to improve its performance were considered feasible. The first was toincrease the stiffness of the bridge to move all its lateral natural frequencies outof the range that could be excited by the lateral footfall forces, and the secondwas to increase the damping of the bridge to reduce the resonant response.
Youshould spend about 20 minutes on question 14-26, which are based on reading passage 2 on the following pages.
Questions14-17
ChooseFOURletters,A-H.
Write the correct letters in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
Which FOUR of the following situation were witnessed on the opening ceremony of the bridge?
A The frequency of oscillation increased after some time.
B All the engineers went to see the ceremony that day.
CThe design of the bridge astonished the people.
D Unexpected sideway movement of the bridge occurred.
E Pedesfrians had difficulty in walking on the deck.
F The bridge fell down when people tried to retain their balance.
G Vibration could be detected on the deck by the pedestrians.
H It was raining when the ceremony began.
Questions 18-22
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 2 using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet
After the opening ceremony, the embarrassed engineers tried to find out the reason of the bridge's wobbling. Judged from the videotape, they thought that 18..........and 19..........might create excessive force on the bridge. The distribution of 20..........resulted from human activities could cause 21..........throughout the structure. This swaying prompted people to start adjusting the way they walk, which in turn reinforced the 22..........
Questions 23-26
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 2 for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
Research programs launched by universities and organizations

Universities / People Activity Test at 23. Limited ability to have 7-8 footsteps 'walking on the spot' at Southampton Not enough data on 24 Crowd test conducted by 25 Aim to verify 26 
Section 3
Book review on Musiccophilia
Norman M. Weinberger reviews the latest work of Oliver Sacks
A. Music and the brain are both endlessly fascinating subjects, and as a neuroscientist specialising in auditory learning and memory, I find them especially intriguing. SoI had high expectations of Musicophilia, the latest offering from neurologist andprolific author Oliver Sacks. And I confess to feeling a little guilty reporting thatmy reactions to the book are mixed.
B. Sacks himself is the best part of Musicophilia. He richly documents his own life in the book and reveals highlypersonal experiences. The photograph of him on thecover of the book-which shows him wearingheadphones, eyes closed, clearly enchanted as he listensto Alfred Brendel perform Beethovens Pathetique Sonata-makes a positive impression that is home out bythe contents of the book. Sackss voice throughout is steady and erudite but never pontifical. He is neither self-conscious nor self-promoting.
C. The preface gives a good idea of what the book will deliver. In it Sacks explains that he wants to convey the insights gleaned from the enormous and rapidlygrowing body of work on the neural underpinnings of musical perception andimagery, and the complex and often bizarre disorders to which these are prone.He also stresses the importance of the simple art of observation and therichness of the human context. He wants to combine observation and descriptionwith the latest in technology, he says, and to imaginatively enter into theexperience of his patients and subjects. The reader can see that Sacks, who hasbeen practicing neurology for 40 years, is tom between the old-fashioned path oobservation and the new fangled, high-tech approach: He knows that he needs totake heed of the latter, but his heart lies with the former.
D. The book consists mainly of detailed descriptions of cases, most of them involving patients whom Sacks has seen in his practice. Brief discussions of contemporaryneuroscientific reports are sprinkled liberally throughout the text. Part, Hauntedby Music, begins with the strange case of Tony Cicoria, a nonmusical,middle-aged surgeon who was consumed by a love of music after being hit bylightning. He suddenly began to crave listening to piano music, which he hadnever cared for in the past. He started to play the piano and then to composemusic, which arose spontaneously in his mind in a torrent of notes. How could this happen? Was the cause psychological? (He had had a near-death experience when thelightning struck him.) Or was it the direct resultof a change in the auditory regions of hiscerebral cortex? Electroencephalography (EEG)showed his brain waves to be normal in themid-1990s, just after his, trauma andsubsequent conversion to music. There arenow more sensitive tests, but Cicoria, hasdeclined to undergo them; he does not want to delve into the causes of hismusicality. What a shame!
E. Part II, A Range of Musicality, covers a wider variety of topics, but unfortunately, some of the chapters offer little or nothing that is new. For example, chapter 13, which is five pages long, merely notes that the blind often have better hearing than the sighted. The most interesting chaptersare those that present the strangest cases. Chapter 8 isabout amusia, an inability to hear sounds as music, anddysharmonia, a highly specific impairment of the ability to hear harmony, with the ability to understand melody left intact. Such specific dissociations are found throughout the cases Sacks recounts.
F. To Sackss credit, part III, Memory, Movement and Music, bringsUSinto the underappreciated realm of music therapy. Chapter 16 explains how melodicintonation therapy is being used to help expressive aphasic patients (those unableto express their thoughts verbally following a stroke or other cerebral incident)once again become capable of fluent speech. In chapter 20, Sacks demonstrates thenear-miraculous power of music to animate Parkinsons patients and other peoplewith severe movement disorders, even those who are frozen into odd postures.Scientists cannot yet explain how music achieves this effect
G. To readers who are unfamiliar with neuroscience and music behavior, Musicophilia may be something of a revelation. But the book will not satisfy thoseseeking the causes and implications of the phenomena Sacks describes. For onething, Sacks appears to be more at ease discussing patients than discussingexperiments. And he tends to be rather uncritical in accepting scientific findings and theories.
H.Its true that the causes of music-brain oddities remain poorly understood. However, Sacks could have done more to draw out some of the implications of thecareful observations that he and other neurologists have made and of thetreatments that have been successful. For example, he might have noted that themany specific dissociations among components of music comprehension, such asloss of the ability to perceive harmony but not melody, indicate that there is nomusic center in the brain. Because many people who read the book are likely tobelieve in the brain localisation of all mental functions, this was a missededucational opportunity.
I. Another conclusion one could draw is that there seem to be no cures for neurological problemsinvolving music. A drug can alleviate a symptom inone patient and aggravate it in another, or can haveboth positive and negative effects in the samepatient. Treatments mentioned seem to be almostexclusively antiepileptic medications, which dampdown the excitability of the brain in general; theireffectiveness varies widely.
J. Finally, in many of the cases described here the patient with music-brain symptoms is reported to have normal EEG results. Although Sacks recognisesthe existence of new technologies, among them far more sensitive ways to analyzebrain waves than the standard neurological EEG test, he does not call for their use.In fact, although he exhibits the greatest compassion for patients, he conveys nosense of urgency about the pursuit of new avenues in the diagnosis and treatmentof music-brain disorders. This absence echoes the books preface, in which Sacksexpresses fear that the simple art of observation may be lost if we rely too muchon new technologies. He does call for both approaches, though, and we can onlyhope that the neurological community will respond.
Questions 27-30
Choose the correct letterA, B,Cor D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet
27 Why does the writer have a mixed feeling about the book?
A The guilty feeling made him so.
B The writer expected it to be better than it was.
CSacks failed to include his personal stories in the book.
D This is the only book written by Sacks.
28 What is the best part of the book?
A the photo of Sacks listening to music
B the tone of voice of the book
Cthe autobiographical description in the book
D the description of Sacks s wealth
29 In the preface, what did Sacks try to achieve?
A make a herald introduction of the research work and technique applied
B give detailed description of various musical disorders
Cexplain how people understand music
D explain why he needs to do away with simple observation
30 What is disappointing about Tony Cicorias case?
A He refuses to have further tests.
B He cant determine the cause of his sudden musicality.
CHe nearly died because of the lightening.
D His brain waves were too normal to show anything.
Questions 31-36
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts with the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
31 It is difficult to give a well-reputable writer a less than totally favorable review.
32 Beethoven's Pathetique Sonata is a good treatment for musical disorders.
33 Sacks believes technological methods is of little importance compared withtraditional observation when studying his patients.
34 It is difficult to understand why music therapy is undervalued
35 Sacks held little skepticism when borrowing other theories and findings indescribing reasons and notion for phenomena he depicts in the book.
36 Sacks is in a rush to use new testing methods to do treatment for patients.
Questions 37-40
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write correct letter, A-F, in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet
37 The content covered dissociations in understanding between harmony and melody
38 The study of treating musical disorders
39 The EEG scans of Sackss patients
40 Sacks believes testing based on new technologies
---------------
A. show no music-brain disorders.
B. indicates that medication can have varied results,
C.is key for the neurological community to unravel the mysteries.
D. should not be used in Isolation.
E. indicate that not everyone can receive good education.
F. show a misconception that there is function centre localized in the brain

Reading Test 19
Section 1
The coming back of theExtinct Grass in Britain
A. It'sBritain's dodo,called interrupted brome because of its gappy seed-head, this unprepossessing grass was foundnowhere else in the world. Sharp-eyed Victorian botanistswere the first to notice it, and by the 1920s the odd-lookinggrass had been found across much of southern England. Yet its decline was just as dramatic. By 1972 it had vanished from its last toehold-two hay fields atPampisford, near Cambridge. Even the seeds stored at theCambridge University Botanic Garden as an insurancepolicy were dead, having been mistakenly kept at roomtemperature. Botanists mourned: a unique living entity wasgone forever.
B. Yet reports of its demise proved premature. Interrupted brome has come back from the dead, and not throughany fancy genetic engineering. Thanks to onegreen-fingered botanist, interrupted brome is alive andwell and living as a pot plant. Britain's dodo is about tobecome a phoenix, as conservationists set aboutrelaunching its career in the wild.
C. At first, Philip Smith was unaware that the scrawny pots of grass on his bench were all that remained of a uniquely British species. But when news of the"extinction" of Bromus interruptus finally reached him, he decided to astonish hiscolleagues. He seized his opportunity at a meeting of the Botanical Society of theBritish Isles in Manchester in 1979, where he was booked to talk about hisresearch on the evolution of the brome grasses. It was sad, he said, thatinterrupted brome had become extinct, as there were so many interestingquestions botanists could have investigated. Then he whipped out two enormouspots of it. The extinct grass was very much alive.
D. It turned out that Smith had collected seeds from the brome's last refuge at Pampisford in 1963, shortly before the species disappeared from the wild altogether. Ever since then, Smith had grown the grass on, year after year. So inthe end the hapless grass survived not through some high-powered conservationscheme or fancy genetic manipulation, but simply because one man wasinterested in it. As Smith points out, interrupted brome isn't particularly attractiveand has no commercial value. But to a plant taxonomist, that's not what makes aplant interesting.
E. The brome's future, at least in cultivation, now seems assured. Seeds from Smith's plants have been securely stored in the state-of-the-art Millennium Seed Bank atWakehurst Place in Sussex. And living plants thrive at the botanic gardens atKew, Edinburgh and Cambridge. This year, "bulking up" is under way to makesure there are plenty of plants in all the gardens, and sackfuls of seeds are beingstockpiled at strategic sites throughout the country.
F. The brome's relaunch into the British countryside is next on the agenda. English Nature has included interrupted brome in its Species Recovery Programme, and itis on track to be reintroduced into the agricultural landscape, if friendly farmerscan be found. Alas, the grass is neither pretty nor useful-in fact, it is undeniably aweed, and a weed of a crop that nobody grows these days, at that. The brome wasprobably never common enough to irritate farmers, but no one would value ittoday for its productivity or its nutritious qualities. As a grass, it leavesagriculturalists cold.
So where did it come from? Smith's research into the taxonomy of the brome grasses suggests that interruptus almost certainly mutated from another weedy grass, soft brome,hordeaceus.So close is the relationship that interrupted brome was originally deemed to be a mere variety of soft brome by the great Victorian taxonomist Professor Hackel. But in 1895, George Claridge Druce, a 45-year-old Oxford pharmacist with a shop on the High Street, decided that it deserved species status, and convinced the botanical world. Druce was by then well on his way to fame as an Oxford don, mayor of the city, and a fellow of the Royal Society. A poor boy from Northamptonshire and a self-educated man, Druce became the leading field botanist of his generation. When Druce described a species, botanists took note.
H. The brome's parentage may be clear, but the timing of its birth is more obscure. According to agricultural historian Joan Thirsk, sainfoin and its friends madetheir first modest appearance in Britain in the early 1600s. Seeds brought in fromthe Continent were sown in pastures to feed horses and other livestock. But inthose early days, only a few enthusiasts-mostly gentlemen keen to pamper theftbest horsestook to the new crops.
I. Although the credit for the "discovery" of interrupted brome goes to a Miss A. M. Barnard, who collected the first specimens at Odsey, Bedfordshire, in 1849. Thegrass had probably lurked undetected in the English countryside for at least ahundred years. Smith thinks the botanical dodo probably evolved in the late 17thor early 18th century, once sainfoin became established.
J. Like many once-common arable weeds, such as the corncockle, interrupted brome seeds cannot survive long in the soil. Each spring, the brome relied on farmers to resow its seeds; in the days before weedkillers and sophisticated seed sieves, an ample supply would have contaminated stocks of crop seed. But fragile seeds are not the brome's only problem: this species is also reluctant to release its seeds as they ripen. Show it a ploughed field today and this grass will struggle to survive, says Smith. It will be difficult to establish in today's"improved" agricultural landscape, inhabited by notoriously vigorouscompetitors.
Questions 1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 1The name for interrupted brome is very special as its head shaped like asharp eye
2 Interrupted brome thought to become extinct because there were no liveseed even in a labs condition.
3 Philip Smith comes from University of Cambridge.
4 Reborn of the interrupted brome is attributed more toscientific meaning than seemingly aesthetic or commercial ones
5 English nature will operate to recover interrupted brome on the success ofsurvival in Kew.
6 Interrupted Brome grow poorly in some competing modern agriculturalenvironment with other plants
7 Media publicity plays a significant role to make interrupted bromecontinue to exist.
Questions 8-13
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
NB: you may use any letter more than once
A. George Claridge Druce
B. Nathaniel Fiennes
C.Professor Hackel
D. A. M. Barnard
E. Philip Smith
F. Joan Thirsk
Choose the people who
8 reestablished the British unique plants
9 identified the interrupted brome as just to its parent brome
10 gave an independent taxonomy place to interrupted brome
11 discovered and picked the first sample of interrupted brome
12 recorded the first 'show up' of sainfoin plants in Britain
13 collected the last seeds just before its extinction

Section 2
CHILDRENS LITERATURE
A. Stories and poems aimed at children have an exceedingly long history: lullabies, for example, were sung in Roman times, and a few nursery games and rhymes are almost as ancient. Yet so far as written-down literature is concerned, while there were stories in print before 1700 that children often seized on when they had the chance, such as translations of Aesops fables, fairy-stories and popular ballads and romances, these were not aimed at young people in particular. Since the only genuinely child-oriented literature at this time would have been a few instructional works to help with reading and general knowledge, plus the odd Puritanical tract as an aid to morality, the only course for keen child readers was to read adult literature. This still occurs today, especially with adult thrillers or romances that include more exciting, graphic detail than is normally found in the literature for younger readers.
B. By the middle of the 18thcentury there were enough eager child readers, and enough parents glad to cater to this interest, for publishers to specialize inchildrens books whose first aim was pleasure rather than education or morality.In Britain, a London merchant named Thomas Boreham producedCajanus, TheSwedish Giantin 1742, while the more famous JohnNewbery publishedA LittlePretty Pocket Bookin 1744.1ts contents rhymes, stories, childrens games plusa free gift (A ball and a pincushion) in many ways anticipated the similarlucky-dip contents of childrens annuals this century. It is a tribute to Newberysflair that he hit upon a winning formula quite so quickly, to be pirated almostimmediately in America.
C. Such pleasing levity was not to last. Influenced by Rousseau, whose (1762) decreed that all books for children saveRobinson Crusoewere a dangerousdiversion, contemporary critics saw to it that childrens literature should beinstructive and uplifting. Prominent among such voices was Mrs. Sarah Trimmer,whose magazineThe Guardian of Education(1802) carried the first regularreviews of childrens books. It was she who condemned fairy-tales for their violence and general absurdity; her own stories,Fabulous Histories(1786) described talking animals who were always models of sense and decorum.
D. So the moral story for children was always threatened from within, given the way children have of drawing out entertainment from the sternest moralist. But thegreatest blow to the improving childrens book was to come from an unlikelysource indeed: early 19th-century interest in folklore. Both nursery rhymes,selected by James Orchard Halliwell for a folklore society in 1842, and collectionof fairy-stories by the scholarly Grimm brothers, swiftly translated into English in1823, soon rocket to popularity with the young, quicklyleading to new editions, each one more child-centeredthan the last. From now on younger children couldexpect stories written for their particular interest andwith the needs of their own limited experience of lifekept well to the fore.
E. What eventually determined the reading of older children was often not the availability of special childrens literature as such but access to books thatcontained characters, such as young people or animals, with whom they couldmore easily empathize, or action, such as exploring or fighting, that made fewdemands on adult maturity or understanding.
F. The final apotheosis of literary childhood as something to be protected from unpleasant reality came with the arrival in the late 1930s of child-centeredbest-sellers intend on entertainment at its most escapist. In Britain novelist suchas Enid Blyton and Richmal Crompton described children who were always freeto have the most unlikely adventures, secure in the knowledge that nothing badcould ever happen to them in the end. The fact that war broke out again duringher books greatest popularity fails to register at all in the self-enclosed worldinhabited by Enid Blytons young characters. Reaction against such dream-worldswas inevitable after World War II, coinciding with the growth of paperback sales,childrens libraries and a new spirit of moral and socialconcern. Urged on by committed publishers and progressivelibrarians, writers slowly began to explore new areas ofinterest while also shifting the settings of their plots fromthe middle-class world to which their chiefly adult patronshad always previously belonged.
G. Critical emphasis, during this development, has been divided. For some the most important task was to rid childrens books of the social prejudice andexclusiveness no longer found acceptable. Others concentrated more on the positive achievements of contemporary childrens literature. That writers of these works are now often recommended to the attentions of adult as well as childreaders echoes the 19th-century belief that childrens literature can be shared bythe generations, rather than being a defensive barrier between childhood and thenecessary growth towards adult understanding.
Questions 14-18
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from Reading Passage 2 for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
DATE FEATURES AIM EXAMPLE Before 1700 Not aimed at young children Education and morality Puritanical tract By the middle of 18thcentury Collection of rhymes 14______ and games Read for pleasure A Little Pretty Pocket Book (exported to 15_______ ) Early 19thcentury Growing interest in 16____ To be more children-centered Nursery rhymes and 17____ Late 1930s Stories of harm-free 18____ Entertainment Enid Blyton and Richamal Cromptons novels Questions19-21
Look at the following people and the list of statements below.
Match each person with the correct statement.
Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
19 Thomas Boreham
20 Mrs. Sarah trimmer
21 Grimm Brothers
-------------------------------------------------------
List of statements
A Wrote criticisms of childrens literature
B Used animals to demonstrate the absurdity of fairy tales
CWas not a writer originally
D Translated a book into English
E Didnt write in the English language
Questions 22-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage2?In boxes22-26on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement agrees with theinformation
FALSE if the statement contradicts theinformation
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
---------------------------------
22 Children didnt start to read books until 1700.
23 Sarah Trimmer believed that childrens books should set good examples.
24 Parents were concerned about the violence in childrens books.
25 An interest in the folklore changed the direction of the development of childrensbooks.
26 Today childrens book writers believe their works should appeal to both childrenand adults.
Section 3
Beyond the Blue Line
A. Much of the thrill of venturing to the far side of the world rests on the romance of difference. So one feels certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the day in 1778 thathe discovered Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific, the British navigatorhad explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea, from lush New Zealandto the lonely wastes of Easter Island. This latest voyage had taken him thousands ofmiles north from the Society Islands to an irchipelago so remote that even the oldPolynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine Cooks surprise, then,when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes and greeted him in afamiliar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote of inhabited land he hadvisited. Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific language and culture, he later wonderedin his journal: "How shall we account for this Nation spreading itself so far over thisvast ocean?
B. That question, and others that flow from it, has tantalized inquiring minds for centuries: Who were these amazing seafarers? Where did they come from, starting morethan 3,000 years ago? And how could a Neolithic people with simple canoes and nonavigation gear manage to find, let alone colonize, hundreds of far-flung island specksscattered across an ocean that spans nearly a third of the globe? Answers have been slowin coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the island of Efate, in the Pacificnation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaring people, the distant ancestors oftodays Polynesians, taking their first steps into the unknown. The discoveries there havealso opened a window into the shadowy world of those early voyagers.
C. What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacifics first explorers," says Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the AustralianNational University and co-leader of an international team excavating the site. It came tolight only by luck. A backhoe operator, digging up topsoil on the grounds of a derelictcoconut plantation, scraped open a gravethe first of dozens in a burial ground some3,000 years old. It is the oldest cemetery ever found in the Pacific islands, and it harborsthe bones of an ancient people archaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from abeach in New Caledonia where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s.
D.They were daring blue-water adventurers who oved the sea not just as explorers but also as pioneers, bringing along everything they would need to build newlivestheir families and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools. Within thespan of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad volcanoes of Papua New Guinea to the loneliest coral outliers of Tonga, at least 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Along the way they explored millions of squaremiles of unknown sea, discovering and colonizing scores of tropical islands never beforeseen by human eyes: Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
It was their descendants, centuries later, who became the great Polynesian navigators we all tend to think of: the Tahitians and Hawaiians, the New Zealand Maori, and the curiouspeople who erected those statues on Easter Island. But it was the Lapita who laid thefoundationwho bequeathed to the islands the language, customs, and cultures thattheir more famous descendants carried around the Pacific.
E. While the Lapita left a glorious legacy, they also left precious few clues about themselves. A particularly intriguing clue comes from chemical tests on the teeth ofseveral skeletons. Then as now, the food and water you consume as a child depositsoxygen, carbon, strontium, and other elements in your still-forming adult teeth. Theisotope signatures of these elements vary subtly from place to place, so that if you growup in, say, Buffalo, New York, then spend your adult life in California, tests on theisotopes in your teeth will always reveal your eastern roots.
Isotope analysis indicates that several of the Lapita buried on Efate didn't spend their childhoods here but came from somewhere else. And while isotopes can't pinpoint theirprecise island of origin, this much is clear: At some point in their lives, these people leftthe villages of their birth and made a voyage by seagoing canoe, never to return. DNAteased from these ancient bones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questionsin Pacific anthropology: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Wasthere only one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from differentpoints? "This represents the best opportunity we've had yet," says Spriggs, "to find outwho the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their closest descendantsare today."
F. There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, manytimes over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal howthe canoes were sailed. Nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offerany insights.
"All we can say for certain is that the Lapita had canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sail them," says Geoff Irwin, a professor ofarchaeology at the University of Auckland and an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills,he says, were developed and passed down over thousands of years by earlier marinerswho worked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific making shortcrossings to islands within sight of each other. The real adventure didn't begin, however,until their Lapita descendants neared the end of the Solomons chain, for this was the edgeof the world. The nearest landfall, the Santa Cruz Islands, is almost 230 miles away, and for at least 150 of those miles the Lapita sailors would have been out of sight of land, with empty horizons on every side.
G. The Lapitas thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the key to their success.'They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter, secure in the knowledgethat if they didn't find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride home on thetrade winds. It's what made the whole thing work." Once out there, skilled seafarerswould detect abundant leads to follow to land: seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigscarried out to sea by the tides, and the afternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon thatoften betokens an island in the distance.
All this presupposes one essential detail, says Atholl Anderson, professor of prehistory at the Australian National University and, like Irwin, a keen yachtsman: that the Lapita hadmastered the advanced art of tacking into the wind. "And there's no proof that they coulddo any such thing," Anderson says. "There has been this assumption that they must havedone so, and people have built canoes to re-create those early voyages based on thatassumption. But nobody has any idea what their canoes looked like or how they wererigged."
H.However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vast emptinessof the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched to venture farther. Theyprobably never numbered more than a few thousand in total, and in their rapid migrationeastward they encountered hundreds of islandsmore than 300 in Fiji alone. Suppliedwith such an embarrassment of riches, they could settle down and enjoy what for a timewere Earth's last Edens.
I. Rather than give all the credit to human skill and daring, Anderson invokes the winds of chance. El Nino, the same climate disruption that affects the Pacific today, mayhave helped scatter the first settlers to the ends of the ocean, Anderson suggests. Climatedata obtained from slow-growing corals around the Pacific and from lake-bed sedimentsin the Andes of South America point to a series of unusually frequent El Ninos around thetime of the Lapita expansion, and again between 1,600 and 1,200 years ago, when thesecond wave of pioneer navigators made their voyages farther east, to the remotestcomers of the Pacific. By reversing the regular east-to-west flow of the trade winds forweeks at a time, these "super El Ninos" might have sped the Pacific's ancient mariners onlong, unplanned voyages far over the horizon. The volley of El Ninos that coincided withthe second wave of voyages could have been key to launching Polynesians across thewide expanse of open water between Tonga, where the Lapita stopped, and the distantarchipelagoes of eastern Polynesia. "Once they crossed that gap, they could island hopthroughout the region, and from the Marquesas it's mostly downwind to Hawaii,"Anderson says. It took another 400 years for mariners to reach Easter Island, which liesin the opposite directionnormally upwind. "Once again this was during a period offrequent El Nino activity."
Questions 27-31

Complete the summary with the list of words A-L below.
Write the correct letter A-L in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
The question, arisen from Captain Cook's expedition to Hawaii, and others derived from it, has fascinated researchers for a long time. However, a surprising archaeological find on Efate began to provide valuable information about the 27................On the excavating site, a 28................containing 29................of Lapita was uncovered Later on, various researches and tests have been done to study the ancient people - Lapita and their 30.................... How could they manage to spread themselves so far over the vast ocean? All that is certain is that they were good at canoeing. And perhaps they could take welladvantage of the trade wind But there is no 31.................of it.

A bones  Bco-leader  C descendents  D. international team E inquiring minds  F proof  G ancestors  H early seafarers I pottery  J assumption  K horizons  L grave 
Questions 32-35

Choose the correct letter, A,B,corD.
Write your answers in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.
32 The chemical tests indicate that

A. the elements in ones teeth varied from childhood to adulthood.
B. the isotope signatures of the elements remain the same in different places,
C.the result of the study is not fascinating.
D. these chemicals cant conceal ones origin.
33 The isotope analysis from the Lapita
A. exactly locates their birth island.
B. reveals that the Lapita found the new place via straits,
C.helps researchers to find out answers about the islanders.
D. leaves more new questions for anthropologists to answer.
34 According paragraph F, the offspring of Lapita
A were capable of voyages to land that is not accessible to view.
B were able to have the farthest voyage of 230 miles,
Cworked their way through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific.
D fully explored the horizons.
35 Once out exploring the sea, the sailors
A always found the trade winds unsuitable for sailing.
B could return home with various clues.
Csometimes would overshoot their home port and sail off into eternity.
D would sail in one direction.
Questions 36-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement istrue
FALSE if the statement isfalse
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in thepassage
36 The Lapita could canoe in the prevailing wind.
37 It was difficult for the sailors to find ways back, once they were out.
38 The reason why the Lapita stopped canoeing farther is still unknown.
39 The majority of the Lapita dwelled on Fiji.
40 The navigators could take advantage of El Nino during their forth voyages.

Reading Test 20
Section 1
world Ecotourism in the developing courtiers
A. The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as "a responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfareof local people". It is recognised as being particularly conducive toenriching and enhancing the standing of tourism, on the basis that thisform of tourism respects the natural heritage and local populations andare in keeping with the carrying capacity of the sites.
Cuba
B. Cuba is undoubtedly an obvious site for ecotourism, with its picturesque beaches, underwater beauty, countryside landscapes, and ecological reserves.An educated population and improved infrastructure of roads andcommunications adds to the mix. In the Caribbean region, Cuba is now thesecond most popular tourist destination.
Ecotourism is also seen as an environmental education opportunity to heighten both visitors and residents awareness of environmental andconservation issues, and even to inspire conservation action.
Ecotourism has also been credited with promoting peace, by providing opportunities for educational and cultural exchange. Tourists safety andhealth are guaranteed
Raul Castro, brother of the Cuban president, started this initiative to rescue the Cuban tradition of herbal medicine and provide natural medicines for itshealthcare system. The school at Las Terrazas Eco-Tourism Communityteaches herbal healthcare and children learn not only how to use medicinalherbs, but also to grow them in the school garden for teas, tinctures,ointments and creams.
In Cuba, ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty by bringing money into the economy and creating jobs. In addition to the environmental impactsof these efforts, the area works on developing community employmentopportunities for locals, in conjunction with ecotourism.
South America
C. In terms of South America, it might be the place which shows the shortcoming of ecotourism. Histoplasma capsulatum (see chapter"Histoplasmosis and HIV"), a dimorphic fungus, is the most common endemicmycosis in the United States, (12) and is associated with exposure to bat orbird droppings. Most recently, outbreaks have been reported in healthytravelers who returned from Central and South America after engaging inrecreational activities associated with spelunking, adventure tourism, andecotourism. It is quite often to see tourists neglected sanitation whiletravelling. After engaging in high-risk activities, boots should be hosed off andclothing placed in airtight plastic bags for laundering. HIV-infected travelersshould avoid risky behaviors or environments, such as exploring caves,particularly those that contain bat droppings.
D. Nowhere is the keen eye and intimate knowledge of ecotourism is more amidst this fantastic biodiversity, as we explore remote realms rich in wildliferather than a nature adventure. A sustainable tour is significant forecotourism, one in which we can grow hand in hand with nature and ourcommunity, respecting everything that makesUSprivileged Travelers getgreat joy from every step that take forward on this endless but excitingjourney towards sustainability. The primary threats to South America'stropical forests are deforestation caused by agricultural expansion, cattleranching, logging, oil extraction and spills, mining, illegal coca farming, andcolonization initiatives. Deforestation has shrunk territories belonging toindigenous peoples and wiped out more than 90% of the population. Manyare taking leading roles in sustainable tourism even as they introduceprotected regions to more travelers.
East Africa
E. In East Africa, significantly reducing such illegal hunting and allowing wildlife populations to recover would allow the generation of significant economicbenefits through trophy hunting and potentially ecotourism. "Illegal huntingis an extremely inefficient use of wildlife resources because it fails to capturethe value of wildlife achievable through alternative forms of use such astrophy hunting and ecotourism," said Peter Lindsey, author of the new study.Most residents believed that ecotourism could solve this circumstance. Theyhave passion for focal community empowerment, loves photography andwrites to laud current focal conservation efforts, create environmentalawareness and promote ecotourism.
Indonesia
F. In Indonesia, ecotourism started to become an important concept from 1995, in order to strengthen the domestic travelling movement; the focalgovernment targeting the right markets is a prerequisite for successfulecotourism. The market segment for Indonesian ecotourism consists of: (i)"The silent generation", 55-64 year-old people who are wealthy enough,generally well-educated and have no dependent children, and can travel forfour weeks; (ii) "The baby boom generation", junior successful executivesaged 35-54 years, who are likely to be travelling with their family andchildren (spending 2-3 weeks on travel) travelling for them is a stressreliever; and (iii) the "X generation, aged 18-29 years, who love to doecotours as backpackers they are generally students who can travel for3-12 months with monthly expenditure of US$300-500. It is suggested thatpromotion of Indonesian ecotourism products should aim to reach thesevarious cohorts of tourists. The country welcomes diverse levels of travelers.
G. On the other hand, ecotourism provide as many services as traditional tourism. Nestled between Mexico, Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea is thecountry of Belize. It is the wonderful place for Hamanasi honeymoon, bottle ofchampagne upon arrival, three meals daily, a private service on one night ofyour stay and a choice of adventures depending on the length of your stay. Italso offers six-night and seven-night honeymoon packages. A variety ofspecially tailored tours, including the Brimstone Hill Fortress, and a trip to aneighboring island Guided tours include rainforest, volcano and off-roadplantation tours. Gregory Pereira, an extremely knowledgeable and outgoinghiking and tour guide, says the following about his tours: "All of our tours onStKitts include transportation by specially modified Land Rovers, a picnic ofisland pastries and focal fruit, fresh tropical juices, CSR, a qualified islandguide and a full liability insurance coverage for participants.
H. Kodai is an ultimate splendor spot for those who love being close to mother nature. They say every bird must sing it's own throat while we say everytraveller should find his own way out of variegated and unblemished paths ofdeep valleys and steep mountains. The cheese factory here exports greatquantity of cheese to various countries across the globe. It is located in thecenter of forest Many travelers are attracted by the delicious cheese. Theecotourism is very famous this different eating experience.
Question 1 -5
Use the information in the passage to match the place (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.NBYou may use any letter more than once.
A Cuba B East Africa cSouth America D Indonesia
1 a place to improve local education as to help tourists
2 a place suitable for both rich and poor travelers
3 a place where could be easily get fungus
4a place taking a method to stop unlawful poaching
5 a place where the healthcare system is developed
Questions 6-9
Use the information in the passage to match the companies (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A, B,cor D in boxes 6-9 on youranswer sheet.
A eating the local fruits at the same time
B find job opportunities in community
Cwhich is situated on the heart of jungle
D with private and comfortable service
-----------
6 Visiting the cheese factory
7 Enjoying the honeymoon
8 Having the picnic while
9 The residents in Cuba could
Questions 10-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes10-13on your answer sheet.
Ecotourism is not a nature 10...............but a11............... tour. The reason why South America promotes ecotourism is due to the destruction of 12................ In addition, East Africaalsoencourages this kind of tourism for cutting the 13...............in ordertosave wild animals.
Section 2
Memory and age
A. Aging, it is now clear, is part of an ongoing maturation process that all our organs go through. "In a sense, aging is keyed to thelevel of vigor of the body and the continuous interaction betweenlevels of body activity and levels of mental activity," reportsArnold B. Scheibel, M.D., whose very academic title reflects howonce far-flung domains now converge on the mind and the brain. Scheibel is professor of anatomy, cell biology, psychiatry, and behavioral sciences at the University of California at Los Angeles, and director of theuniversity's Brain Research Institute. Experimental evidence has backed up popularassumptions that the aging mind undergoes decay analogous to that of the aging body.Younger monkeys, chimps, and lower animals consistently outperform then oldercolleagues on memory tests. In humans, psychologists concluded, memory and othermental functions deteriorate over time because of inevitable organic changes m thebrain as neurons die off. Mental decline after young adulthood appeared inevitable.
B. Equipped with imaging techniques that capture the brain in action, Stanley Rapoport, Ph.D., at the National Institutes of Health, measured the flow of blood in the brains ofold and young people as they went through the task of matching photos of faces. Sinceblood flow reflects neuronal activity, Rapoport could compare which networks ofneurons were being used by different subjects. "Even when the reaction times of olderand younger subjects were the same, the neural networks they used were significantlydifferent. The older subjects were using different internal strategies to accomplish thesame result in the same time," Rapoport says. Either the task required greater effort onthe part of the older subjects or the work of neurons originally involved in tasks of thattype had been taken over by other neurons, creating different networks.
C. At the GeorgiaInstitute of Technology, psychologist Timothy Salthouse, Ph.D., compared a group of very fastand accurate typists of college age with another group intheir 60s. Since reaction time is faster in younger peopleand most people's fingers grow less nimble with age,younger typists might be expected to tap right along while the older ones fumble. But both typed 60 words a minute. The older typists it turned out, achieved their speed with cunning little strategies that made them far more efficient than their younger counterparts: They made fewer finger movements, savinga fraction of a second here and there. They also read ahead in the text. The neuralnetworks involved in typing appear to have been reshaped to compensate for losses inmotor skills or other age changes.
D. "When a rat is kept in isolation without playmates or objects to interact with, the animal's brain shrinks, but if we put that rat with 11 other rats in a large cage and givethem an assortment of wheels, ladders, and other toys, we can showafter four dayssignificant differences in its brain," says Diamond, professor of integrative biology.Proliferating dendrites first appear in the visual association areas. After a month in theenriched environment, the whole cerebral cortex has expanded, as has its bloodsupply. Even in the enriched environment, rats get bored unless the toys are varied. "Animals are just like we are. They need stimulation," says Diamond.
One of the most profoundly important mental functions is memory-notorious for its failure with age. So important ismemory that the Charles A. Dana Foundation recently spent$8.4 million to set up a consortium of leading medicalcenters to measure memory loss and aging through brain-imaging technology,neurochemical experiments, and cognitive and psychological tests. One thing,however, is already fairly clearmany aspects of memory are not a function of age atall but of education. Memory exists in more than one form, what we call knowledge-factsis what psychologists such as Harry p. Bahrick, Ph.D., of Ohio WesleyanUniversity calls semantic memory. Events, conversations, and occurrences in time andspace, on the other hand, make up episodic or event memory, which is triggered bycues from the context. If you were around in 1963 you don't need to be reminded ofthe circumstances surrounding the moment you heard that JFK had been assassinated.That event is etched into your episodic memory.
E. When you forget a less vivid item, like buying a roll of paper towels at the supermarket, you may blame it on your aging memory. It's true that episodic memorybegins to decline when most people are in their 50s, but it's never perfect at any age."Every memory begins as an event," says Bahrick. "Through repetition, certain eventsleave behind a residue of knowledge, or semantic memory. On a specific day in thepast, somebody taught you that two and two are four, but you've been over thatinformation so often you don't remember where you learned it. What started as anepisodic memory has become a permanent part of your knowledge base." Youremember the content, not the context. Our language knowledge, our knowledge of theworld and of people, is largely that permanent or semipermanent residue.
F. Probing the longevity of knowledge, Bahrick tested 1,000 high school graduates to see how well they recalled their algebra. Some had completed the course as recently as a month before, others as long as 50 years earlier. He also determined how long eachperson had studied algebra, the grade received, and how much the skill was used overthe course of adulthood. Surprisingly, a person's grasp of algebra at the time of testingdid not depend on how long ago he'd taken the coursethe determining factor was theduration of instruction. Those who had spent only a few monthslearning algebra forgot most of it within two or three years.
G. In another study, Bahrick discovered that people who had taken several courses in Spanish, spread out over a couple of years, could recall, decades later, 60 percent or more of the vocabulary they learned. Those who took just one course retained only a trace after three years. "This long-term residue of knowledge remains stable over the decades, independent of the age of the person and the age of the memory. No serious deficit appears until people get to their 50s and 60s, probably due to the degenerative processes of aging rather than a cognitive loss."
H. "You could say metamemory is a byproduct of going to school,1' says psychologist Robert Kail, Ph.D, of Purdue University, who studies children from birth to 20 years,the time of life when mental development is most rapid. "The question-and-answerprocess, especially exam-taking, helps children leam-and also teaches them how thenmemory works This may be one reason why, according to a broad range of studies inpeople over 60, the better educated a person is, the more likely they are to performbetter in life and on psychological tests. A group of adult novice chess players werecompared with a group of child experts at the game. In tests of then ability toremember a random series of numbers, the adults, as expected, outscored the children.But when asked to remember the patterns of chess pieces arranged on a board, thechildren won. "Because they'd played a lot of chess, their knowledge of chess wasbetter organized than that of the adults, and then existing knowledge of chess servedas a framework for new memory," explains Kail.
I. Specialized knowledge is a mental resource that only improves with time. Crystallized intelligence about one's occupation apparently does not decline at all until at least age 75, and if there is no disease or dementia, may remain even longer, special knowledge is often organized by a process called "chunking.1' If procedure A and procedure B are always done together, for example, the mind may merge them into a single command. When you apply yourself to a specific interest-say, cookingyou build increasingly elaborate knowledge structures that let you do more and do it better. This ability, which is tied to experience,IBthe essence of expertise. Vocabulary is one such specialized form of accrued knowledge. Research clearly shows that vocabulary improves with time. Retired professionals, especially teachers and journalists, consistently score higher on tests of vocabulary and general information than college students, who are supposed to be in their mental prime.
Questions 14-17
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
14 What does the experiment of typist show in the passage?
A. Old people reading ability is superior
B. Losses of age is irreversible
C. Seasoned tactics made elders more efficient
D. Old people performed poorly in driving test
15 Which is correct about rat experiment?
A. Different toys have different effect for rats
B. Rat's brain weight increased in both cages
C. Isolated rat's brain grows new connections
D. Boring and complicated surroundings affect brain development
16 What can be concluded in chess gameof children group?
A. They won game with adults.
B. Then organization of chess knowledge is better
C. Then image memory is better than adults
D. They used different part of brain when playing chess
17 What is author's purpose of using "vocabulary study" at the end of passage?
A. Certain people are sensitive to vocabularies while others aren't
B. Teachers and professionals won by then experience
C. Vocabulary memory as a crystallized intelligence is hard to decline
D. Old people use their special zone of brain when study
Questions 18-23
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes18-23 on your answer sheet.
It's long been known that as one significant mental function, ____18_____ deteriorates withage.CharlesA. Dana foundation invested millions of dollars to test memory decline. They used advanced technology, neurochemical experiments and ran several cognitive and _____19______experiments. Bahrick called one form "_____20_____", which describes factual knowledge. Another one called "_____21_____" containsevents in time and space format. He conducted two experiments toward to knowledge memory's longevity, he asked 1000 candidates some knowledge of _____22_____, some could even remember it decades ago. Second research of Spanish course found that multiple courses participants could remember more than half of _____23____they learned after decades, whereas single course taker only remembered as short as 3 years.
Questions 24-27
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
A. Harry p. Bahrick
B. Arnold B. Scheibel
C. Marion Diamond
D. Timothy Salthouse
E. Stanley Rapport
F. Robert Kail
--------------------------
24 Examined both young and old's blood circulation of brain while testing.
25 Aging is a significant link between physical and mental activity.
26 Some semantic memory of a event would not fade away after repetition.
27 Rat's brain developed when put in a diverse environment.

Section 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
The secret of the Yawn
A. When a scientist began to study yawning in the 1980s, it was difficult to convince some of his research students of the merits of "yawning science." Although it may appear quirky, his decision to study yawning was a logical extension to human beings of my research in developmental neuroscience, reported in such papers as "Wing-flapping during Development and Evolution." As a neurobehavioral problem, there is not much difference between the wing-flapping of birds and the face- and body-flapping of human yawners.
B. Yawning is an ancient, primitive act. Humans do it even before they are born, opening wide in the womb. Some snakes unhinge then jaws to do it. One species of penguins yawns as part of mating. Only now are researchers beginning to understand why we yawn, when weyawn and why we yawn back. A professor ofcognitive neuroscience at Drexel University inPhiladelphia, Steven Platek, studies the act ofcontagious yawning, something done only bypeople and other primates.
C. In his first experiment, he used a psychological test to rank people on then empathic feelings.Hefound that participants who did not score high on compassion did not yawn back. "We literally had people saying, 'Why am I looking at people yawning?"1Professor Platek said. "It just had no effect."
D. For his second experiment, he put 10 students in an magnetic resonance imaging machine as theywatched video tapes of people yawning. When thestudents watched the videos, the part of the brainwhich reacted was the part scientists believe controlsempathy - the posterior cingulate,inthe brain's middle rear." I don't know if it's necessarily that nice people yawn more, but I think it's a good indicator of a state of mind," said Professor Platek. "It's also a good indicator if you're empathizing with meand paying attention."
E. His third experiment is studying yawning in those with brain disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, in which victims havedifficulty connecting emotionally with others. Apsychology professor at the University of Maryland,Robert Provine, is one of the few other researchers intoyawning. He found the basic yawn lasts about sixseconds and they come in bouts with an interval ofabout 68 seconds. Men and women yawn or half-yawnequally often, but men are significantly less likely tocover then mouths which may indicate complexdistinction in genders." A watched yawner neveryawns," Professor Provine said. However, the physical root of yawning remainsa mystery. Some researchers say it's coordinated within the lypothal of the brain, the area that also controls breathing.
F. Yawning and stretching also share properties and may be performed together as parts of a globalmotor complex. But they do not alwaysco-occur people usually yawn when we stretch,but we don't always stretch when we yawn, especially before bedtime. Studies by J. I. P, G. H. A. Visser and H. F. Prechtl in the early 1980s, charting movement in the developing fetus using ultrasound,observed not just yawning but a link between yawning and stretching as earlyas the end of the first prenatal trimester
G. The most extraordinary demonstration of the yawn-stretch linkage occurs in many people paralyzed on one side of their body because of brain damagecaused by a stroke. The prominent British neurologist Sir Francis Walshe notedin 1923 that when these hemiplegics yawn, they are startled and mystified toobserve that then otherwise paralyzed arm rises and flexes automatically inwhat neurologists term an "associated response." Yawning apparently activates undamaged, unconsciously controlled connections between the brain and the cord motor system innervating the paralyzedlimb.Itis not known whether the associated response is a positive prognosis for recovery, nor whether yawning is therapeutic for reinnervationorprevention of muscular atrophy.
H. Clinical neurology offers other surprises. Some patients with "locked-in" syndrome, who are almost totally deprived of the ability to move voluntarily,can yawn normally. The neural circuits for spontaneousyawning must exist in the brain stem near otherrespiratory and vasomotor centers, because yawning isperformed by anencephalicwho possess only the medulla oblongata. The multiplicity of stimuli of contagious yawning, by contrast, implicates many higher brain regions.
Questions 28-32
Summary
Complete the Summary paragraph described below. In boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet, write the correct answer withNo MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
A psychology professor drew a conclusion after observation that it takes about she seconds to complete an average yawning which needs ......28......before a following yawning comes. It is almost at the same frequency that male and female yawn or half, yet behavior accompanied with yawning showing a ......29......in genders. Some parts within the brain may affect the movement which also have something to do with......30.......another finding also finds there is a link between yawn and..........31......before a baby was born, which two can be automatically co-operating even among people whose......32......is damaged.
Questions 33-37
Read paragraph A-H. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-H for question 33-37
NB: You may use any letter more than once.
33 The rate for yawning shows some regular pattern.
34 Yawning is an inherent ability that appears in both animals and humans.
35 Stretching and yawning are not always going together.
36 Yawning may suggest people are having positive notice or response incommunicating.
37 Some superior areas in brain may deal with the infectious feature ofyawning
Questions 38-40
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 38 Several students in Plateks experiment did not comprehend why thentutor ask them to yawn back.
39 Some results from certain experiment indicate the link between yawningand compassion.
40 Yawning can show an affirmative impact on the recovery from braindamage brought by a stroke.

Reading Test 21
Section 1
Consecutive and Simultaneous Translation
A. When people are faced with a foreign-language barrier, the usual way round it is to find someone to interpret or translate for them. The term 'translation', is theneutral term used for all tasks where the meaningor expressions in one language(the source language) is turned into the meaning of another(the target language), whether the medium is spoken,written, or signed. In specific professional contexts,however, a distinction is drawn between people who workwith the spoken or signed language (interpreters), and thosewho work with the written language (translators). There arecertain tasks that blur this distinction, as when sourcespeeches turned into target writing. But usually the two rolesare seen as quite distinct, and it is unusual to find one person who is equally happywith both occupations. Some writers on translation, indeed, consider theinterpreting task to be more suitable for extrovertpersonalities,andthe translating task for introverts
B. Interpreting is today widely known from its use in international political life. When senior ministers from different language backgrounds meet, the television recordinvariably shows a pair of interpreters hovering in the background. At majorconferences, such as the United Nations General Assembly, the presence ofheadphones is a clear indication that a major linguistic exercise is taking place. Ineveryday circumstances, too, interpreters are frequently needed, especially incosmopolitan societies formed by new reiterationsofimmigrantsand Gastarbeiter. Often, the business of law courts, hospitals, local health clinics, classrooms, or industrial tribunals cannot be carried on without the presence of an interpreter. Given the importance and frequency of this task,therefore, it is remarkable that so little study has been made of what actuallyhappens when interpreting takes place, and of how successful an exercise it is.
C. There are two main kinds of oral translation consecutive and. In consecutive translation the translating starts after the original speech or some part of it has been completed. Here the interpreters strategy and the final results depend, to a great extent on the length of the segment to be translated. If the segment is just a sentence or two the interpreter closely follows the original speech. As often as not, however, the interpreter is expected to translate a long speech which has lasted for scores of minutes or even longer. In this case he has to remember a great number of messages; and keep them in mind until he begins his translation. To make this possible the interpreter has to take notes of the original messages, various systems of notation having been suggested for the purpose. The study of, and practice in, such notation is the integral part of the interpreters training as are special exercises to develop his memory.
D. Doubtless the recency ofdevelopmentsinthefieldpartly explains this neglect. One procedure, consecutive interpreting, is very old and presumably dates from the Tower of Babel! Here,the interpreter translates after the speaker has finished speaking. This approach is widely practiced in informal situations, as well as in committees and small conferences. In larger and more formalsettings, however, it has been generally replaced by simultaneous interpreting arecent development that arose from the availability of modem audiologicalequipment and the advent of increased international interaction following theSecond World War.
E. Of the two procedures, it is the second that has attracted most interest, because of the complexity of the task and the remarkable skills required. In no other contextof human communication is anyone routinely required to listen and speak at thesame time, preserving an exact semanticcorrespondence between the two modes. Moreover, there is invariably a delay of a few words between the stimulus and the response, because of the time it takes to assimilatewhat is being said in the source language and to translate it into an acceptable form in the target language. This ear-voice span is usually about 2 or 3 seconds, but itmay be as much as 10 seconds or so, if the text is complex. The brain has toremember what has just been said, attend to what is currently being said, andanticipate the construction of what is about to be said. As you start a sentence youare taking a leap in the dark, you are mortgaging your grammatical future; theoriginal sentence may suddenly be turned in such a way that your translation of itsend cannot easily be reconciledwithyourtranslation of its start. Great is called for
F. How it is all done is not at all clear. That it is done at all is a source of some wonder, given the often lengthy periods of interpreting required, the confinedenvironment of an interpreting booth, the presence of background noise, and theawareness that major decisions may depend upon the accuracy of the work. Other consideration such as cultural background also makes it aim to pay full attention to the backgrounds of the authors and the recipients, and to take into accountdifferences between source and target language.
G. Research projects have now begun to look at these factors - to determine, for example, how far successful interpreting is affected by poor listening conditions, or thespeed at which the source language isspoken. It seems that an input speed ofbetween 100 and 120 words per minute is acomfortable rate for interpreting, with anupper limit of around 200 w.p.m. But evensmall increases in speed can dramaticallyaffect the accuracy of output. In onecontrolled study, when speeds weregradually increased in a series of stages from 95 to 164 w.p.m., the ear-voicespan also increased with each stage, and the amount correctly interpreted showeda clear decline. Also, as the translatingload increases, not only are there moreerrors of commission (mistranslations,cases of vaguenessreplacing precision), there are also more errors of omission, as words and segments of meaning are filtered out. These are important findings, given the need for accuracy in international communication. What isneeded is a more detailed identification of the problem areas, and of the strategiesspeakers, listeners, and interpreters use to solve them. There is urgent need toexpand what has so far been one of the most neglected fields of communicationresearch.
Questions 1-5
Choose the correct letter, A,B,corD.
Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
1.In which waydoes author state translation at thebeginning of the passage?
A. abstract and concrete meaning
B.general and specific meaning
C.several examples of translation's meaning
D.different meaning in various profession
2. Application of headphone in a UN conference tells US that:
A. TV show is being conducted
B.radio program is on the air
C. two sides are debating
D.language practice is in the process
3. In the passage,what is author's purposeof citingTower of Babel
A. interpreting secret is stored in the Tower
B.interpreter emerged exactly from time of Tower of Babel
C.consecutive interpreting has a long history
D.consecutive interpreting should be abandoned
4. Aboutsimultaneous interpreting,which of the following isTRUE!
A. it is an old and disposable interpretation method
B.itdoesntneed outstanding professional ability
C.it relies on professional equipment
D.it takes less than two seconds ear-voice span
5. Inconsecutive translation,if the section is longer than expected, what would an interpreter most probably do?
A. he or she has to remember some parts ahead
B. he or she has to break them down first
C.he or she has to respond as quickly as possible
D. he or she has to remember all parts ahead
Questions 6-9
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords ora numberfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Writeyour answers in boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet.
The cycle from ear to voice normally lasts about..........6..........., which depends on sophistication of paper, for example, it could go up to..........7........sometimes. When expert took close research on affecting elements, they found appropriate speaking speed is somehow among.........8.........w.p.m. In a specific experiment, the accuracy of interpretation dropped while the ear-voice span speed increased between 95 to 164 w.p.m. However, the maximum of speed wasabout.........9..........w.p.m.
Questions 10-13
Choose FOUR correct letters
Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
WhichFOURof the followings are the factors that affect interpreting?
A. mastery in structure and grammar of sentence in the script
B. speed of incoming sound source
C.noisy of background
D. emotional states of interpreter
E. culture of different backgrounds
F. understanding the significance of being precise
G. upper volume limit of speakers
Section 2
Water Filter
A. An ingenious invention is set to bring clean water to the third world, and while the science may be cutting edge,the materials are extremely down to earth. A handful of clay yesterdays coffee grounds and some cow manure are the ingredients that could bring clean, safedrinking water to much of the third world.
B. The simple new technology, developed by ANU materials scientist Mr. Tony Flynn, allows water filters to be made from commonly available materials andfired on the ground using cow manure as the source of heat, without the need fora kiln. The filters have been tested and shown to remove common pathogens(disease-producing organisms) including E-coli. Unlikeother water filtering devices, the filters are simple and inexpensive to make. They are very simple to explain and demonstrate and can be made by anyone, anywhere,says Mr. Flynn. They dont require any western technology. All you need isterracotta clay, a compliant cow and a match.
C. The production of the filters is extremely simple. Take a handful of dry, crushed clay, mix it with a handful of organic material, such as used tea leaves, coffee grounds or ricehulls, add enough water to make a stiff biscuit-like mixture and form a cylindrical pot that has one end closed, then dry it in the sun. According to Mr. Flynn, used coffee grounds have given the best results to date. Next, surround the pots with straw; put them in a mound of cow manure, light the straw and then top up the burning manure as required. In less than 60 minutes the filters are finished. The walls of the finished pot should be about as thick as an adults index. The properties of cow manure are vital as the fuel can reach a temperature of 700 degrees in half an hour and will be up to 950 degrees after another 20 to 30 minutes. The manure makes a good fuel because it is very high in organic material that bums readily and quickly; the manure has to be dry and is best used exactly as found in the field, there is no need to break it upor process it any further.
D. A potters din is an expensive item and can could take up to four or five hours to get upto 800 degrees. It needs expensive or scarce fuel, such as gasor wood to heat it and experience to run it. With no technology, no insulation and nothing other than a pile of cow manure and a match, none of these restrictions apply, Mr. Flynn says.
E. It is also helpful that, like terracotta clay and organic material, cow dung is freely available across the developing world. A cow is a natural fuel factory. Myunderstanding is that cow dung as a fuel wouldbe pretty much the same wherever you wouldfind it. Just as using manure as a fuel fordomestic uses is not a new idea, the porosity ofclay is something that potters have known aboutfor years, and something that as a formerceramics lecturer in the ANU School of Art, Mr. Flynn is well aware of. The difference is that rather than viewing the porous nature of the material as a problem after all not many people want a pot that wont hold water his filters capitalize on thisproperty.
F. Other commercial ceramic filters do exist, but, even if available, with prices starting at US$5 each, they are often outside the budgets of mostpeople in the developing world. The filtration process is simple, buteffective. The basic principle is that there are passages through the filterthat are wide enough for water droplets to pass through, but too narrowfor pathogens. Tests with the deadly E-coli bacteriumhave seen the filters remove 96.4 to 99.8 per cent ofthe pathogen well within safe levels. Using onlyone filter it takes two hours to filter a litre of water.The use of organic material, which burns awayafter firing, helps produce the structure in whichpathogens will become trapped. It overcomes the potential problems of finer clays that may not let water through and also means that cracks are soon halted. And like clay and cow dung, it isuniversally available.
G. The invention was born out of a World Vision project involving the Manatuto community in East TimorThecharity wantedtohelpset up a small industry manufacturing water filters, but initial research found the local clay to be too fine a problem solved by the addition of organic material. While theAFproblemsofproducinga working ceramic filter in East Timor were overcome, the solution was kiln-based and particulartothatcommunitys materials and couldnt be applied elsewhere. Manure firing, with no requirement for a kiln, has made this zero technology approach availableanywhere it is needed. With all the components beingwidely available, Mr. Flynn says there is no reason thetechnology couldnt be applied throughout the developingworld, and with no plans to patent his idea, there will be no legal obstacles to itbeing adopted in any community that needs it. Everyone has a right to cleanwater, these filters have the potential to enable anyone in the world to drink watersafely, says Mr. Flynn.
Questions 14-19
Complete the flow chart, usingNO MORE THAN TWO WORDSfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
Guide to Making Water Filters
Step one: combinationof14...........and organic material, with sufficient 15..........to create a thick mixture sun dried
Step two: pack16..........around the cylinders place them in 17...........which is as burning fuel for firing (maximum temperature: 18...........) filter being baked in under 19..........
Questions 20-23
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes20-23on your answer sheet, write
TRUEifthestatementistrue
FALSE ifthestatementisfalse
NOT GIVEN iftheinformation isnotgiveninthepassage
---------------
20 It takes half an hour for the manure to reach 950 degrees.
21 Clay was initially found to be unsuitable for pot making.
22 Coffee grounds are twice as effective as other materials.
23 E-coli is the most difficult bacteria to combat.
Questions 24-26
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
24 When making the pot, the thickness of the wall
A. is large enough to let the pathogens to pass.
B. varied according to the temperature of the fuel,
C. should be the same as an adults forefinger.
D. is not mentioned by Mr. Flynn.
25 what is true aboutthe charity, it
A. failed in searching the appropriate materials.
B. successfully manufacture a kiln based ceramic filter to be sold worldwide
C.found that the local clay are good enough.
D. intended to help build a local filter production factory.
26 Mr. Flynns design is purposely not being patented
A. because he hopes it can be freely used around the world.
B. because he doesnt think the technology is perfect enough,
C. because there are some legal obstacles.
D. because the design has already been applied thoroughly.
Section 3
Music: Language We All Speak
SectionA: Music is one of the human species relatively few universal abilities. Without formal training, any individual, from Stone Age tribesman to suburban teenager has theability to recognize music and, in some fashion, to make it. Why this should be so is amystery. After all, music isn't necessary for getting through the day, and if it aids inreproduction, it does so only in highly indirect ways. Language, by contrast, is alsoeverywhere- but for reasons that are more obvious. With language, you and the membersof your tribe can organize a migration across Africa, build reed boats and cross the seas,and communicate at night even when you cant see each other. Modem culture, in all itstechnological extravagance, springs directly from the human talent for manipulatingsymbols and syntax. Scientists have always been intrigued by theconnection between music and language. Yet over the years,words and melody have acquired a vastly different status in thelab and the seminar room. While language has long beenconsidered essential to unlocking the mechanisms of humanintelligence, music is generally treated as an evolutionary frippery- mereauditory cheesecake, as the Harvard cognitive scientistSteven Pinker puts it.
Section B:But thanks to a decade-long wave of neuroscience research, that tune is changing. A flurry ofrecent publications suggests that language and music mayequally be able to tellUSwho we are and where werefrom - not just emotionally, but biologically. In July, thejournalNature Neurosciencedevoted a special issue tothe topic. And in an article in the August 6 issue of theJournal of Neuroscience,David Schwartz, CatherineHowe, and Dale Purves of Duke University argued thatthe sounds of music and the sounds of language areintricately connected.
To grasp the originality of this idea, its necessary to realize two things about how music has traditionally been understood. First, musicologists have long emphasized that whileeach culture stamps a special identity onto its music; music itself has some universalqualities. For example, in virtually all cultures sound is divided into some or all of the 12
intervals that make up the chromatic scale - that is, the scale represented by the keys on a piano. For centuries, observers have attributed this preference for certain combinationsof tones to the mathematical properties of sound itself. Some 2,500 years ago,Pythagoras was the first to note a direct relationship between the harmoniousness of atone combination and the physical dimensions of the object that produced it. Forexample, a plucked string will always play an octave lower than a similar string half itssize, and a fifth lower than a similar string two-thirds its length. This link betweensimple ratios and harmony has influenced music theory ever since.
Section C:This music-is-moth idea is often accompanied by the notion that music formally speaking at least, exists apart from the world in which it was created. Writingrecently inThe New York Review of Books,pianist and critic Charles Rosen discussedthe long-standing notion that while painting and sculpture reproduce at least someaspects of the natural world, and writing describes thoughts and feelings we are allfamiliar with, music is entirely abstracted from the world in which we live. Neither ideais right, according to David Schwartz and his colleagues. Human musical preferencesare fundamentally shaped not by elegant algorithms or ratios but by the messy sounds ofreal life, and of speech in particular -which in turn is shaped by our evolutionaryheritage. The explanation of music, like the explanation of any product of the mind,must be rooted in biology, not in numbers per se," says Schwartz.
Schwartz, Howe, and Purves analyzed a vast selection of speech sounds from a variety of languages to reveal the underlying patterns common to all utterances. In order tofocus only on the raw sound, they discarded all theories about speech and meaning andsliced sentences into random bites. Using a database of over 100,000 brief segments ofspeech, they noted which frequency had the greatest emphasis in each sound. Theresulting set of frequencies, they discovered, corresponded closely to the chromaticscale. In short, the building blocks of music are to be found in speech
Far from being abstract, music presents a strange analog to the patterns created by the sounds of speech. "Music, like the visual arts, is rooted in our experience of the naturalworld," says Schwartz. " It emulates our sound environment in the way that visual artsemulate the visual environment. " In music we hear the echo of our basic sound-makinginstrument- the vocal tract. The explanation for human music is simple; still thanPythagorass mathematical equations. We like the sounds that are familiar to us-specifically, we like sounds that remind usof us.
This brings up some chicken-or-egg evolutionary questions. It may be that music imitates speech directly, the researchers say, in which case it would seem that languageevolved first. Its also conceivable that music came first and language is in effect an
Imitation of song - that in everyday speech we hit the musical notes we especially like. Alternately, it may be that music imitates the general products of the humansound-making system, which just happens to be mostly speech. "We can't know this,"says Schwartz. "What we do know is that they both come from the same system, and itis this that shapes our preferences."
Section D:Schwartz's study also casts light on the long-running question of whether animals understand or appreciate music. Despite the apparent abundance of "music" inthe natural world-birdsong,whalesong, wolf howls, synchronized chimpanzee hootingprevious studies have found that many laboratory animals don't show a great affinity for the human variety of music making. Marc Hauser and Josh McDermott of Harvard argued in the July issue ofNatureNeurosciencethat animals don't create or perceive music theway we do. The act that laboratory monkeys can showrecognition of human tunes is evidence, they say, of sharedgeneral features of the auditory system, not any specificchimpanzee musical ability. As for birds, those most musicalbeasts, they generally recognize their own tunes - a narrowrepertoire - but don't generate novel melodies like we do. There are no avian Mozarts.
But what's been played to the animals, Schwartz notes, is human music. If animals evolve preferences for sound as we do - based upon the soundscape in which they live -then their "music" would be fundamentally different from ours. In the same way ourscales derive from human utterances, a cat's idea of a good tune would derive fromyowls and meows. To demonstrate that animals don't appreciate sounds the way we do,we'd need evidence that they don't respond to "music" constructed from their own soundenvironment.
Section E:No matter how the connection between language and music is parsed, what is apparent is that our sense of music, even our love for it, is as deeply rooted in ourbiology and in our brains as language is. This is most obvious with babies, says SandraTrehub at the University of Toronto, who also published a paper in theNatureNeurosciencespecial issue.
For babies, music and speech are on a continuum. Mothers use musical speech to "regulate infants' emotional states." Trehub says. Regardless of what language theyspeak, the voice all mothers use with babies is the same: "something between speechand song." This kind of communication "puts the baby in a trance-like state, which mayproceed to sleep or extended periods of rapture." So if the babies of the world couldunderstand the latest research on language and music, they probably wouldn't be verysurprised. The upshot, says Trehub, is that music may be even more of a necessity thanwe realize.
Questions 27-31
Reading Passage 3 has five sections A-E.
Choose the correct heading for each section from the of headings below.
List of Headings i Animal sometimes make music. ii Recent research on music iii Culture embedded in music iv Historical theories review v Communication in music with animals vi Contrast between music and language vii Questions on a biological link with human and music viii Music is good for babies.  Write the correct numberi-viii in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
27 Section A
28 Section B
29 Section C
30 Section D
31 Section E
Questions 32-38
Look at the following people and list of statements below.
Match each person with the correct statement.
Write the correct letter A-Gin boxes 32-38 on your answer sheet.
List of Statements
A Music exists outside of the world in which it is created.
BMusic has a common feature though cultural influences affect
cHumans need music.
DMusic priority connects to the disordered sound around.
E Discovery of mathematical musical foundation.
F Music is not treated equally well compared with language

G Humans and monkeys have similar traits in perceiving sound.
-----------------
32 Steven Pinker
33 Musicologists
34 Greek philosopher Pythagoras
35 Schwartz, Howe, and Purves
36 Marc Hauser and Josh McDermott
37 Charles Rosen
38 Sandra Trehub
Questions 39-40
Choose the correct letterA,B,cor D
Write your answersin boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.
39 Why was the study of animal's music uncertain?
A Animals don't have the same auditory system as humans.
BExperiments on animal's music are limited,
Ctunes are impossible for animal to make up.
DAnimals don't have spontaneous ability for the tests.
40What is the main subject of this passage?
A Language and psychology.
BMusic formation,
CRole of music in human society.
DMusic experiments for animals.

Reading Test 22
Section 1
Voyage of going: beyond the blue line 2
A. One feels a certain sympathy for Captain James Cook on the day in 1778 that he "discovered" Hawaii. Then on his third expedition to the Pacific, the Britishnavigator had explored scores of islands across the breadth of the sea, from lushNew Zealand to the lonely wastes of Easter Island This latest voyage had taken himthousands of miles north from the Society Islands to an archipelago so remote thateven the ok! Polynesians back on Tahiti knew nothing about it. Imagine Cook'ssurprise, then, when the natives of Hawaii came paddling out in their canoes andgreeted him in a familiar tongue, one he had heard on virtually every mote ofinhabited land he had visited Marveling at the ubiquity of this Pacific languageand culture, he later wondered in his journal: "How shall we account for thisNation spreading it self so far over this Vast ocean?"
B. Answers have been slow in coming. But now a startling archaeological find on the island of Efate, in the Pacific nation of Vanuatu, has revealed an ancient seafaringpeople, the distant ancestors of today's Polynesians, taking their first steps into theunknown. The discoveries there have also opened a window into the shadowywork! of those early voyagers. At the same time, other pieces of this human puzzleare turning up in unlikely places. Climate data gleaned from slow-growing coralsaround the Pacific and from sediments in alpine lakes in South America may helpexplain how, more than a thousand years later, a second wave of seafarers beattheir way across the entire Pacific.
C. What we have is a first- or second-generation site containing the graves of some of the Pacific's first explorers," says Spriggs, professor of archaeology at theAustralian National University and co-leader of an international team excavatingthe site. It came to light only by luck A backhoe operator, digging up topsoil onthe grounds of a derelict coconut plantation, scraped open a gravethe first ofdozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old It is the oldest cemetery everfound in the Pacific islands, and it harbors the bones of an ancient peoplearchaeologists call the Lapita, a label that derives from a beach in New Caledonia where a landmark cache of their pottery was found in the 1950s. They were daring blue-water adventurers who roved the sea not just as expbrers but also aspioneers, bringing abng everything they would need to build new livestheirfamilies and livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.
D. Within the span of a few centuries the Lapita stretched the boundaries of their world from the jungle-clad vokanoes of Papua New Guinea to the bneliest coraloutliers of Tonga, at feast 2,000 miles eastward in the Pacific. Abng the way theyexpbred millions of square miles of unknown sea, discovering and cobnizingscores of tropical islands never before seen by human eyes: Vanuatu, NewCaledonia, Fiji, Samoa.
E. What little is known or surmised about them has been pieced together from fragments of pottery, animal bones, obsidian flakes, and such oblique sources ascomparative linguistics and geochemistry. Although their voyages can be tracedback to the northern islands of Papua New Guinea, their language variants ofwhich are still spoken across the Pacific came from Taiwan. And their peculiarstyle of pottery decoration, created by pressing a carved stamp into the clay,probably had its roots in the northern Philippines. With the discovery of the Lapitacemetery on Efate, the volume of data available to researchers has expandeddramatically. The bones of at feast 62 individuals have been uncovered sofar including old men, young women, even babiesand more skeletons areknown to be in the ground Archaeobgists were also thrilled to discover sixcomplete Lapita pots. It's an important find, Spriggs says, for it conclusivelyidentifies the remains as Lapita. "It would be hard for anyone to argue that thesearen't Lapita when you have human bones enshrined inside what is unmistakablya Lapita urn."
F. Several lines of evidence also undergird Spriggs's conclusion that this was a community of pioneers making their first voyages into the remote reaches ofOceania. For one thing, the radiocarbon dating of bones and charcoal places themearly in the Lapita expansion. For another, the chemical makeup of the obsidianflakes littering the site indicates that the rock wasn't local; instead it was importedfrom a large island in Papua New Guinea's Bismarck Archipelago, the springboardfor the Lapita's thrust into the Pacific. A particularly intriguing clue comes fromchemical tests on the teeth of several skeletons. DNA teased from these ancientbones may also help answer one of the most puzzling questions in Pacificanthropobgy: Did all Pacific islanders spring from one source or many? Was thereonly one outward migration from a single point in Asia, or several from differentpoints? "This represents the best opportunity we've had yet," says Spriggs, "to findout who the Lapita actually were, where they came from, and who their cbsestdescendants are today.
G. "There is one stubborn question for which archaeobgy has yet to provide any answers: How did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, whichcould reveal how the canoes were sailed Nor do the oral histories and traditions oflater Polynesians offer any insights, for they segue into myth long before theyreach as far back in time as the Lapita." All we can say for certain is that the Lapitahad canoes that were capable of ocean voyages, and they had the ability to sailthem," says Geoff Irwin, a professor of archaeology at the University of Aucklandand an avid yachtsman. Those sailing skills, he says, were developed and passeddown over thousands of years by earlier mariners who worked their way throughthe archipelagoes of the western Pacific making short crossings to islands withinsight of each other. Reaching Fiji, as they did a century or so later, meant crossingmore than 500 miles of ocean, pressing on day after day into the great blue void ofthe Pacific. What gave them the courage to launch out on such a risky voyage?
H. The Lapita's thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds, Irwin notes. Those nagging headwinds, he argues, may have been the keyto their success. "They could sail out for days into the unknown and reconnoiter,secure in the knowledge that if they didn't find anything, they could turn about andcatch a swift ride home on the trade winds. It's what made the whole thing work."Once out there, skilled seafarers would detect abundant leads to follow to land:seabirds and turtles, coconuts and twigs carried out to sea by the tides, and theafternoon pileup of clouds on the horizon that often betokens an island in thedistance. Some islands may have broadcast their presence with far less subtletythan a cloud bank. Some of the most violent eruptions anywhere on the planetduring the past 10,000 years occurred in Melanesia, which sits nervously in one ofthe most explosive volcanic regions on Earth. Even less spectacular eruptionswould have sent plumes of smoke bilbwing into the stratosphere and rained ashfor hundreds of miles. It's possible that the Lapita saw these signs of distant islandsand later sailed off in their direction, knowing they would find land For returningexplorers, successful or not, the geography of their own archipelagoes provided asafety net to keep them from overshooting their home ports and sailing off intoeternity.
I.However they did it, the Lapita spread themselves a third of the way across the Pacific, then called it quits for reasons known only to them. Ahead lay the vastemptiness of the central Pacific, and perhaps they were too thinly stretched toventure farther. They probably never numbered more than a few thousand in total,and in their rapid migration eastward they encountered hundreds ofislands more than 300 in Fiji alone. Still, more than a millennium would passbefore the Lapita's descendants, a people we now call the Polynesians, struck out insearch of new territory.
Questions1-7
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet,write
YES if the statement is true
NO if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
1 Captain cook once expected the Hawaii might speak another language of peoplefrom other pacific islands.
2 Captain cook depicted number of cultural aspects of Polynesians in his journal.
3 Professor Spriggs and his research team went to the Efate to try to find the site ofancient cemetery.
4 The Lapita completed a journey of around 2,000 miles in a period less than acentenary.
5 The Lapita were the first inhabitants in many pacificislands.
6 The unknown pots discovered in Efate had once been used for cooking.
7 The um buried in Efate site was plain as it was without any decoration.
Questions 8 -10
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more thanTwowords from the Reading Passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes8-10on your answer sheet.
Scientific Evident found in Efate site
Tests show the human remains and the charcoal found in the buried um are from the start of the Lapita period. Yet The .........8........ covering many of the Efate site did not come from that area.
Then examinations carried out on the .........9........ discovered at Efate site reveal that not everyone buried there was a native living in the area. In fact, DNA could identify the Lapita'snearest.........10...........present-days.
Questions 11-13
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
11 What did the Lapita travel in when they crossed the oceans?
12 In Irwinss view, what would the Latipa have relied on to bring them fastback to the base?
13 Which sea creatures would have been an indication to the Lapita of where tofind land ?
Section 2
European Heat Wave
A. IT WAS the summer, scientists now realise, when felt. We knew that summer 2003 was remarkable: global warming at last made itself unmistakably Britain experienced its record high temperature and continental Europe saw forest fires raging out of control, great rivers drying of a trickle and thousands of heat-related deaths. But just how remarkable is only now becoming clean.
B. The three months of June, July and August were the warmest ever recorded in western and centralEurope, with record national highs in Portugal, Germany and Switzerland as well as Britain. And they were the warmest by a very long way Over a great rectangular block of the earth stretching from west of Paris to northern Italy, taking in Switzerland and southern Germany, the average temperature for the summer months was 3.78c above the long-term norm, said the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, which is one of the world's lending institutions for the monitoring and analysis of temperature records.
C. That excess might not seem a lot until you are aware of the context - but then you realise it is enormous. There is nothing like this in previous data, anywhere. It isconsidered so exceptional that Professor Phil Jones, the CRU's (Erector, is prepared tosay openly - in a way few scientists have done before - that the 2003 extreme may bedirectly attributed, not to natural climate variability, but to global warming caused byhuman actions.
D. Meteorologists have hitherto contented themselves with the formula that recent high temperatures are consistent with predictions" of climate change. For the great blockof the map - that stretching between 35-50N and 0-20E - the CRU has reliabletemperature records dating back to 1781. Using as a baseline the average summertemperature recorded between 1961 andl990, departures from the temperature norm,or "anomalies': over the area as a whole can easily be plotted. As the graph shows,such is the variability of our climate that over the past 200 years, there have been at least half a dozen anomalies, in terms of excess temperature - the peaks on the graph denoting very hot years - approaching, or even exceeding, 20 c. But there has beennothing remotely like 2003, when the anomaly is nearly four degrees.
E. "This is quite remarkable," Professor Jones told The Independent. "It's very unusual in a statistical sense. If this series had a normal statistical distribution, you wouldn'tget this number. There turn period how often it could be expected to recur would besomething like one in a thou-sand years. If we look at an excessabove the average of nearly four degrees, then perhaps nearly threedegrees of that is natural variability, because weve seen that inpast summers. But the final degree of it is likely to be due to globalwarming, caused by human actions.
F. The summer of 2003 has, in a sense, been one that climate scientists have long been expecting. Until now, the warming hasbeen manifesting itself mainly in winters that have been less cold than in summersthat have been much hotter. Last week, the United Nations predicted that winterswere warming so quickly that winter sports would die out in Europe's lower-level skiresorts. But sooner or later the unprecedented hot summer was bound to come, andthis year it did.
G.One of the most dramatic features of the summer was the hot nights, especially in the first half of August. In Paris, the temperature never dropped below230c (73.40T)at all between 7 and 14August, and the city recorded its warmest-ever night on 11-12August, when the mercury did not drop below25.50c (77.90F).Germany recordedits warmest-ever night at Weinbiet in the Rhine valley with a lowest figure of27.60c(80.60T)on13August, and similar record-breaking night-time temperatures wererecorded in Switzerland and Italy.
H.The 15,000 excess deaths in France during August, compared with previous years, have been related to the high night-time temperatures. The number graduallyincreased during the first 12days of the month, peaking at about 2,000 per day on thenight of 12-13 August, then fell off dramatically after 14 August when the minimumtemperatures fell by about 50C. The elderly were mostaffected, with a 70 per cent increase in mortality ratein those aged 75-94.
I. For Britain, the year as a whole is likely to be the warmest ever recorded, but despite the high temperature record on 10 August, the summer itself - defined as the June, July and August period - still comes behind 1976 and 1995, when there were longer periods ofintense heat. At the moment, the year is on course to be the third-hottest ever in theglobal temperature record, which goes back to 1856, behind 1998 and 2002 but whenall the records for October, November and December are collated, it might move intosecond place, Professor Jones said. The 10 hottest years in the record have all nowoccurred since 1990. Professor Jones is in no doubt about the astonishing nature of European summer of 2003.The temperatures recorded were out of all proportion to the previous record," he said. "It was the warmest summer in the past 500 years andprobably way beyond that It was enormously exceptional."
J. His colleagues at the University of East Anglia's Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research are now planning a special study of it. "It was a summer that has not: beenexperienced before, either in terms of the temperature extremes that were reached, orthe range and diversity of the impacts of the extreme heat,"said the centres executive director, Professor Mike Hulme."It will certainly have left its mark on a number of countries,as to how they think and plan for climate change in the future,much as the 2000 floods have revolutionised the way theGovernment is thinking about flooding in the UK. "The 2003heat wave will have similar repercussions across Europe."
Questions 14-19
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 14 The average summer temperature in 2003 is approximately four degreeshigher than that of the past.
15 Jones believes the temperature statistic is within the normal range.
16 Human factor is one of the reasons that caused hot summer.
17 In large city, people usually measure temperature twice a day.
18 Global warming has obvious effect of warmer winter instead of hottersummer before 2003.
19 New ski resorts are to be built on a high-altitude spot.
Questions 20-21
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR NUMBERS from the passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes20-21on your answer sheet
20 What are the two hottest years in Britain besides 2003?
21 What will affect UK government policies besides climate change according to Hulme ?

Questions 22-26
Complete the summary below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage. Write your answers in boxes 22-26 On your answer sheet
In the summer of 2003, thousands of extra death occurred in the country of____22_____. Moreover, world-widely, the third record of hottest summer date from_____23____, after the year of______24_____. According toJones,allthe10hottest years happened from_____25____. However,summerof 2003 was at the peak of previous ____26____years, perhaps even more.
Question 27
Choose the correct letter A, B,cor D
Write your answer in box 27 on your answer sheet
27 Which one can be best served as the title of this passage in the following options?
A Global Warming effect
B Global Warming in Europe
C The Effects of hot temperature
D Hottest summer in Europe
Section 3
the concept of childhood in the western countries
The history of childhood has been a topic of interest in social history since the highly influential 1960 book Centuries of Childhood, written by French historianAries. He argued that "childhood" is a concept created by modern society.
A. One of the most hotly debated issues in the history of childhood has been whether childhood is itself a recent invention. The historian Philippe Aries argued that in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (up to about the end of thefifteenth century) children were regarded asminiature adults, with all the intellect andpersonality that this implies. He scrutinized medieval pictures and diaries,and found no distinction between children and adults as they sharedsimilar leisure activities and often the same type of work. Aries, however,pointed out that this is not to suggest that children were neglected,forsaken or despised. The idea of childhood is not to be confused withaffection for children; it corresponds to an awareness of the particularnature of childhood, that particular nature which distinguishes the childfrom the adult, even the young adult.
B. There is a long tradition of the children of the poor playing a functional role in contributing to the family income byworking either inside or outside the home. In this sense children are seen as 'useful. Back in the Middle Ages, children as young as 5 or 6 did important chores for theirparents and, from the sixteenth century,were often encouraged (or forced) to leavethe family by the age of 9 or 10 to work asservants for wealthier families or to beapprenticed to a trade.
C. With industrialization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a new demand for child labour was created, and many children were forced to work for long hours, in mines, workshops and factories. Social reformersbegan to question whether labouring long hours from an early age wouldharm children's growing bodies. They began to recognize the potential ofcarrying out systematic studies to monitor how far these earlydeprivations might be affecting children's development.
D.Gradually, the concerns of the reformers began to impact on the working conditions of children. In Britain, the Factory Act of 1833 signified thebeginning of legal protection of children from exploitation and waslinked to the rise of schools for factory children. The worst forms ofchild exploitation were gradually eliminated, partly through factoryreform but also through the influence of trade unions and economicchanges during the nineteenth century which made some forms ofchild labour redundant. Childhood was increasingly seen as a time forplay and education for all children, not just for a privileged minority.Initiating children into work as 'useful' children became less of apriority. As the age for starting full-time work was delayed, sochildhood was increasingly understood as a moreextended phase of dependency,development and learning. Evenso, work continued to play asignificant, if less central role inchildren's lives throughout thelater nineteenth and twentiethcentury. And the 'useful child'has become a controversialimage during the first decade ofthe twenty-first century especially in the context of global concern about large numbers of the world's children engaged in child labour.
E. The Factory Act of 1833 established half-time schools which allowed children to work and attend school. But in the 1840s, a large proportion ofchildren never went to school, and if they did, they left by the age of 10 or11. The situation was very different by the end of the nineteenth centuryin Britain. The school became central to images of 'a normal' childhood .
F. Attending school was no longer a privilege and all children were expected to spend a significant part of their day in a classroom. By goingto school, children's lives were now separated from domestic life at homeand from the adult world of work. School became an institution dedicatedto shaping the minds, behaviour and morals of the young. Education dominated the management of children's waking hours, not just through the hours spent in classrooms but through 'home' work, the growth of'after school' activities and the importance attached to 'parentalinvolvement.
G.Industrialization, urbanization and mass schooling also set new challenges for those responsible for protecting children's welfare, andpromoting their learning. Increasingly, children were being treated as agroup with distinctive needs and theywere organized into groups according totheir age. For example, teachers neededto know what to expect of children intheir classrooms, what kinds ofinstruction were appropriate for differentage groups and how best to assesschildren's progress. They also wantedtools that could enable them to sort andselect children according to their abilities and potential.
Questions 28-34
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? Write your answers in boxes 28-34 on your answer sheet.

TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 28 Aries pointed out that children did different types of work as adults during the Middle Age.
29 During the Middle Age, going to work necessarily means children were unloved indicated by Aries.
30 Scientists think that overworked labour damages the health of young children
31 the rise of trade union majorly contributed to the protection children from exploitation in 19thcentury
32 By the aid of half-time schools, most children went to school in the mid of 19 century.
33 In 20 century almost all children need to go to school in full time schedule.
34 Nowadays, childrens needs were much differentiated and categorised based on how old they are
Question 35-40
Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet.
35 what is the controversial topic arises with the French historian PhilippeAris's concept
36 what image for children did Aries believed to be like in Western Europeduring the Middle Ages
37 what historical event generated the need for great amount child labour towork long time in 18 and 19 century
38 what legal format initiated the protection of children from exploitation in 19thcentenary
39 what the activities were more and more regarded as being preferable foralmost all children time in 19thcentenary
40 where has been the central area for children to spend largily of their day aspeople's expectation in modern society

Reading Test 23
Section 1
Have Teenagers Always Existed
A. Our ancestor.Homo erectus,may not have had culture or even language, but did they have teenagers? That question has been contested in the pastfew years, with some anthropologists claiming evidence of an adolescentphase in human fossil. This is not merely an academic debate. Humanstoday are the only animals on Earth to have a teenage phase, yet we havevery little idea why. Establishing exactly whenadolescence first evolved and finding out what sortsof changes in our bodies and lifestyles it wasassociated with could helpUSunderstand its purpose. Why do we, uniquely' have a growth spurt so late in life?
B. Until recently, the dominant explanation was that physical growth is delayed by our need to grow large brains and to learn all the behaviorpatterns associated with humanity - speaking, social interaction and so on.While such behaviour is still developing, humans cannot easily fend forthemselves, so it is best to stay small and look youthful. That way yourparents and other members of the social group are motivated to continuelooking after you. What's more, studies of mammals show a strongrelationship between brain size and the rate of development, withlarger-brained animals taking longer to reach adulthood. Humans are atthe far end of this spectrum. If this theory is correct, and the developmentof large brains accounts for the teenage growth spurt, the origin ofadolescence should have been with the evolution of our* own species(Homo sapiens)and Neanderthals, starting almost 200,000 years ago. Thetrouble is, some of the fossil evidence seems to tell a different story.
C. The human fossil record is extremely sparse, and the number of fossilised children minuscule. Nevertheless, in the past few years anthropologists have begun to look at what can be learned of lives of our ancestors from these youngsters, of the most studied is the famous Turkana boy, analmost complete skeleton ofHomo erectus f1.6 million years ago foundin Kenya in 1984. Accurately assessing how old someone is from theirskeleton is a tricky business. Even with a modern human, you can onlymake a rough estimate based on the developmental stage of teeth andbones and the skeleton's general size.
D. You need as many developmental markers as possible to get an estimate of age. The Turkana'steeth made him 10 or 11 years old. The featuresof his skeleton put him at 13, but he as tall as a modem 15-year-old. Susan Anton of New York University points to research by Margaret Clegg who studied a collection of 18th- century 19th- century skeletons whose ages at death were known. When she tried to age the skeletons Without checking the records, she found similar discrepancies to those of the Turkana boy. One 10-year-old boy, for example, had a dental age of 9, the skeleton of a 6-year-old but was tall enough to be 11. 'The Turkana kid still has a rounded skull, and needs more growth to reach the adult shape/ Anton adds. She thinks thatHomo erectusalready developed modern human patterns growth, with a late, if notquite so extreme, adolescent spurt. She believes Turkana boy was justabout to enter it.
E. If Anton is right, that theory contradicts the orthodox idea linking late growth with development of a large brain. Anthropologist Steven Leighfrom the University of Illinois goes further. He believes the idea ofadolescence as catch-up growth does not explain why the growth rateincreases so dramatically. He says that many apes have growth spurts inparticular body regions that are associated with reaching maturity, andthis makes sense because by timing the short but crucial spells ofmaturation to coincide with the seasons when food is plentiful, theyminimise the risk of being without adequate food supplies while growing.What makes humans unique is that the whole skeleton is involved. ForLeigh, this is the key.
F. According to his theory, adolescence evolved as an integral part of efficient upright locomotion, as well as to accommodate more complexbrains. Fossil evidence suggests that our ancestors first walked on twolegs six million years ago. If proficient walking was important for survival,perhaps the teenage growth spurt has very ancient origins. While manyanthropologists will consider Leigh's theory a step too far, he is not the only one with new ideas about the evolution of teenagers.
G. Another approach, which has produced a surprising result, relies on the minute analysis of tooth growth. Every nine days or so the growing teethof both apes and humans acquire ridges on their enamel surface. Theseare like rings in a tree trunk: the number of them tells you how long thecrown of a tooth took to form. Across mammals' the rate at which teethdevelop is closely related to how fast the brain grows and the age youmature. Teeth are good indicators of life history because thefr growth isless related to the environment and nutrition than is the growth of theskeleton.
H. A more decisive piece of evidence came last year, when researchers in France and Spain published their findings from a study of Neanderthalteeth. Neanderthals had much faster tooth growth thanerectuswhowent before them, and hence, possibly, a shorter childhood. Leadresearcher Fernando Ramirez-Rozzi thinks Neanderthals died young-about 25 years old - primarily because of the cold, harsh environmentthey had to endure in glacial Europe. They evolved to grow up quickerthan their immediate ancestors. Neanderthals andHomo erectusprobablyhad to reach adulthood fairly quickly, without delaying for an adolescentgrowth spurt. So it still looks as though we are the original teenagers.
Questions 1-4
Choose the correct letter,Ay Bycor D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1. In the first paragraph, why does the writer say This is not merely an academicdebated?
A. Anthropologists theories need to be backed up by practical research.
B. There have been some important misunderstandings among anthropologists.
C.The attitudes of anthropologists towards adolescence are changing.
D. The work of anthropologists could inform our understanding of modem adolescence.
2. What was Susan Antons opinion of theTurkana boy?
A. He would have experienced an adolescent phase had he lived.
B. His skull showed he had already reached adulthood
C.His skeleton and teeth could not be compared to those from a more modemage.
D. He must have grown much faster than others alive at the time.
3.What point does Steven Leigh make?
A. Different parts of the human skeleton develop at different speeds.
B. The growth period of many apes is confined to times when there is enough food.
C. Humans have different rates of development from each other depending on living conditions.
D. The growth phase in most apes lasts longer if more food is available.
4.What can we learn froma mammal's teeth?
A. A poor diet will cause them to grow more slowly.
B. They are a better indication of lifestyle than a skeleton
C. Their growing period is difficult to predict accurately.
D. Their speed of growth is directly related to the bodys speed of development.
Questions 5-10
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet,write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

5 It is difficult for anthropologists to do research on human fossil because they areso rare.
6 Modem methods mean it is possible to predict the age of a skeleton with accuracy.
7 Susan Antons conclusion about the Turkana boy reinforces an established idea.
8 Steen Leighs ideas are likely to be met with disbelief by many anthropologists.
9 Researchers in France and Spain developed a unique method of analyzing teeth.
10 There has been too little research comparing the brains of Homo erectus andNeanderthals.
Questions 11-14
Complete each sentence with the correct ending,A-G, below.
Write the correct letter A-G, in boxesll-14 on your answer sheet.
11 Until recently, delayed growth in humans until adolescence was felt to be due to
12 In her research, Margaret Clegg discovered
13 Steven Leigh thought the existence of adolescence is connected to
14 Research on Neanderthals suggests that they has short lives because of
------------------
A. inconsistencies between height, skeleton and dental evidence.
B. the fact that human beings walk on two legs,
C.the way teeth grew.
D. a need to be dependent on others foe survival.
E. difficult climatic conditions.
F. increased quantities of food
G. the existence of much larger brains than preciously
Section 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1527,which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Numeracy: can animals tell numbers?
A. Prime among basic numerical faculties is the ability to distinguish between a larger and a smaller number, says psychologist ElizabethBrannon. Humans can do this with ease - providing the ratio is bigenough - but do other animals share this ability? In one experiment,rhesus monkeys and university students examined two sets ofgeometrical objects that appeared briefly on a computer monitor. Theyhad to decide which set contained more objects. Both groups performedsuccessfully but, importantly, Brannon's team found that monkeys, likehumans, make more errors when two sets of objects are close in number.The students' performance ends up looking just like a monkey's. It'spractically identical, 'she says.
B. Humans and monkeys are mammals, in the animal family known as primates. These are not the only animals whose numerical capacities rely on ratio, however. The same seems to apply to some amphibians. Psychologist Claudia Uller's team tempted salamanders with two sets of fruit flies held in clear tubes. In a series of trials, the researchers noted which tube the salamanders scampered towards, reasoning that if they had a capacity to recognise number, they would head for the larger number. The salamanders successfully discriminated between tubes containing 8 and 16 flies respectively, but not between 3 and 4, 4 and 6, or 8 and 12. So it seems that for the salamanders to discriminate between two numbers, the larger must be at least twice as big as the smaller. However, they could differentiate between 2 and 3 flies just as well as between 1 and 2 flies, suggesting they recognise small numbers in a different way from larger numbers.
C. Further support for this theory comes from studies of mosquitofish, which instinctively join the biggest shoal they can. A team at theUniversity of Padova found that while mosquitofish can tell the differencebetween a group containing 3 shoal-mates and a group containing 4, theydid not show a preference between groups of 4 and 5. The team alsofound that mosquitofish can discriminate between numbers up to 16, butonly if the ratio between the fish in each shoal was greater than 2:1. Thisindicates that the fish, like salamanders, possess both the approximateand precise number systems found in more intelligent animals such asinfant humans and other primates.
D. While these findings are highly suggestive, some critics argue that the animals might be relying on other factors to complete the tasks, without considering the number itself. 'Any study that's claiming an animal iscapable of representing numbershould also be controlling for otherfactors, ' says Brannon. Experimentshave confirmed that primates canindeed perform numerical featswithout extra clues, but what aboutthe more primitive animals?
E. To consider this possibility, the mosquitofish tests were repeated, this time using varying geometrical shapes in place of fish. The team arrangedthese shapes so that they had the same overall surface area and luminanceeven though they contained a different number of objects. Acrosshundreds of trials on 14 different fish, the team found they consistentlydiscriminated 2 objects from 3. The team is now testing whethermosquitofish can also distinguish 3 geometric objects from 4.
F. Even more primitive organisms may share this ability. Entomologist Jurgen Tautz sent a groupof bees down a corridor, at the end of which laytwo chambers - one which contained sugarwater, which they like, while the other wasempty. To test the bees' numeracy, the teammarked each chamber with a different numberof geometrical shapes - between 2 and 6. Thebees quickly learned to match the number of shapes with the correct chamber. Like the salamanders and fish, there was a limit to the bees' mathematical prowess - they could differentiate up to 4 shapes, but failed with 5 or 6 shapes.
G. These studies still do not show whether animals learn to count through training, or whether they are born with the skills already intact. If thelatter is true, it would suggest there was a strong evolutionary advantageto a mathematical mind. Proof that this may be the case has emerged from an experiment testing the mathematical ability of three- and four-day-old chicks. Like mosquitofish,chicks prefer to be around as many of theirsiblings as possible, so they will always headtowards a larger number of their kin. If chicksspend their first few days surrounded by certainobjects, they become attached to these objects as ifthey were family. Researchers placed each chickin the middle of a platform and showed it two groups of balls of paper.Next, they hid the two piles behind screens, changed the quantities andrevealed them to the chick. This forced the chick to perform simplecomputations to decide which side now contained the biggest number ofits "brothers'7. Without any prior coaching, the chicks scuttled to thelarger quantity at a rate well above chance. They were doing some verysimple arithmetic, claim the researchers.
H. Why these skills evolved is not hard to imagine, since it would help almost any animal forage for food. Animals on the prowl forsustenance must constantly decide which tree has themost fruit, or which patch of flowers will contain themost nectar. There are also other, less obvious,advantages of numeracy. In one compelling example,researchers in America found that female coots appearto calculate how many eggs they have laid - and addany in the nest laid by an intruder - before making anydecisions about adding to them. Exactly how ancientthese skills are is difficult to determine, however. Onlyby studying the numerical abilities of more and morecreatures using standardised procedures can we hope tounderstand the basic preconditions for the evolution ofnumber.
Questions 15-21
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 15-21 on your answer sheet
Answer the table below.


Questions 22-27
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?In boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statementtrue
FALSE if the statementfalse
NOT GIVEN if the informationnot given in thepassage
22 Primates are better at identifying the larger of two numbers if one is muchbigger than the other.
23 Jurgen Tautz trained the insects in his experiment to recognise the shapesof individual numbers.
24 The research involving young chicks took place over two separate days.
25 The experiment with chicks suggests that somenumerical ability exists in newborn animals.
26 Researchers have experimented by alteringquantities of nectar or fruit available to certain wild animals.
27 When assessing the number of eggs in their nest, coots take into accountthose of other birds.

Section 3
Elephant communication
A. A postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, O'Connell-Rodwell has come to Namibia's premiere wildlife sanctuary toexplore the mysterious and complex world of elephant communication. She and her colleagues arepart of a scientific revolution that began nearlytwo decades ago with the stunning revelationthat elephants communicate over longdistances using low-frequency sounds, alsocalled infrasounds, that are too deep to be heard by most humans.
B. As might be expected, the African elephant's ability to sense seismic sound may begin in the ears. The hammer bone ofthe elephant's inner ear is proportionally very large for a mammal, but typical for animals that use vibrational signals. It may therefore be a sign thatelephants can communicate with seismic sounds. Also, the elephant andits relative the manatee are unique among mammalsinhaving reverted to a reptilian-like cochlear structureintheinner ear. The cochlea of reptiles facilitates a keen sensitivity to idbrations and may do the same in elephants.
C. But other aspects of elephant anatomy alsosupportthatability. First, then enormous bodies, which allow them to generate low-frequency sounds almost as powerful as those of a jet takeoff, provide ideal frames for receiving ground vibrations and conducting them to the inner ear. Second, the elephant's toe bones rest on a fatty padthat might help focus vibrations from the ground into the bone. Finally,the elephant's enormous brain lies in the cranial cavitybehindthe eyes in line with the auditory canal. The front of the skull is riddled with sinus cavities that may function as resonating chambers forvibrations from the ground.
D. How the elephants sense these vibrations is still unknown, but O'Connell-Rodwell who just earned a graduate degree in entomology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, suspects the pachyderms are "listening" with then trunks and feet. The trunk may be the most versatileappendagein nature. Its uses include drinking, bathing, smelling, feeding and scratching. Both trunk and feet contain two kinds of pressure-sensitive nerve endingsone thatdetects infrasonic vibrations and another that responds to vibrations withslightly higher frequencies. For O'Connell-Rodwell, the future of theresearch is boundless and unpredictable: "Our work is really at theinterface of geophysics, neurophysiologyand ecology," she says. "We're asking questions that no one has really dealt with before."
E. Scientists have long known that seismic communication is common in small animals, including spiders, scorpions,insects and a number of vertebrate species such as white-lipped frogs, blind mole rats,kangaroo rats and golden moles. They also have found evidence of seismic sensitivity in elephant seals2-ton marine mammals that are not related to elephants. But O'Connell-Rodwell was the first tosuggest that a large land animal also is sending and receiving seismicmessages. O'Connell-Rodwell noticed something about the freezingbehavior of Etosha's six-ton bulls that reminded her of the tiny insects back in her lab. "I did my masters thesis on seismic communication inplanthoppers," she says. "I'd put a maleplanthopperon a stem and play back a female call, and the male would do the same thing the elephants weredoing: He would freeze, then pressdown on his legs, go forward a little bit, then freeze again. It was just sofascinating to me, and it's what got me to think, maybe there's somethingelse going on other than acoustic communication."
F. Scientists have determined that an elephant's ability to communicate over long distances is essential for its survival, particularly in a place likeEtosha, where more than 2,400 savanna elephants range over an arealarger than New Jersey. The difficulty of finding a mate in this vastwilderness is compounded by ... elephant reproductive biology. Females breed only when nestrus a period of sexual arousal that occurs every two years and lasts just a few days. "Females in estrus make these very low, long calls that bulls home in on, because it'ssuch a rare event," O'Connell-Rodwell says. These powerful estrus callscarry more than two miles in the air and may be accompanied bylong-distance seismic signals, she adds. Breeding herds also uselow-frequency vocalizationsto warn of predators. Adult bulls and cows have no enemies, except for humans, but young elephants are susceptible to attacks by lions and hyenas. When a predatorappears, older members of the herd emit intense warning calls thatprompt the rest of the herd to clump togetherforprotection, then lee. In 1994, O'Connell-Rodwell recorded the dramatic cries of a breeding herd threatened by lions at Mushara. "The elephants got reallyscared, and the matriarch made these very powerful warning calls, and then the herd took off screaming and trumpeting," she recalls. "Since then, every time we've played that particular call at the water hole, we get the same response the elephants take off."
G. Reacting to a warning call played hi the air is one thing, but could the elephants detect calls transmitted only through the ground? To find out,the research team in 2002 devised an experiment using electronicequipment that allowed them to send signals through the ground atMushara. The results of our 2002 study showedUSthat elephants do indeed detect warning calls played through the ground," O'Connell-Rodwell observes. "Weexpected them to clump up into tight groupsand leave the area, and that's in fact what theydid. But since we only played back one type ofcall, we couldn't really say whether they wereinterpreting it correctly. Maybe they thought it was a vehicle orsomething strange instead of a predator warning."
H. An experiment last year was designed to solve that problem by using three different recordingsthe 1994 warning call from Mushara, ananti-predator call recorded by scientist Joyce Poole in Kenya and anartificial warble tone.Althoughstillanalyzing data from this experiment, O'Connell-Rodwell is able to make a few preliminary observations: "The data I've seen so far suggest that the elephants wereresponding like I had expected, when the '94 warning call was playedback, they tended to clump together and leave the water hole sooner. Butwhat's really interesting is that the unfamiliar anti-predator call fromKenya also caused them to clump up, get nervous and aggressivelyrumblebut they didn't necessarily leave. I didn't think it was going tobe that clear cut.
Questions 28-31
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.

Question 32-38
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more three words or a numberfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Writeyour answers in boxes 32-38 on your answer sheet.
How the elephants sense these sound vibrations is still unknown, but OConnell-Rodwell, a fresh graduate in entomology at the University of Hawaii, proposes that the elephants are listening with their 32............., by two kinds of nerve endingsthat responds to vibrations with both 33 .............frequency and slightly higher frequencies, oConnell-Rodwell work is at the combination of geophysics, neurophysiology and 34 .............and italsowasthe first to indicate that a large land animal also is sending and receiving 35 .............,. OConnell-Rodwell noticed the freezing behavior by putting a male planthopper communicative approach other than 36
Scientists have determined that an elephants ability to communicate over long distances is essential, especially, when elephant herds are finding a 37............., or are warning of predators. Finally, the results of our 2002 study showedUSthat elephants can detect warning calls played through the 38.............

Question 39-40

Choose the correct letter. A, B,cor D. Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.
39. According the passage, it is determined that an elephant need tocommunicate over long distances for its survival
A. When a threatening predator appears.
B. When young elephants meet humans.
C. When older members of the herd want to flee from the group.
D. when a male elephant is in estrus.
40. what is the authors attitude toward the experiment by using three differentrecordings in the paragraph
A. the outcome is definitely out of the original expectation
B the data can not be very clearly obtained
C. the result can be somewhat undecided or inaccurate
D the result can be unfamiliar to the public

Reading Test 24
Section 1
Ambergris
What is it and where does it come from?
A. Ambergris was used to perfume cosmetics in the days of ancient Mesopotamia and almost everycivilization on the earth has a brush with ambergris. Before 1,000 AD, the Chinese names ambergris as lungsien hiang,"dragon's spittle perfume," as they think that it was produced from the drooling of dragons sleeping on rocks at the edge of a sea. The Arabs knew ambergris asanbar,believing that it is produced from springs near seas. It also gets its name from here. For centuries, this substance has also beenused as a flavouring for food.
B. During the Middle Ages, Europeans used ambergris as a remedy for headaches, colds, epilepsy, and otherailments. In the 1851 whaling novel Moby-Dick, Herman Melville claimed that ambergris was largely used in perfumery. But nobody ever knew where it really came from. Experts were still guessing its origin thousands of years later, until the long ages of guesswork ended in the 1720's, when Nantucket whalers found gobs of the costly material inside the stomachs of sperm whales. Industrial whaling quickly burgeoned. By 20th century ambergris is mainly recovered from inside the carcasses of sperm whales.
C. Through countless ages, people have found pieces of ambergris on sandy beaches. It was named grey amber to distinguish it from golden amber, anotherrare treasure. Both of them were among the most sought-after substances in theworld, almost as valuable as gold. (Ambergris sells for roughly $20 a gram,slightly less than gold at $30 a gram.) Amber floats in salt water, and in old timesthe origin of both these substances was mysterious. But it turned out that amberand ambergris have little in common. Amber is a fossilized resin from trees thatwas quite familiar to Europeans long before the discovery of the New World, andprized as jewelry. Although considered a gem, amber is a hard, transparent, wholly-organic material derived from the resin of extinct species of trees, mainly pines.
D. To the earliest Western chroniclers, ambergris was variously thought to come from the same bituminous sea founts as amber, from the sperm of fishes orwhales, from the droppings of strange sea birds (probably because of confusionover the included beaks of squid) or fromthe large hives of bees living near the sea. Marco Polo was the first Western chronicler who correctly attributed ambergris to spermwhales and its vomit.
E. As sperm whales navigate in the oceans, they often dive down to 2 km or more below the sea level to prey on squid, most famously the Giant Squid. Its commonly accepted that ambergris forms in thewhales gut or intestines as the creature attempts to "deal" with squid beaks.Sperm whales are rather partial to squid, but seemingly struggle to digest thehard, sharp, parrot-like beaks. It is thought their stomach juices becomehyper-active trying to process the irritants, and eventually hard, resinous lumpsare formed around the beaks, and then expelled from their innards by vomiting.When a whale initially vomits up ambergris, it is soft and has a terrible smell.Some marine biologists compare it to the unpleasant smell of cow dung. But afterfloating on the salty ocean for about a decade, the substance hardens with air andsun into a smooth, waxy, usually rounded piece of nostril heaven. The dung smellis gone, replaced by a sweet, smooth, musky and pleasant earthy aroma.

F. Since ambergris is derived from animals, naturally a question of ethics arises, and in the case of ambergris, it is very important to consider. Sperm whales are anendangered species, whose populations started to decline as far back as the 19thcentury due to the high demand for their highly emollient oil, and today theirstocks still have not recovered. During the 1970s, the Save the Whales movementbrought the plight of whales to international recognition. Many people now believe that whales are "saved". This couldnt be further from the truth. All around the world, whaling still exists. Many countries continue to hunt whales, inspite of international treaties to protect them. Many marine researchers areconcerned that even the trade in naturally found ambergris can be harmful bycreating further incentives to hunt whales for this valuable substance.
G. One of the forms ambergris is used today is as a valuable fixative in perfumes to enhance and prolong the scent. But nowadays, since ambergris is rare andexpensive, and big fragrance suppliers that make most of the fragrances on themarket today do not deal in it for reasons of cost, availability and murky legalissues, most perfumeries prefer to add a chemical derivative which mimics theproperties of ambergris. As a fragrance consumer, you can assume that there is nonatural ambergris in your perfume bottle, unless the company advertises this fact and unless you own vintage fragrances created before the 1980s. If you are wondering if you have beenwearing a perfume with this legendary ingredient,you may want to review your scent collection. Hereare a few of some of the top ambergris containingperfumes: Givenchy Amarige, Chanel No. 5, andGucci Guilty.
Questions1-6

Classify the following information as referring to
A. ambergris only
B. amber only
C.both ambergris and amber
D. neither ambergris nor amber
Write the correct letter, A, B,C,or D in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
1 being expensive
2 adds flavor to food
3 used as currency
4 being see-through
5 referred to by Herman Melville
6 produces sweet smell
Questions 7-9
Complete the sentences below with NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage.
Write your answers in boxes 7-9 on your answer sheet.
7 Sperm whales cant digest the ______of the squids.
8 Sperm whales drive the irritants out of their intestines by______
9 The vomit of sperm whale gradually______ on contactofair before having pleasant smell.
Questions 10-13
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet,write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts theinformation
NOT GIVEN if there is no information onthis
10 Most ambergris comes from the dead whales today.
11 Ambergris is becoming more expensive than before.
12 Ambergris is still the most frequently used ingredient in perfume productiontoday.
13 New uses of ambergris have been discovered recently.
Section 2
Reading Passage 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading
Passage 2 below.
global warming: Prevent poles from melting
A. Such is our dependence on fossil fuels, and such the volume of carbon dioxide we have already released into the atmosphere, that most climate scientists agree that significant global warming is now inevitable - the best we can hope to do is keep it at a reasonable level, and even that going to be an uphill task. At present, the onlyserious option on the table for doing this is cuttingback on our carbon emissions, butafew countries are making major strides in this regard, the majority are having great difficulty even stemming the rate of increase, let alone reversing Consequently, an increasing number of scientists are beginning to explore the alternatives. Theyunderthebanner of geoengineering - generally defined as the intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment.
B.Geoengineering has been shown to work, at least on a small, localised scale, for decades. May Day parades in Moscow have taken place under clear blue skies, aircraft having deposited dry ice, silver iodide(m $1)and cement powder todisperse clouds. Many of the schemes nowsuggested look to do the opposite, andreduce the amount of sunlight reaching theplanet. One scheme focuses on achieving ageneral cooling of the Earth and involves theconcept of releasing aerosol sprays into thestratosphereabovetheArctic to create clouds of sulphur dioxide,which would, in turn, lead to a globaldimming. The ideais modelled on historical volcanic explosions, such as that of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991; which led to a short-term cooling of global temperatures by0.5c.The aerosols could be delivered by artillery,high-flying aircraft or balloons.
C. Instead of concentrating on global cooling, other schemes look specifically at reversing the melting at the poles. One idea is to bolster an ice cap by spraying it with water. Usingpumps to carry water from below the sea ice, thespray would come out as snow or ice particles,producing thicker sea ice with a higher albedo (theratio of sunlight reflected from a surface) to reflectsummer radiation. Scientists have also scrutinisedwhether it is possible to block iceflow in Greenlandwith cables which have been reinforced, preventingicebergs from moving into the sea. Veil Albert Kallio,a Finnish scientist, says that such an idea isimpractical, because the force of the ice would ultimately snap the cables andrapidly release a large quantity of frozen ice into the sea. However, Kallio believesthat the sort of cables used in suspension bridges could potentially be used todivert, rather than halt, the southward movement of ice from Spitsbergen. Itwould stop the ice moving south, and local currents would see them floatnorthwards' he says.
D. A number of geoengineering ideas are currently being examined in the Russian Arctic. These include planting millions of birch trees: the thinking, according to Kallio, is that their white bark would increase the amount of reflected sunlight. The loss of their leaves in winter would also enable the snow to reflect radiation. In contrast, the native evergreen pines tend to shade the snow and absorb radiation. Using ice-breaking vessels to deliberately break up and scatter coastal sea ice in both Arctic and Antarctic waters in their respective autumns, and diverting Russian rivers to increase cold-water flow to ice-forming areas, could also be used to slow down warming, Kallio says.1Youwould need the wind to blow the right way, but in the right conditions, by lettingice float free and head north, you would enhance ice growth.'
E. But will such ideas ever be implemented? The major counter-arguments to geoengineering schemes are, first, that they are a 'cop-out' that allowUStocontinue living the way we do, rather than reducing carbon emissions; and,second, even if they do work, would the side- effects outweigh the advantages?Then there's the daunting prospect of upkeep and repair of any scheme as well asthe consequences of a technical failure. 'I think all ofUSagree that if we were toend geoengineering on a given day, then the planet would return to its pre-engineered condition very rapidly, and probably within 10 to 20 years' says Dr Phil Rasch, chief scientist for climate change at the US-based PacificNorthwest National Laboratory. That's certainly something to worry about. Iwould consider geoengineering as a strategy to employ only we manage theconversion to a non-fossil- fuel economy. 'The risk with geoengineering projectsis that you can "overshoot",' says Dr Dan hunt, from the University of Bristol.'You may bring global temperatures back to pre-industrial levels, but the risk isthat the poles will still be warmer than they should be and the tropics becooler than before industrialization.'
F. The main reason why geoengineering is countenanced by the mainstream scientific community is that most researchers have little faith in theof politicians to agree - and then bring in the necessary carbon cuts. Even leading conservation organisations believe the subject worthexploring. As Dr MartinSommerkorn, a climatechange advisor says.' Buthuman-induced climatechange has broughthumanity to a position whereit important not to excludethinking thoroughly about this topic and its possibilities despite the potential drawbacks. If, over the coming years, the scienceUSabout an ever-increased climate sensitivity of the planetand this isn't unrealistic - then we may be best served bynot having to start our thinking from scratch.
Questions 14-18
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet You may use any letter more than once.
14 the existence of geoengineering projects distracting from the real task ofchanging the way we live
15 circumstances in which geoengineering has demonstrated success
16 Frustrating maintenance problems associated with geoengineeringprojects
17 support for geoengineering being due to a lack ofconfidence in governments
18 more success in fighting climate change in someparts of the world than others
Questions 19-23
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet.
Geoengineering projects
A range of geoengineering ideas has been put forward, which aim either to prevent the melting of the ice caps or to stop the general rise in globaltemperatures. One scheme to discourage the melting of ice and snow involves introducing .19.......to the Arctic because of their colour. The build-up of ice could be encouraged by dispersing ice along the coasts using special ships and changing the direction of some .........20.......but this scheme is dependent on certain weather conditions. Another way of increasing the amount of ice involves using .........21....... to bringwaterto the surface. A scheme to stop ice moving would apply.........22..........but this method is more likely to be successful in preventing the ice from travelling in one direction rather than stopping it altogether. A suggestion for coolingglobal temperatures is based on what has happened in the pastafter........23...........and it involves creating clouds of gas.
Questions 24-26
Look at the following people (Questions 24-26) and the list of opinions below. Match each person with the correct opinion,A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
24 Phil Rasch
25 DanLunt
26 Martin Sommerkorn
List of opinions
A. The problems of geoengineering shouldnt mean that ideas are not seriously considered.
B. Some geoengineering projects are more likely to succeed than others,
C. Geoengineering only offers a short-term relief.
D. A positive outcome of geoengineering may have a negative consequence elsewhere.
E. Most geoengineering projects arent clear in what they are aiming at.
Section 3
Sunset for the Oil Business
The world is about to run out of oil. Or perhaps not. It depends whom you believe...
A. Members of the Department Analysis Centre (ODAC) recently met in London and presented technical data that support their grim forecast that the world isperilously close to running out of oil. Leading lights of this moment, includingthe geologists Colin Campbell, rejected rival views presented by American geological survey and the international energy agency thatcontradicted their findings. Dr.Campbell even decried theamazing display of ignorance,denial and obfuscation bygovernment, industry andacademics on this topic.
B. So is the oil really running out? The answer is easy: Yes. Nobody seriously disputes the notion that oil is, for all practical purposes, a non-renewable resourcethat will run out some day, be that years or decades away. The harder question isdetermining when precisely oil will begin to get scarce. And answering thatquestion involves scaling Hubberts peak.
C. M. King Hubbert, a Shell geologist of legendary status among depletion experts, forecast in 1956 that oil production in the United States would peak inthe early 1970s and then slowly decline, in something resembling a bell-shapedcurve. At the time, his forecast was controversial, and many rubbished it. After1970, however, empirical evidence proved him correct: oil production in Americadid indeed peak and has been in decline ever since.
D. Dr Hubbert's analysis drew on the observation that oil production in a new area typically rises quickly at first, as the easiest and cheapest reserves are tapped. Over time, reservoirs age and go into decline, and so lifting oil becomes more expensive. Oil from that area then becomes less competitive in relation to otherfuels, or to oil from other areas. As a result, production slows down and usuallytapers off and declines. That, he argued, made for a bell-shaped curve.
E. His successful prediction has emboldened a new generation of geologists to apply his methodology on a global scale. Chief among them are the experts atODAC, who worry that the global peak in production will come in the nextdecade. Dr Campbell used to argue that the peak should have come already; henow thinks it is just round the comer. A heavyweight has now joined thisgloomy chorus. Kenneth Deffeyes of Princeton University argues in a lively newbook (The View from Hubbert's Peak) that global oil production could peak assoon as 2004.
F. That sharply contradicts mainstream thinking. Americas Geological Survey prepared an exhaustive study of oil depletion last year (in part to rebut DrCampbells arguments) that put the peak of production some decades off. The IEAhas just weighed in with its new World Energy Outlook, which foresees enoughoil to comfortably meet demand to 2020 from remaining reserves. Ren Dahan,one of ExxonMobil's top managers, goes further: with an assurance characteristicof the world's largest energy company, he insists that the world will be awash inoil for another 70 years.
G. Who is right? In making sense of these wildly opposing views, it is useful to look back at the pitiful history of oil forecasting. Doomsters have been predictingdry wells since the 1970s, but so far the oil is still gushing. Nearly all thepredictions for 2000 made after the 1970s oil shocks were far too pessimistic.America's Department of Energy thought that oil would reach $150 a barrel (at2000 prices); even Exxon predicted a price of $100.
H. Michael Lynch of DRI-WEFA, an economic consultancy, is one of the few oil forecasters who has got things generally right. In a new paper, Dr Lynch analysesthose historical forecasts. He finds evidence of both bias and recurring errors,which suggests that methodological mistakes (rather than just poor data) were theproblem. In particular, he faults forecasters who used Hubbert-style analysis forrelying on fixed estimates of how much ultimately recoverable oil there reallyis below ground, in the industry's jargon: that figure, he insists, is actually adynamic one, as improvements in infrastructure, knowledge and technology raisethe amount of oil which is recoverable.
I. That points to what will probably determine whether the pessimists or the optimists are right: technological innovation. The first camp tends to be dismissive of claims of forthcoming technological revolutions in such areas as deep-water drilling and enhanced recovery. Dr Deffeyes captures this end-of-technology mindset well. He argues that becausethe industry has already spent billions on technology development, it makes itdifficult to ask today for new technology, as most of the wheels have already beeninvented.
J. Yet techno-optimists argue that the technological revolution in oil has only just begun. Average recovery rates (how much of the known oil in a reservoir canactually be brought to the surface) are still only around 30-35%. Industryoptimists believe that new techniques on the drawing board today could lift thatfigure to 50-60% within a decade.
K. Given the industry's astonishing track record of innovation, it may be foolish to bet against it. That is the result of adversity: the nationalisations of the 1970s forced Big Oil to develop reserves inexpensive, inaccessible places such as the NorthSea and Alaska, undermining Dr Hubbert'sassumption that cheap reserves are developedfirst. The resulting upstream investments havedriven down the cost of finding and developingwells over the last two decades from over $20 a barrel to around $6 a barrel. The cost of producing oil has fallen by half, to under $4 a barrel.
L. Such miracles will not come cheap, however, since much of the world's oil is now produced in ageing fields that are rapidly declining. The IEA concludes thatglobal oil production need not peak in the next two decades if the necessaryinvestments are made. So how much is necessary? If oil companies are to replacethe output lost at those ageing fields and meet the world's ever-rising demand foroil, the agency reckons they must invest $1 trillion in non-OPEC countries overthe next decade alone. That's quite a figure.
Question 27-31
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3In boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the information NO if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 27 Hubbert has a high-profile reputation amongst ODAC members.
28 Oil is likely to last longer than some other energy sources.
29 The majority of geologists believe that oil will start to run out some time thisdecade.
30 Over 50 percent of the oil we know about is currently being recovered.
31 History has shown that some of Hubbet's principles were mistaken.
Question 32-35
Complete the notes below
Choose ONE WORD ONLYfrom the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.
Many people believed Hubbert's theory was 32______when itwasoriginally presented.
The recovery of the oil gets more 34_________as thereservoir gets older

Questions 36-40
Look at the following statements (questions 36-40) and the of people below.
Match each statement with correct person, A-E.
Write the correct letter, A-E in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
NB:You may use any letter more than once.
36 has found fault in geological research procedure
37 has provided the longest-range forecast regarding oil supply
38 has convinced others that oil production will follow a particular model
39 has accused fellow scientists of refusing to see the truth
40 has expressed doubt over whether improved methods of extracting oil are possible.
List of People
A Colin Campbell
B M. King Hubbert
cKenneth Deffeyes
D Rene Dahan
E Michael Lynch

Reading Test 25
Section 1
Builda Medieval Castle
A. Michel Guyot, owner and restorer of Saint Fargeau castle in France, first had the idea of building a 13th-centurystyle fortress following the discovery that the 15th-century red bricks of his castle obscured the stone wallsof a much older stronghold. His dream was to build a castle just as it would have been in the Middle Ages, an ầttp://wbo.com/iclti9 idea which some found mildly amusing and others dismissed as outright folly.However, Maryline Martin - project director - was inspired by the exciting potentialfor the venture to regenerate the region. It took several months to bring together andmobilise all the various different partners: architects, archaeologists and financialbackers. A site in the heart of Gudelon forest was found: a site which offered notonly all the resources required for building a castle - a stone quarry, an oak forest anda water supply - but in sufficient quantities to satisfy the demands of this giganticsite. The first team started work and on June 20th 1997 the first stone was laid.
B. Unlike any other present-day building site, Michel Guyot's purpose is clear, he warmly welcomes members of the public to participate. The workers' role is to demonstrate and explain, to a wide audience, the skills of our forefathers. Stone quarrying, the building of vaulted ceilings, the blacksmith's work and the raising of roof timbers are just some of the activities which visitors can witness during a visit to Gudelon. The workers are always onhand to talk about their craft and the progress of the castle. Each year 60,000 childrenvisit Gudelon with their schools. The site is an excellent educational resource,bringing to life the history of the Middle Ages. Guided tours are tailored to the schoolcurriculum and according to age groups: activity trails for primary school childrenand interactive guided tours for secondary school children. Pupils of all ages have theopportunity to follow in the footsteps of medieval stonemasons by taking part in astonecarving workshop or discover the secrets of the medieval master-builders at thegeometry workshop.
A. Workers in the Burgundy region of France are building a 13thcentury castle. Theyre not restoring an old castle. Theyreactually building a new old castle. See the builders areconstructing it from scratch. The craftsmen have beenworking for nearly ten years now but theyre not even halfway done yet. Thats because theyre using only medieval tools and techniques. The Worlds Gerry Hadden takes US to the site of what will be the Guedelon Castle.Another reason said by Jean Francois, a member of Guedelon stone cutters guild, foreight hours a day he bangs on a 13th century chisel with a 13th century iron mallet.
D. The progress of construction has to give way to tourists side for their visits. The visitors from 2010, however unsightly they may be, are vital to the project. The initialfunding came not from pillaging the local peasantry but from regional councils, theEuropean Union and large companies. For the last 10 years, Gudelon, 100 milessoutheast of Paris, has funded itself from its entrance fees. Last year it had a record300,000 visitors, who paid almost €2.5m, making it the second most-visited site inBurgundy. The most-visited site was the Hospice de Beaune, a beautiful 15th-centuryalmshouse built 600 years before, or, if you prefer, 200 years "after, Gudelon.
E. limestone is found in the construction of various local buildings, from the great and prestigiousedifice of Ratilly castle to the more modestpoyaudines houses. This stone contains 30-40% ironoxide; this can make it extremely hard to extract anddress. Having studied the block in order todetermine and anticipate the natural fault lines of thestone, the quarrymen first carve a series of rectilinear holes into the block. Iron wedges are then hammered into this line of holes. The shockwaves produced by the quarrymens sledgehammers cause the stone to splitalong a straight line. The highest quality blocks are dressed to produce lintels,voussoirs, corbels, ashlars etc. The medium quality blocks are roughly shaped by thestonecutters and used on the uncoursed curtain walls, and as facing stones on thecastle's inner walls. There are water-filled clay pits in the forest. Clay is taken fromthese pits, cleaned and pugged. It is then shaped in wooden moulds to form bricks.After the bricks have been left to air-dry, they are fired in a woodfired kiln for about12 hours, at roughly 1000c.
F. The mortar is the "glue" used to bind the castle's stones. It is made up of precise doses of lime, sand and water. The people working there wear the tunics, skirts andheadgear that they might have worn then, but they wear these over jeans and shoeswith reinforced toes. They mix their mortar primarily as they would have done then,using sand they dig themselves, but they are not allowed to use the extremelyeffective hot lime from medieval days, because of its toxicity, and so they add amodem chemical ingredient instead, to achieve the same effect. Workers in the MidAge obviously were unaware of it and some died earlier by inhaling toxic gas. And so, we met many wonderful people who do not pretend to be anything but modem human beings practicing an old technique and finding out what it would have feltlike, as much as possible, to do it with only the resources of an older time.
G. We also learned that even if there is a straight lintel across a doorway, you will usually find an arch of stones built into thewall differently. Because of the physics of an arch, whichchannels the weight above it down into whatever issupporting it at each side instead of pressing down in themiddle, this helps to take a lot of the weight off of the lintel itself, whether it is free standing or buried in the wall against the impact of warfare. The arch is the strongest element for spanning space in stone architecture. This iswhy, in ancient ruins, you will often find the entire wall missing, and the archedwindows and doorways still standing, in beautiful patterns against the sky.

Questions 1-4
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the Statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 1 The French people would not abandon his idea in favor of realistic one.
2 One aim of the castle is to show the ancestral achievement to public.
3 Short lifespan of workers was due to overdue heating.
4 stones were laid not in a straight line arrangement to avoid damaging or collapsing.
Questions 5-10
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingA-Lfrom the following options for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 5-10 onyour answer sheet.
Limestone Processing:

When____5____found suitable block, they began to cut lines of____6_____ into it. ____7_____were used and knocked into and generated shockwaves to make stone____8_____. Differentqualitiesofblockswould be used in different place of castle. On the other hand, ______9_____were shaped from clay in a mould and went through a process of_____10______ for about 12 hours.
A metal vedge
Bhammer handle
Clift
DMasons
E patterns
F heating
G bricks
Hwood
Iexperts
Jsplit
Kwalls
Lholes
Questions 11-13
Choose three correct letters, A-F.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
Why does the castle building project last 10 years for just half progress?
A. They lack of enough funds
B. Guedelon castle needs a time-consuming design
C.Workers obeyed modem working hours
D. Their progress were delayed by unpredictable weather
E. Guedelon castle need to receive valuable visitors
F. They used old techniques and skills
G. Stone processing need more labour and time

Section 2
Smell and Memory: SMELLS LIKE YESTERDAY
Why does the scent of a fragrance or the mustiness of an old trunk trigger such powerful memories of childhood? New research has the answer, writes AlexandraWitze.
A. You probably pay more attention to a newspaper with your eyes than with yournose. But lift the paper to your nostrils andinhale. The smell of newsprint might carryyou back to your childhood, when yourparents perused the paper on Sunday mornings. Or maybe some other smell takes you back- the scent of your mothers perfume, the pungency of a driftwood campfire. Specific odours can spark a floodof reminiscences. Psychologists call it the "Proustian phenomenoafter French novelist Marcel Proust. Near the beginning of the masterpieceInSearch of Lost Time, Prousts narrator dunks a madeleine cookie into a cup of tea and the scent and taste unleash a torrent of childhood memories for 3000 pages.
B. Now, this phenomenon is getting the scientific treatment. Neuroscientists Rachel Herz, a cognitive neuroscientist at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island,have discovered, for instance, how sensory memories are shared across the brain,with different brain regions remembering the sights, smells, tastes and sounds of aparticular experience. Meanwhile, psychologists have demonstrated that memoriestriggered by smells can be more emotional, as well as more detailed, thanmemories not related to smells. When you inhale, odour molecules set brain cellsdancing within a region known as the imygdala ( E ) , a part of the brain thathelps control emotion. In contrast, the other senses, such as taste or touch, getrouted through other parts of the brain before reaching the amygdala. The directlink between odours and the amygdala may help explain the emotional potency ofsmells. There is this unique connection between the sense of smell and the part of the brain that processes emotion," says Rachel Herz.
C. But the links dont stop there. Like an octopus reaching its tentacles outward, the memory of smells affects other brain regions as well. In recent experiments,neuroscientists at University College London (UCL) asked 15 volunteers to lookat pictures while smelling unrelated odours. For instance, the subjects might see aphoto of a duck paired with the scent of a rose, and then be asked to create a storylinking the two. Brain scans taken at the time revealed that the volunteers brainswere particularly active in a region known as the factorycortex, which is known to be involved in processing smells. Five minutes later, the volunteers were shown the duck photo again, but without the rose smell. Andin their brains, the olfactory cortex lit up again, the scientistsreported recently. The fact that the olfactory cortex becameactive in the absence of the odour suggests that peoplessensory memory of events is spread across different brainregions. Imagine going on a seaside holiday, says UCL teamleader, Jay Gottfried. The sight of the waves becomes stored in one area, whereasthe crash of the surf goes elsewhere, and the smell of seaweed in yet anotherplace. There could be advantages to having memories spread around the brain.You can reawaken that memory from any one of the sensory triggers, saysGottfried. "Maybe the smell of the sun lotion, or a particular sound from that day,or the sight of a rock formation." Or - in the case of an early hunter and gatherer(out on a plain - the sight of a lion might be enough to trigger the urge to flee,rather than having to wait for the sound of its roar and the stench of its hide tokick in as well.
D. Remembered smells may also carry extra emotional baggage, says Herz. Her research suggests that memories triggered by odours are more emotional thanmemories triggered by other cues. In one recent study, Herz recruited fivevolunteers who had vivid memories associated with a particular perfume, such asopium for Women and Juniper Breeze from Bath and Body Works. She tookimages of the volunteers brains as they sniffed that perfume and an unrelatedperfume without knowing which was which. (They were also shown photos ofeach perfume bottle.) Smelling the specified perfume activated the volunteersbrains the most, particularly in the amygdala, and in a region called thehippocampuswhichhelps in memory formation. Herz published the work earlier this year in the journalNeuropsychologia.
E. But she couldnt be sure that the other senses wouldn't also elicit a strong response. So in another study Herz compared smells with sounds and pictures. Shehad 70 people describe an emotional memory involving three items - popcorn,fresh-cut grass and a campfire. Then they compared the items through sights,sounds and smells. For instance, the person might see a picture of a lawnmower, then sniff the scent of grass and finally listen to the lawnmowers sound. Memories triggered by smell were more evocative than memories triggered byeither sights or sounds.
F. Odour-evoked memories may be not only more emotional, but more detailed as well. Working with colleague John Downes, psychologist Simon Chu of theUniversity of Liverpool started researching odour and memory partly because of his grandmothers stories about Chinese culture. As generations gathered to share oral histories, theywould pass a small pot of spice or incense around;later, when they wanted to remember the story in asmuch detail as possible, they would pass the samesmell around again. Its kind of fits with a lot ofanecdotal evidence on how smells can be really goodreminders of past experiences, Chu says. Andscientific research seems to bear out the anecdotes. In one experiment, Chu andDownes asked 42 volunteers to tell a life story, then tested to see whether odourssuch as coffee and cinnamon could help them remember more detail in the story.They could.
G. Despite such studies, not everyone is convinced that Proust can be scientifically analysed. In the June issue of Chemical Senses, Chu and Downes exchangedcritiques with renowned perfumer and chemist J. Stephan Jellinek. Jellinek chidedthe Liverpool researchers for, among other things, presenting the smells andasking the volunteers to think of memories, rather than seeing what memorieswere spontaneously evoked by the odours. But theres only so much science cando to test a phenomenon thats inherently different for eachperson, Chu says. Meanwhile, Jellinek has also beencollecting anecdotal accounts of Proustian experiences,hoping to find some common links between the experiences. "I think there is a case to be made that surprise may be a major aspectof the Proust phenomenon," he says. "Thats why people are so struck by thesememories." No one knows whether Proust ever experienced such atranscendentalmoment. But his notions of memory, written as fiction nearly acentury ago, continue to inspire scientists of today.
Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-cin boxes14-18on your answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A Rachel Herz
B Simon Chu
C Jay Gottfried
.......................................
14 Found pattern of different sensory memories stored in various zones of a brain.
15 Smell brings detailed event under a smell of certain substance.
16 Connection of smell and certain zones of brain is different with that of othersenses.
17 Diverse locations of stored information helpUSkeepawaythehazard.
18 There is no necessary correlation between smell and processing zone of brain.
Questions 19-22
Choose the correct letter, A,B,corD.
Write your answers in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet.
19 In paragraph B, what do the experiments conducted byHerz and other scientists show?
A Women are more easily addicted to opium medicine
BSmell is superior to other senses in connection to the brain
C Smell is more important than other senses
Dcertain part of brain relates the emotion to the sense of smell
20 What does thesecond experimentconducted byHerzsuggest?
A Result directly conflicts with the first one
BResult of her first experiment is correct
CSights and sounds trigger memories at an equal level
DLawnmower is a perfect example in the experiment
21 What is the outcome of experiment conducted byChu and Downes?
A smell is the only functional under Chinese tradition
Bhalf of volunteers told detailed stories
Csmells of certain odours assist story tellers
Dodours of cinnamon is stronger than that of coffee
22 What is the comment ofJellinektoChu and Downersin the issue ofChemicalSenses'.
A Jellinek accused their experiment of being unscientific
BJellinek thought Liverpool is not a suitable place for experiment
CJellinek suggested that there was no further clue of what specific memoriesaroused
DJellinek stated that experiment could be remedied
Questions 23-26
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
In the experiments conducted by UCL, participants were asked to look at a picture with a scent of a flower, then in the next stage, everyone would have to..........23..........for a connection. A method called..........24.......... suggested thatspecific area of brain named..........25..........were quite active. Then in an another parallelled experiment about Chinese elders, storytellers could recall detailed anecdotes when smelling abowl of..........26...........or incense around.
Section 3
Memory Decoding
Try this memory test: Study each face and compose a vivid image for the person's first and last name. Rose Leo, for example, could be a rosebud and a lion. Fill in the blanks on the next page. TheExaminations School at Oxford University is an austere building of oak-paneled rooms, large Gothicwindows, and looming portraits of eminent dukes and earls. It is where generations of Oxford studentshave tested their memory on final exams, and it is where, last August, 34 contestants gathered at the WorldMemory Championships to be examined in an entirely different manner.
A. In timed trials, contestants were challenged to look at and then recite a two-page poem, memorize rows of40-digit numbers, recall the names of 110 peopleafter looking at their photographs, and performseven other feats of extraordinary retention. Sometests took just a few minutes; others lasted hours. Inthe 14 years since the World MemoryChampionships was founded, no one has memorizedthe order of a shuffled deck of playing cards in less than 30 seconds. That nice round number has become the four-minute mile of competitive memory, abenchmark that the world's best "mental athletes," assome of them like to be called, are closing in on. Mostcontestants claim to have just average memories, and scientific testing confirms thatthey're not just being modest. Their feats are based on tricks that capitalize on howthe human brain encodes information. Anyone can learn them.
B. Psychologists Elizabeth Valentine and John Wilding, authors of the monograph Superior Memory, recently teamed up with Eleanor Maguire, a neuroscientist at University College London to study eight people, including Karsten, who had finished near the top of the World Memory Championships. They wondered if the contestants' brains were different in some way. The researchers put the competitors and a group of control subjects into an MRI machine and asked them to perform several different memory tests while their brains were being scanned When it came to memorizing sequences ofthree-digit numbers, the difference between the memory contestants and thecontrol subjects was, as expected, immense. However, when they were shown photographs of magnified snowflakes, images that the competitors had never tried to memorize before, the champions did no better than the control group. When theresearchers analyzed the brain scans, they found that the memory champs wereactivating some brain regions that were different from those the control subjectswere using. These regions, which included the right posterior hippocampus, areknown to be involved in visual memory and spatial navigation.
C. It might seem odd that the memory contestants would use visual imagery and spatial navigation to remember numbers, but the activity makes sense when their techniques are revealed Cooke, a 23-year-old cognitive-science graduate student with a shoulder-length mop of curly hair, is a grand master of brain storage. He can memorize the order of 10 decks of playing cards in less than an hour or one deck of cards in less than a minute. He is closing in on the 30-second deck. In the Lamb and Flag, Cooke pulled out a deck of cards and shuffled it. He held up three cardsthe 7 of spades, the queen of clubs, and the 10 of spades. He pointed at a fireplace and said, "Destiny's Child is whacking Franz Schubert with handbags." The next three cards were the king of hearts, the king of spades, and the jack of clubs.
D. How did he do it? Cooke has already memorized a specific person, verb, and object that he associates with each card in the deck. For example, for the 7 of spades, theperson (or, in this case, persons) is always the singing group Destiny's Child, theaction is surviving a storm, and the image is a dinghy. The queen of clubs is alwayshis friend Henrietta, the action is thwacking with a handbag, and the image is ofwardrobes filled with designer clothes. When Cooke commits a deck to memory, hedoes it three cards at a time. Every three-card group forms a single image of aperson doing something to an object. The first card in the triplet becomes theperson, the second the verb, the third the object. He then places those images alonga specific familiar route, such as the one he took through the Lamb and Flag. Incompetitions, he uses an imaginary route that he has designed to be as smooth anddownhill as possible. When it comes time to recall, Cooke takes a mental walk alonghis route and translates the images into cards. That's why the MRIs of the memorycontestants showed activation in the brain areas associated with visual imagery andspatial navigation.
E. The more resonant the images are, the more difficult they are to forget. But even meaningful information is hard to remember when there's a lot of it. That's whycompetitive memorizers place their images along an imaginary route. Thattechnique, known as the loci method, reportedly originated in 477B.C.with theGreek poet Simonides of Ceos. Simonides was the sob survivor of a roof collapsethat killed all the other guests at a royal banquet The bodies were mangled beyondrecognition, but Simonides was able to reconstruct the guest list by closing his eyes and recalling each individual around the dinner table. What he had discovered was that our brains are exceptionally good at remembering images and spatialinformation. Evolutionary psychologists have offered an explanation: Presumablyour ancestors found it important to recall where they found their last meal or theway back to the cave. After Simonides' discovery the loci method became popularacross ancient Greece as a trick for memorizing speeches and texts. Aristotle wroteabout it, and later a number of treatises on the art of memory were published inRome. Before printed books, the art of memory was considered a staple of classicaleducation, on a par with grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
F. The most famous of the naturals was the Russian journalistS. V.Shereshevski, who could recall tong listsof numbers memorized decades earlier, as well aspoems, strings of nonsense syllables, and just aboutanything else he was asked to remember. "The capacityof his memory had no distinct limits," wrote AlexanderLuria, the Russian psychologist who studiedShereshevski from the 1920s to the 1950s. Shereshevski also had synesthesia, a rare condition in which the senses become intertwined. For example, every number may be associated with a color or every word with a taste. Synesthetic reactions evoke aresponse in more areas of the brain, making memory easier.
G. K. Anders Ericsson, a Swedish-born psychologist at Florida State University, thinks anyone can acquire Shereshevski's skills. He cites an experiment withs.R, anundergraduate who was paid to take a standard test of memory called the digit spanfor one hour a day, two or three days a week. When he started, he could hold, likemost people, only about seven digits in his head at any given time (conveniently, thelength of a phone number). Over two years,s.F. completed 250 hours of testing. Bythen, he had stretched his digit span from 7 to more than 80. The study ofs.F. ledEricsson to believe that innately superior memory doesn't exist at all When hereviewed original case studies of naturals, he found that exceptional memorizerswere using techniquessometimes without realizing itand tots of practice. Often,exceptional memory was only for a single type of material, like digits. "If we took atsome of these memory tasks, they're the kind of thing most people don't even wasteone hour practicing, but if they wasted 50 hours, they'd be exceptional at it,"Ericsson says. It would be remarkable, he adds, to find a "person who is exceptionalacross a number of tasks. I don't think that there's any compelling evidence thatthere are such people."
Questions 27-31
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letterA-Qin boxes27-31on your answer sheet.
27 The reason why competence of super memory is significant in academic settings
28 Mention of a contest for extraordinary memory held in consecutive years
29 An demonstrative example of extraordinary person did an unusual recalling game Ị
30 A belief that extraordinary memory can be gained though enough practice
31 A depiction of rare ability which assist the extraordinary memory reactions
Questions 32-36
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet.
Using visual imagery and spatial navigation to remember numbers are investigated and explained. A man called Ed Cooke in a pub, spoke a string of odd words when he held 7 of the spades (the firstone of the any cards group) was remembered as he encoded it to a.......32........and the card deck to memory are set to be one time of a order of.......33........; Whenitcomestimeto recall,Cooketook a.......34........along his way and interpreted the imaginary scene into cards. This superior memory skill can be traced back to Ancient Greece, the strategy was called .......35........ which had beenan major subject was in ancient.......36........
Questions 37-38
Choose TWO correct letter, A-E
Write your answers in boxes37-38on your answer sheet.
'According toWorld Memory Championships,what activities need good memory?
A order for a large group of each digit
B recall people's face
Cresemble a tong Greek poem
D match name with pictures and features
E recall what people ate and did yesterday
Questions 39-40
Choose TWO correct letter, A-E
Write your answers in boxes39-40on your answer sheet.
What is the result of Psychologists Elizabeth Valentine and John Wilding *s MRI Scan experiment find out?

A. the champions ' brains is different in some way from common people
B difference in brain of champions' scan image to control subjects are shown when memorizing sequences of three-digit numbers
Cchampions did much worse when they are asked to remember photographs
D the memory-champs activated more brain regions than control subjects
E there is some part in the brain coping with visual and spatial memory



Reading Test 26
Section 1
Origin of Species & Continent Formation
A. THE FACT THAT there was once a Pangean supercontinent, a Panthalassa Ocean, and a Tethys Ocean, has profoundimplications for the evolution of multicellular life on Earth.These considerations were unknown to the scientsts of the 19thcentury making their scientific deductions even moreremarkable. Quite independently of each other, CharlesDarwin and his young contemporary Alfred Russel Wallace reached theconclusion that life had evolved by natural selection. Wallace later wrote inMyLifeof his own inspiration:
B. Why do some species die and some live? The answer was clearly that on the whole the best fitted lived. From the effects of disease the most healthyescaped; from enemies the strongest, the swiftest or the most cunning from faminethe best hunters then it suddenly flashed on me that this self-acting processwould improve the race, bacause in every generation the inferior would inevitablybe killed off and the superior would remain, that is, the fittest would survive.
C. Both Darwins and Wallaces ideas about natural selection had been influenced by the essays of Thomas Malthus in hisPrinciples of Population.Their conclusions, however, had beenthe direct result of their personal observation of animals andplants in widely separated geographic locations: Darwin from hisexperiences during the voyage of theBeagle, and particularlyduring the ships visit to the Galapagos Islands in the East Pacificin 1835; Wallace during his years of travel in the Amazon Basinand in the Indonesia-Australian Archipelago in the 1850s.
D. Darwin had been documenting his ideas on natural selection for many years when he received a paper on this selfsame subject from Wallace, who asked forDarwins opinion and help in getting it published. In July 1858, Charles Lyell and J. D Hooker, close friends of Darwin, pressed Darwin to present his conclusions so that he would not lose priority toand unknown naturalist. Presiding over the hastily calledbut now historic meeting of the Linnean Society in London,Lyell and Hooker explained to the distinguished membershow these two gentlemen (who were absent: Wallace wasabroad and Darwin chose not to attend), had independentlyand unknown to one another, conceived the same very ingenious theory
E. Both Darwin and Wallace had realized that the anomalous distribution of species in particular regions had profound evolutionary significance. Subsequently,Darwin spent the rest of his days in almost total seclusion thinking and writingmainly about the origin of species. In constrast, Wallace applied himself to thescience of biogeography, the study of the pattern and distribution of species, andits significance, resulting in the publication of a massive two-volume work theGeographical Distribution of Animalsin 1876.
F. Wallace was a gentle and modest man, but also persistent and quietly courageous. He spent years working in the most arduous possible climates andterrains, particularly in the Malay archipelago, he made patient and detailedzoological observations and collected huge number of speciments for museumsand collectors-which is how he made a living. One result of his work was theconclusion that there is a distinct faunal boundary, called "Wallaces line, "between an Asian realm of animals in Java, Borneo and the Philipiones and anAustralian realm in New Guinea and Australia. In essence this boundary posed adifficult question: How on Earth did plants and animals with a clear affinity to theNorthern Hemisphere meet with their Southern Hemispheric counterparts alongsuch a distinct Malaysian demarcation zone? Wallace was uncertain aboutdemarcation on one particular island- Celebes, a curiously shaped place that ismidway between the two groups. Initially he assigned its flora-fauna to theAustralian side of the line, but later he transferred it to the Asian side. Todaywe know the reason for his dilemma. 200MYA East and West Celebes wereislands with their own natural history lying on opposite sides of the Tethys Ocean.They did not collide until about 15 MYA. The answer to the main question isthat Wallaces Line categorizes Laurasia-derived flora-fauna (the Asian) andGondwana-derived flora-fauna (the Australian), fauna that had evolved onopposing shares of the Tethys. The closure of the Tethys Ocean today ismanifested by the ongoing collision of Australia/New Guinea with Indochina/Indonesia and the continuing closure of the Mediterranean Seaa remnantof the Western Tethys Ocean.
G. IN HIS ORIGIN OF CONTINENTS AND OCEANS, Wegener quoted at length from Wallaces Geographical Distribution of Animals. According to Wegeners reading, Wallace had identified three cleardivisions of Australian animals, which supported his own theory of continentaldisplacement. Wallace had shown that animals long established in southwesternAustralia had an affinity with animals in South Africa, Madagascar, India, andCeylon, but did not have an affinity with those in Asia. Wallace also showed thatAustralian marsupials and monotremes are clearly related to those in SouthAmerica, the Moluccas, and various Pacific islands, and that none are found inneighboring Indonesia. From this and related data, Wegener concluded that thethen broadly accepted landbridge theory could not account for this distributionof animals and that only his theory of continental drift could explain it.
H. The theory that Wegener dismissed in preference to his own proposed that plants and animals had once migrated across now-submerged intercontinentallandbridges. In 1885, one of Europe9s leading geologists, Eduard Suess, theorizedthat as the rigid Earth cools, its upper crust shrinks and wrinkles like the witheringskin of an aging apple. He suggested that the planet' s seas and oceans now fill thewrinkles between once-contiguous plateaus.
I. Today, we know that we live on a dynamic Earth with shifting, colliding and separating tectonic plates, not a withering skin, and the main debate in the fieldof biogeography has shifted. The discussion now concerns dispersalism versus vicarianism runrestricted radiation of species on the one hand and the development of barriers to migration on the other. Dispersion is a short-term phenomenonthe daily or seasonal migration of species and their radiation to thelimits of their natural environment on an extensive and continuous landmass.Vicarian evolution, however, depends upon the separation and isolation of avariety of species within the confines of natural barriers inthe form of islands, lakes, or shallow seastopographicalfeatures that take a long time to develop.
Questions 1-5
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 1-5 on youranswer sheet.
A Suess
B Wallace
CDarwin and Wallace
D Wegener
E Lyell and Hooker
..................................................
1 urged Darwin to publish his scientific findings
2 Depicted physical feature of earth's crust.
3 believed in continental drift theory while rejecting another one
4 Published works about wildlife distribution in different region.
5 Evolution of species is based on selection by nature.
Questions 6-8
The reading Passage has nine paragraphs Ả-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-Iin boxes6-8on your answer sheet.
6 Best adaptable animal survived on the planet.
7 Boundary called Wallace's line found between Asia and Australia.
8 Animal relevance exists between Australia and Africa.
Questions 9-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answersin boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
Wegener found that continental drift instead of "land bridge" theory could explain strange species' distribution phenomenon. In his theory, vegetation and wildlife____9____ intercontinentally. However, Eduard Suess compared the wrinkle of crust to____10_____of an old apple. Now it is well known that we are living on the planet where there are _____11_____in constant mobile states instead of what Suess described Hot spot in biogeography are switched to concerns between two terms:"_____12____" and ____13_____.

Section 2
Chinese Yellow Citrus Ant for BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
A. In 1476, the farmers of Berne in Switzerland decided, according to this story, there was only oneway to rid their fields of the cutworms attacking their crops. They took the pests to court.The worms were tried, found guilty andexcommunicated by the archbishop.In China, farmers had a more practical approach to pest control. Rather than rely on divine intervention, they put their faith in frogs, ducks and ants. Frogs and ducks wereencouraged to map up the pests in the paddies and the occasionalplague of locusts. But the notion of biological control began with an ant.More specifically, the story says, it started with the predatory yellow citrus ant is a type of weaver ant, which has been polishing off pests in theorange groves of southern China for at least 1700 years. The yellow citrus ant $0 is a type of weaver ant, which binds leaves and twigs with silk to form a neat,tent-like nest. In the beginning, farmers made do with the odd ants' nest here andthere. But it wasn't long before growing demand led to the development of a thrivingtrade in nests and a new type of agricultureant farming.
B. For an insect that bites, the yellow citrus ant is remarkably popular. Even by ant standards, Oecophylla smaragdina is a fearsome predator. It's big, runs fast and has apowerful nip - painful to humans but lethal to many of the insects that plague theorange groves of Guangdong and Guangxi insouthern China. And for at least 17 centuries. Chinese orange growers have harnessed these sixlegged killing machines to keep their fruit groves healthy and productive. The story explains that citrus-afruits evolved in the Far East and the Chinesediscovered the delights of their flesh early on. As the ancestral home of oranges, lemons and pomelos, China also has the greatest diversity of citrus pests. And the trees that produce the sweetest fruits, the mandarinsor kan-attract a host of planteating insects, from black ants and sap-sucking mealy bugs to leaf-devouring caterpillars.Withso many enemies, fruit growers clearly had to have some way of protecting their orchards.
C. The West did not discover the Chinese orange growers' secret weapon until the early 20th century. At the time, Florida was suffering an epidemic of: itrus cankerand in 1915 Walter Swingle, a plant physiologist working for the USDepartment of Agriculture, was, the story says, sent to China insearch of varieties of orange that were resistant to the disease. Swingle spent some time studying the citrus orchards around Guangzhou, and there he came across the story of the cultivatedant. These ants, he was told, were "grown" by the people of asmall village nearby who sold them to the orange growers by thenestful.
D. The earliest report of citrus ants at work among the orange trees appears in a book on tropical and subtropical botany written by His Han in AD 304. "The people of Chiao-Chih sell in their markets ants in bags of rush matting. The nests are like silk. Thebags are all attached to twigs and leaves which, with the ants inside the nests, are forsale. The ants are reddish-yellow in colour, bigger than ordinary ants. In the south ifthe kan trees do not have this kind of ant, the fruits will all be damaged by manyharmful insects, and not a single fruit will be perfect."
E. Initially, farmers relied on nests which they collected from the wild or bought in the market where trade in nests was brisk. 'It is said that in the south orange treeswhich are free of ants will have wormy fruits. Therefore the people race to buy nestsfor their orange trees,' wrote Liu Hsun in Strange Things Noted in the South, writtenabout AD 890. The business quickly became more sophisticate. From the 10thcentury, country people began to trap ants in artificial nests baited with fat. "Fruitgrowing families buy these ants from vendors who make a business of collecting and selling such creatures," wrote Chuang Chi-Yu in 1130. "They trap them by filling hogs' or sheep's bladders withfat and placing them with the cavities open next to theants' nests. They wait until the ants have migrated into thebladders and take them away. This is known as 'rearingorange ants'." Farmers attached the bladders to their trees,and in time the ants spread to other trees and built new nests. By the 17th century,growers were building bamboo walkways between their trees to speed thecolonization of their orchards. The ants ran along these narrow bridges from one treeto another and established nests "by the hundreds of thousands".
F. Did it work? The orange growers clearly thought so. One authority, Chi TaChun, writing in 1700, stressed how important it was to keep the fruit trees free of insectpests, especially caterpillars. "It is essential to eliminate them so that the trees are notinjured. But hand labour is not nearly as efficient as ant power..." Swingle was just as impressed. Yet despite this reports, many Western biologists were skeptical. In the West, the idea of using oneinsect to destroy another was new and highly controversial. The first breakthrough had come in 1888, when the infantaorange industry in California had been saved fromextinction by the Australian vedalia beetle. This beetle was the only thing that hadmade any inroad into the explosion of cottony cushion scale that was threatening todestroy the state's citrus crops. But, as Swingle now knew, Californias "first" wasnothing of the sort. The Chinese had been expert in biocontrol for many centuries.
G. The story goes on to say that the long tradition of ants in the Chinese orchards only began to waver in the 1950s and 1960s with the introduction of powerful organic (Iguess the author means chemical insecticides. Although most fruit growers switchedto chemicals, a few hung onto their ants. Those who abandoned ants in favour ofchemicals quickly became disillusioned. As costs soared and pestsbegan to develop resistance to the chemicals, growers began to revive the old antpatrols. They had good reason to have faith in their insect workforce. Research in theearly 1960s showed that as long as there were enough ants in the trees, they did anexcellent job of dispatching some pestsmainly the larger insectsand had modestsuccess against others. Trees with yellow ants produced almost 20 per cent morehealthy leaves than those without. More recent trials have shown that these trees yieldjust as big a crop as those protected by expensive chemical sprays.
H. One apparent drawback of using antsand one of the main reasons for the early skepticism by Western scientistswas that citrus ants do nothing to control mealybugs, waxy-coated scale insects which can do considerable damage to fruit frees. Infact, the ants protect mealy bugs in exchange for the sweet honeydew they secrete.The orange growers always denied this was a problem but Western scientists thoughtthey knew better. Research in the 1980s suggests that the growers were right allalong. Where mealy bugs proliferate under the ants'protection they are usually heavily parasitized and thislimits the harm they can do. Orange growers who relyon carnivorous ants rather than poisonous chemicalsmaintain a better balance of species in their orchards. While the ants deal with the bigger insect pests, other predatory species keep down the numbers of smallerpests such as scale insects and aphids. In the long run, ants do a lot less damage than chemicals-and they're certainly more effective than excommunication.
Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the year (listed A-G) with correct description below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 14-18 on your answersheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A 1888 B 1476 C 1915 D 1700 E 1130 F AD G 1950 -----------------------
14First record of ant against pests written.
15 WS studied ant intervention method in China.
16First case of orange crops rescued by insect in western world.
17Chinese farmers start to choose chemical method.
18 A book wrote mentioned ways to trap ants.
Questions 19-26
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 19-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
19 China has the most citrus pests counted in types in the world.
20 Swingle came to China in order to search an insect for the US government.
21Western people were impressed by Swingle's theory of pest prevention.
22 Chinese farmers realised that price of pesticides became expensive.
23 Some Chinese farmers start to abandon the use of pesticide.
24 Trees without ants had grown more unhealthy leaves than those with.
25 Yield of fields using ants is larger a crop than that using chemical pesticides.
26 Chinese orange farmers proposed that ant protection doesn't work out of China.
Section 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages.
Mechanisms of Linguistic Change
A. The changes that have caused the most disagreement are those in pronunciation. We have various sources of evidence for the pronunciations of earlier times, such as the spellings, the treatment of words borrowed from otherlanguages or borrowed by them, thedescriptions of contemporary grammariansand spelling-reformers, and the modern pronunciations in all the languagesand dialects concerned From the middle of the sixteenth century, there are inEngland writers who attempt to describe the position of the speech-organsfor the production of English phonemes, and who invent what are in effectsystems of phonetic symbols. These various kinds of evidence, combined witha knowledge of the mechanisms of speech-production, can often giveUSavery good idea of the pronunciation of an earlier age, though absolutecertainty is never possible.
B. When we study the pronunciation of a language over any period of a few generations or more, we find there are always large-scale regularities in thechanges: for example, over a certain period of time, just about all the long [a:]vowels in a language may change into long [e:] vowels, or all the [b] consonantsin a certain position (for example at the end of a word) may change into [p]consonants. Such regular changes are often calledsound laws.There are nouniversal sound laws (even though sound laws often reflect universal tendencies),but simply particular sound laws for one given language (or dialect) at one givenperiod.
C. It is also possible thatfashionplays a part in the process of change. It certainly plays a part in thespread of change: one person imitates another, andpeople with the most prestige are most likely to beimitated, so that a change that takes place in onesocial group may be imitated (more or lessaccurately) by speakers in another group. When asocial group goes up or down in the world, its pronunciation may gain or lose prestige. It is said that, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the upper-class pronunciation of Russian, which hadformerly been considered desirable, became on the contrary an undesirable kindof accent to have, so that people tried to disguise it. Some of the changes inaccepted English pronunciation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries havebeen shown to consist in the replacement of one style of pronunciation by anotherstyle already existing, and it is likely that such substitutions were a result of thegreat social changes of the period: the increased power and wealth of the middleclasses, and their steady infiltration upwards into the ranks of the landed gentry,probably carried elements of middle-class pronunciation into upper-class speech.
D. A less specific variant of the argument is that theimitation of children is imperfect:they copy their parents speech, but never reproduce it exactly. This is true, but it is also true that such deviations from adult speech are usually corrected in later childhood. Perhaps it is more significant that even adults show a certain amount of random variation in their pronunciation of a given phoneme, even if the phonetic context is kept unchanged. This, however, cannot explain changes in pronunciation unless it can be shown that there is some systematic trend in the failures of imitation: if they are merely random deviations they will cancel one another out and there will be no net change in the language.
E. One such force which is often invoked is theprinciple of ease,or minimization of effort. The change from fussy to fuzzy would be an example of assimilation,which is a very common kind of change. Assimilation is the changing of a soundunder the influence of a neighbouring one. For example, the word scant was onceskamt, but the /m/ has been changed to /n/ under the influence of the following /t/.Greater efficiency has hereby been achieved, because /n/ and /Ư are articulated inthe same place (with the tip of the tongue against the teeth-ridge), whereas /m/ isarticulated elsewhere (with the two lips). So the place of articulation of the nasalconsonant has been changed to conform with that of the following plosive. A more recent example of the same kind of thing is the common pronunciation of football as foopball.
F. Assimilation is not the only way in which we change our pronunciation in order to increase efficiency. It is very common for consonants to be lost at the end of aword: in Middle English, word-final [-n] was often lost in unstressed syllables, sothat baken to bake changed from[ba:kon] to ['ba:ko],and later to [ba:k]. Consonant-clusters are often simplified. At one time there was a [t] in words like castle and Christmas, and an initial[k] in words like knight and know. Sometimes a whole syllable is dropped out when two successive syllables beginwith the same consonant (haplology): arecent example is temporary, which inBritain is often pronounced as if it weretempory.
Questions 27-30
Complete the summary below.
ChooseNO MORE THAN THREE WORDSfrom the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
The pronunciation of living language undergo changes throughout thousands of years. Large scale regular Changes are usually called 27_____. Thereare three reasons for these changes. Firstly, the influence of one language on another; when one person imitates another pronunciation (the most prestige's], the imitation always partly involving factor of 28_____. Secondly, the imitations of children from adults' language sometimes are 29______, andmayalso contribute to this change if there are insignificant deviations tough later they may be corrected Finally, for those random variations inpronunciation, the deeper evidence lies in the 30______or minimization of effort.

Questions 31-37
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 31-37 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 31 it is impossible for modern people to find pronunciation of words in anearlier age
32 The great change of language in Russian history is related to the rising statusand fortune of middle classes.
33 All the children learn speeches from adults while they assume that certainlanguage is difficult to imitate exactly.
34 Pronunciation with causal inaccuracy will not exert big influence on languagechanges.
35 The link of mt can be influenced being pronounced as 'nt
36 The [g] in gnat not being pronounced will not be spelt out in the future.
37 The sound of 'temporary' cannot wholly present its spelling.
Questions 38-40
Look at the following sentences and the list of statements below. Match each statement with the correct sentence, A-D.
Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet
A Since the speakers can pronounce it with less effort
B Assimilation of a sound under the influence of a neighbouring one
CIt is a trend for changes in pronunciation in a large scale in a given period
D Because the speaker can pronounce [n] and [t] both in the same time
-----------
38 As a consequence, b will be pronounced as p
39 The pronunciation of [mt] changed to [nt]
40 The omit of 't' in the sound of Christmas

Reading Test 27
Section 1
Museum Blockbuster

A.Since the 1980s, the term "blockbuster" has become the fashionable word for special spectacular museum, art gallery or science centre exhibitions.These exhibitions have the ability to attract large crowds and often largecorporate sponsors. Here is one of some existing definitions ofblockbuster: Put by Elsen (1984), a blockbuster is a "... large scale loanexhibition that people who normally don't go to museums will stand inline for hours to see ..."James Rosenfield, writing in Direct Marketing in1993, has described a successful blockbuster exhibition as a "... triumph ofboth curatorial and marketing skills ..." My owndefinition for blockbuster is "a popular, highprofile exhibition on display for a limited period,that attracts the general public, who are preparedto both stand in line and pay a fee in order topartake in the exhibition." What both Elsen andRosenfield omit in theữ descriptions ofblockbusters, is that people are prepared to pay afee to see a blockbuster, and that the termblockbuster can just as easily apply to a movie ora museum exhibition.
B. Merely naming an exhibition or movie a blockbuster however, does not make it ablockbuster. The term can only apply when theitem in question has had an overwhelminglysuccessful response from the public. However,in literature from both the UK and USA the other words that also start to appear in descriptions of blockbusters are "less scholarly", "non-elitist" and "popularist". Detractors argue thatblockbusters are designed to appeal to the lowest common denominator,while others extol the virtues of encouraging scholars to cooperate onprojects, and to provide exhibitions that cater for a broad selection of thecommunity rather than an elite sector.
C. Maintaining and increasing visitor levels is paramount in the new museology. This requires continued product development. Not only thecreation or hiring of blockbuster exhibitions, but regular exhibitionchanges and innovations. In addition, the visiting publics have becomecustomers rather than visitors, and the skills that are valued in museums,science centres and galleries to keep the new customers coming throughthe door have changed. High on the list of requirements are commercial,business, marketing and entrepreneurial skills. Curators are nowadministrators. Being a director of an art gallery no longer requires an ArtDegree. As succinctly summarised in the Economist in 1994 "businessnous and public relation skills" were essential requirements for a director,and the ability to compete with other museums to stage travellingexhibitions which draw huge crowds.
D. The new museology has resulted in the convergence of museums, the heritage industry, and tourism, profit-making and pleasure-giving. Thishas given rise to much debate about the appropriateness of adapting theactivities of institutions so that they more closely reflect the priorities ofthe market place and whether it is appropriate to see museums primarilyas tourist attractions. At many institutions you can now hold officefunctions in the display areas, or have dinner with the dinosaurs.Whatever commentators may think, managers of museums, art galleriesand science centres worldwide are looking for artful ways to blendculture and commerce, and blockbuster exhibitions are at the top of thelist. But while blockbusters are all part of the new museology, there isproof that you don't need a museum, science centre or art gallery tobenefit from the drawing power of a blockbuster or to stage a blockbuster.
E. But do blockbusters held in public institutions really create a surplus to fund other activities? If the bottom line is profit, then according to theaccounting records of many major museums and galleries, blockbustersdo make money. For some museums overseas, it may be the money thatthey need to update parts of their collections or to repair buildings thatare in need of attention. For others in Australia, it may be the opportunityto illustrate that they are attempting to pay their way, by recovering partof their operating costs, or funding other operating activities withoff-budget revenue. This makes the economic rationalists cheerful.However, not all exhibitions that are hailed to be blockbusters will beblockbusters, and some will not make money. It is also unlikely that theaccounting systems of most institutions will recognise the real cost ofeither creating or hiring a blockbuster.
F. Blockbusters requừe large capital expenditure, and draw on resources across all branches of an organisation; however, the costs don't endthere. There is a Human Resource Management cost in addition to ameasurable 'real' dollar cost. Receiving a touring exhibition involveslarge expenditure as well, and draws resources from across functionalmanagement structures in project management style. Everyone froma general labourer to a building servicing unit, the front ofhouse, technical, promotion, education and administration staff, arerequired to perform additional tasks. Furthermore, as an increasingnumber of institutions in Australia fry their hand at increasing visitornumbers, memberships (and therefore revenue), by staging blockbusterexhibitions, it may be less likely that blockbusters will continue toprovide a surplus to subsidise other activities due to the competitivenature of the market. There are only so many consumer dollars to goaround, and visitors will need to choose between blockbuster products.
G. Unfortunately, when the bottom-line is the most important objective to the mounting of blockbuster exhibitions, this same objective can be hardto maintain. Creating, mounting or hiring blockbusters is exhausting forstaff, with the real costs throughout an institution difficult to calculate.Although the direct aims may be financial, creating or hiring ablockbuster has many positive spin-offs; by raising their profile through apopular blockbuster exhibition, a museum will be seen in a morefavorable light at budget time. Blockbusters mean crowds, and crowds aregood for the local economy, providing increased employment for shops,hotels, restaurants, the transport industry and retailers. Blockbustersexpose staff to the vagaries and pressures of the market place, and maylead to creative excellence. Either the success or failure of a blockbustermay highlight the need for managers and policy makers to rethink theirstrategies. However, the new museology and the apparent trend towardsblockbusters make it likely that museums, art galleries and particularlyscience centres will be seen as part of the entertainment and tourismindustry, rather than as cultural icons deserving of government andphilanthropic support.
H. Perhaps the best pathway to take is one that balances both blockbusters and regular exhibitions. However, this easy middle ground may onlywork if you have enough space, and have alternate sources of funding tocontinue to support the regular less exciting fare. Perhaps the adviceshould be to make sure that your regular activities and exhibitions aremore enticing, and find out what your local community wants from you.The question (trend) now at most museums and science centres, is "Whatblockbusters can we tour to overseas venues and will it be cost effective?"
Questions 1-4
The reading Passage has seven paragraphsA-IT.
Which paragraphs contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H,in boxesl-4 on your answer sheet.
NBYou ma use an letter more than once.
1 A reason for changing the exhibition programs.
2 The time people have to wait in a queue in order to enjoy exhibitions.
3 Terms people used when referring to blockbuster
4 There was some controversy over confining target groups of blockbuster.
Questions 5-8
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than three wordsfrom the Reading Passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
Instead of being visitors, people turned out to be____5_____, who require the creation or hiring of blockbuster exhibitions as well as regular exhibition changes and innovations. Business nous and ____6_____simply summarized in a magazine are not only important factors for directors, but also an ability to attract a crowd of audiences. _____7_____ has contributed tothe linking of museums, the heritage industry, tourism, profit-making and pleasure-giving. There occurs some controversy over whether it isproper to consider museums mainly as_____8______.
Questions 9-10
ChooseTWOlettersA-E.
Write your answer in boxes 9-10 on your answer sheet.
The list below gives some advantages of blockbuster.
Which TWO advantages are mentioned by the writer of the text?
A To offer sufficient money to repair architectures.
B To maintain and increase visitor levels.
C Presenting the mixture in the culture and commerce of art galleries and science centres worldwide.
D Being beneficial for the development of local business.
E Being beneficial for the directors.
Questions 11 - 13
ChooseTHREElettersA-F.
Write your answer in boxes 11-13on your answer sheet.
The list below gives some disadvantages of blockbuster.
Which THREE disadvantages are mentioned by the writer of the text?
A People felt hesitated to choose exhibitions.
B Workers has become tired of workloads.
C The content has become more entertaining rather than cultural.
D General labourers are required to perform additional tasks
E Huge amounts of capital invested in specialists.
F Exposing staff to the fantasies and pressures of the market place.

Section 2
Stress of Workplace
A. How busy is too busy? For some it means having to miss the occasional long lunch; for others it means missinglunch altogether. For a few, it is not being able to take a"sickie" once a month. Then there is a group of people for whom working every evening and weekend is normal, and frantic is the tempo of their lives. Formost senior executives, workloads swing betweenextremely busy and frenzied. The vice-president of themanagement consultancy AT Kearney and its head oftelecommunications for the Asia-Pacific region, NeilPlumridge, says his work weeks vary from a"manageable" 45 horns to 80 hours, but average 60 hours.
B. Three warning signs alert Plumridge about his workload: sleep, scheduling and family. He knows he has too much onwhen he gets less than six hours of sleep for threeconsecutive nights; when he is constantly having toreschedule appointments; "and the third one is on the family side", saysPlumridge, the father of a three-year-old daughter, and expecting a second child inOctober. "If I happen to miss a birthday or anniversary, I know things are out ofcontrol." Being "too busy" is highly subjective. But for any individual, theperception of being too busy over a prolonged period can start showing up asstress: disturbed sleep, and declining mental and physical health. Nationalworkers' compensation figures show stress causes the most lost time of anyworkplace injury. Employees suffering stress are off work an average of 16.6weeks. The effects of stress are also expensive. Comcare, the Federal Governmentinsurer, reports that in 2003-04, claims for psychological injury accounted for 7%of claims but almost 27% of claim costs. Experts say the key to dealing with stressis not to focus on relief - a game of golf or a massage - but to reassess workloads.Neil Plumridge says he makes it a priority to work out what has to change; thatmight mean allocating extra resources to a job, allowing more time or changingexpectations. The decision may take several days. He also relies on the advice of colleagues, saying his peers coach each other with business problems. "Just a fresh pair of eyes over an issue can help, he says.
C. Executive stress is not confined to big organisations. Vanessa Stoykov has been running her own advertising and public relations business for seven years, specialising in work for financial and professional services firms. Evolution Media has grown so fast that it debuted on the BRW Fast 100 list of fastest-growing small enterprises last year - just after Stoykov had her first child. Stoykov thrives on the mental stimulation of running her own business. "Like everyone, I have the occasional day when I think my heads going to blow off," she says. Because of thegrowth phase the business is in, Stoykov has toconcentrate on short-term stress relief - weekends in the mountains, the occasional "mental health" day - rather than delegating more work. She says: "We're hiring more people, but you need to train them, teach them aboutthe culture and the clients, so it's actually more work rather than less."
D. Identify the causes:Jan Elsnera, Melbourne psychologist who specialises in executive coaching, says thriving on a demanding workload is typical ofsenior executives and other high-potential business people. She says there isno one-size-fits-all approach to stress: some people work best with high-adrenalin periods followed by quieter patches, while others thrive undersustained pressure. "We could take urine and blood hormonal measures andpass a judgement of whether someone's physiologically stressed or not,"she says. "But that's not going to giveUSan indicator of what theirexperience of stress is, and what the emotional and cognitive impacts ofstress are going to be."
E. Eisner's practice is informed by a movement known as positive psychology, a school of thought that argues "positive" experiences - feeling engaged, challenged, and that one is making a contribution to something meaningful - do not balance out negative ones such as stress; instead, they help people increase their resilience over time. Good stress, or positive experiences of being challenged and rewarded, is thus cumulative in the same way as bad stress. Eisner says many of the senior business people she coaches are relying more on regulating bad stressthrough methods such as meditation and yoga. She points to research showing thatmeditation can alter the biochemistry of the brain and actually help people"retrain" the way their brains and bodies react to stress. "Meditation and yogaenable you to shift the way that your brain reacts, so if you get proficient at it you're in control.
F. The Australian vice-president of AT Kearney, Neil Plumridge, says: "Often stress is caused by our setting unrealistic expectations of ourselves. I'll promise a clientI'll do something tomorrow, and then [promise] another client the same thing,when I really know it's not going to happen. I've put stress on myself when I couldhave said to the clients: 'Why don't I give that to you in 48 hours?' The clientdoesn't care." Overcommitting is something people experience as an individualproblem. We explain it as the result of procrastination or Parkinson's law: thatwork expands to fill the time available. New research indicates that people may behard-wired to do it.
G. A study in the February issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology shows that people always believe they will be less busy in the future than now. This is amisapprehension, according to the authors of the report, Professor GalZauberman, of the University of North Carolina, and Professor John Lynch, ofDuke University. "On average, an individual will be just as busy two weeks or amonth from now as he or she is today. But that is not how it appears to be ineveryday life," they wrote. "People often make commitments long in advance thatthey would never make if the same commitments required immediate action. Thatis, they discount future time investments relatively steeply." Why do we perceive agreater "surplus" of time in the future than in the present? The researchers suggestthat people underestimate completion times for tasks stretching into the future,and that they are bad at imagining future competition for their time.
Questions 14-18
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
NB you may use any letter more than once
A. Jan Elsnera B. Vanessa Stoykov C.Gal Zauberman D. Neil Plumridge
14 Work stress usually happens in the high level of a business.
15 More people's ideas involved would be beneficial for stress relief
16 Temporary holiday sometimes doesn't mean less work.
17 Stress leads to a wrong direction when trying to satisfy customers.
18 It is not correct that stress in the future will be eased more than now
Questions 19-21
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
19 Which of the following workplace stress is NOT mentioned according toPlumridgein the following options?
A Not enough time spend on family
BUnable to concentrate on work
CInadequate time of sleep
DAlteration of appointment
20 Which of the following solution is NOT mentioned in helping reduce the workpressure according toPlumridgel
A. Allocate more personnel
B.Increase more time
C.Lower expectation
D.Do sports and massage
21 What is point of view ofJan Elsneratowards work stress?
A Medical test can only reveal part of the data needed to cope with stress
B Index some body samples will be abnormal in a stressful experience
CEmotional and cognitive affection is superior to physical one
D One well designed solution can release all stress
Questions 22-27
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than twowords from the Reading Passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 22-27 on your answer sheet.
Statistics from National worker's compensation indicate stress plays the most important role in____22_____ which cause the time losses. Staffs take about ____23______ for absencefrom work caused by stress. Not just time is our main concern but great expenses generated consequently. An official insurer wrotesometime that about ____24_____ of all claims were mental issues whereas nearly 27% costs in all claims. Sports such as _____25______, aswellas 26 couldbeatreatmentto release stress; However, specialists recommended another practical way out, analyse _____27____once again.
Section 3
Company Innovation
A. IN A scruffy office in midtown Manhattan, a team of 30 artificial-intelligence programmers is tryingto simulate the brains of an eminent sexologist, awell-known dietician, a celebrity fitness trainerand several other experts. Umagic Systems is ayoung firm, setting up websites that will allowclients to consult the virtual versions of thesepersonalities. Subscribers will feed in detailsabout themselves and their goals; Umagic'ssoftware will come up with the advice that the star expert would give. Although fewpeople have lost money betting on the neuroses of the American consumer, Umagic'sprospects are hard to gauge (in ten years' time, consulting a computer about your sexlife might seem natural, or it might seem absurd). But the company and others like itare beginning to spook large American firms, because they see such half-barmyinnovative ideas as the key to their own future success.
B. Innovation has become the buzz-word of American management. Firms have found that most of the things that can be outsourced or re-engineered have been(worryingly, by their competitors as well). The stars of American business tend todayto be innovators such as Dell, Amazon and Wal-Mart, which have produced ideas orproducts that have changed their industries.
C. A new book by two consultants from Arthur D. Little records that, over the past 15 years, the top 20% of firms in an annual innovation poll by Fortune magazine haveachieved double the shareholder returns of their peers. Much of today's merger boomis driven by a desperate search for new ideas. So is the fortune now spent on licensingand buying others' intellectual property. According to the Pasadena-based Patent &Licence Exchange, trading in intangible assets in the United States has risen from $15billion in 1990 to $100 billion in 1998, with an increasing proportion of the rewardsgoing to small firms and individuals.
D. And therein lies the terror for big companies: that innovation seems towork best outside them. Several bigestablished ideas factories, including 3M, Procter & Gamble and Rubbermaid, have had dry spells recently. Gillette spent ten years and $1 billion developing its new Mach 3 razor; it took a Britishsupermarket only a year or so to produce a reasonable imitation. In the managementof creativity, size is your enemy, argues Peter Chemin, who runs the Fox TV andfilm empire for News Corporation. One person managing 20 movies is never going tobe as involved as one doing five movies. He has thus tried to break down the studiointo smaller unitseven at the risk of incurring higher costs.
E. It is easier for ideas to thrive outside big firms these days. In the past, if a clever scientist had an idea he wanted to commercialise, he would take it first to a bigcompany. Now, with plenty of cheap venture capital, he is more likely to set up on hisown. Umagic has already raised $5m and is about to raise $25m more. Even incapital-intensive businesses such as pharmaceuticals, entrepreneurs can conductearly-stage research, selling out to the big firms when they reach expensive, riskyclinical trials. Around a third of drug firms' total revenue now comes from licensed-intechnology.
F. Some giants, including General Electric and Cisco, have been remarkably successful at snapping up andintegrating scores of small companies. But many othersT^ worry about the prices they have to pay and thedifficulty in hanging on to the talent that dreamt up the idea. Everybody would like todevelop more ideas in-house. Procter & Gamble is now shifting its entire businessfocus from countries to products; one aim is to get innovations accepted across thecompany. Elsewhere, the search for innovation has led to a craze forintrapreneurshipdevolving power and setting up internal ideas-factories andtracking stocks so that talented staff will not leave.
G. Some people think that such restructuring is not enough. In a new book Clayton Christensen argues that many things which established firms do well, such as lookingafter their current customers, can hinder the sort of innovative behaviour needed todeal with disruptive technologies. Hence the fashion for cannibalisationsetting upbusinesses that will actually fight your existing ones. Bank One, for instance, hasestablished Wingspan, an Internet bank that competes with its real branches (seearticle). Jack Welchs Internet initiative at General Electric is calledDestroyyourbusiness.com.
H. Nobody could doubt that innovation matters. But need large firms be quite so pessimistic? A recent survey of the top 50 innovations in America, by Industry Week, a journal, suggested that ideas are as likely to come from big firms as from small ones. Another skeptical note is sounded by Amar Bhid, a colleague of Mr Christensens at the Harvard Business School and the author of another book on entrepreneurship. Rather than having to reinvent themselves, big companies, he believes, should concentrate on projects with high costs and low uncertainty, leaving those with low costs and high uncertainty to small entrepreneurs. As ideas mature andthe risks and rewards become more quantifiable, big companies can adopt them.
I. At Kimberly-Clark, Mr Sanders had to discredit the view that jobs working on new products were for those who couldn't hack it in the real business. He has tried tochange the culture not just by preaching fuzzy concepts but also by introducing hardincentives, such as increasing the rewards for those who come up with successful newideas and, particularly, not punishing those whose experiments fail. The genesis ofone of the firm's current hits, Depend, a more dignified incontinence garment, lay in aprevious miss, Kotex Personals, a form of disposable underwear for menstruatingwomen.
J. Will all this creative destruction, cannibalisation and culture tweaking make big firms more creative? David Post, the founder of Umagic, is sceptical: The only successfulintrapreneurs are ones who leave and become entrepreneurs. He also recalls with glee the looks of total incomprehension when he tried to hawk his virtual experts idea three years ago to the idealabs of firms such as IBM though, as he cheerfully adds,of course, they could have been right.Innovation unlike,apparently, sex, parenting and fitness is one area where a computer cannot tell you what to do.
Questions 28-33
The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-J.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-J,in boxes28-33on your answer sheet
NB You may use any letter more than once.
28 Approach to retain best employees
29 Safeguarding expenses on innovative idea
30 Integrating outside firms might produce certain counter effect
31 Example of three famous American companies' innovation
32 Example of one company changing its focus
33 Example of a company resolving financial difficulties itself
Questions 34-37
Do the following statements agree with the information given ỉn Reading Passage 3?In boxes34-37on your answer sheet, write
TRUE ifthestatementistrue
FALSE ifthestatementisfalse
NOT GIVEN iftheinformationisnotgiveninthepassage
34 Umagic is the most successful innovative company in this new field.
35 Amazon and Wal-Mart exchanged their innovation experience.
36 New idea holder had already been known to take it to small company in the past.
37 IBM failed to understand Umagic's proposal of one new idea.
Questions 38-40
Choose the correct letter,A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
38What is authors opinion on the effect of innovation in paragraphc?
A. It only works for big companies
B. Fortune magazine has huge influence globally
C.It is getting more important
D. Effect on American companies is more evident
39 What is Peter Chemins point of view on innovation?
A. Small company is more innovative than big one
B. Film industry need more innovation than other industries
C.We need to cut the cost when risks occur
D. New ideas are more likely going to big companies
40 What is authors opinion on innovation at the end of this passage?
A. Umagic success lies on the accidental "virtual experts"
B. Innovation is easy and straightforward
C.IBM sets a good example on innovation
D. The authors attitude is uncertain on innovation

Reading Test 28
Section 1
The Beginning ofFootball
A.Football as we now know it developed in Britain in the 19th century, but the game is far older than this. In fact, the term has historicallybeen applied to games played on foot, as opposed to those played onhorseback, so 'football' hasn't always involved kicking a ball. It hasgenerally been played by men, though at the end of the 17th century,games were played between married and singlewomen in a town in Scotland. The married womenregularly won.
B. The very earliest form of football for which we have evidence is the 'tsu'chu', which was played in China and may date back 3,000 years. It was performed in front of the Emperor during festivities to mark his birthday. It involved kicking a leather ball through a 30-40cm opening into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes - a feat that demanded great skill and excellent technique.
C. Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese 'kemari' which dates from about the fifth century and is stillplayed today. This is a type of circular football game, a more dignifiedand ceremonious experience requiring certainskills, but not competitive in the way the Chinese game was, nor is there the slightest sign ofstruggle for possessionof the ball. The playershad to pass the ball toeach other, in a relatively small space, trying not tolet it touch the ground.
D. The Romans had a much livelier game, 'harpastum'. Each team member had his own specific tactical assignment took a noisy interest in the proceedings and the score. The role of the feet was so small as scarcely to be of consequence. The gameremained popular for 700 or800 years, but, although itwas taken to England, it isdoubtful whether it can beconsidered as a forerunner of contemporary football.
E. The game that flourished in Britain from the 8th to the 19th centuries was substantially differentfrom all the previously known forms - moredisorganised, more violent, more spontaneous and usually played by an indefinite number of players. Frequently, the games took the form of a heated contest between whole villages. Kickingopponents was allowed, as in fact was almost everything else.
F. There was tremendous enthusiasm for football, even though the authorities repeatedly intervened to restrict it, as apublic nuisance. In the 14th and 15th centuries, England, Scotland and France all made football punishable by law, because of the disorder that commonly accompanied it, orbecause the well-loved recreation prevented subjects frompractising more useful military disciplines. None of theseefforts had much effect.
G. The English passion for football was particularly strong in the 16th century, influenced by the popularity of the rather betterorganised Italian game of 'calcio'. English football was as rough as ever,but it found a prominent supporter in the school headmaster RichardMulcaster. He pointed out that it had positive educational value andpromoted health and strength. Mulcaster claimed that all that was neededwas to refine it a little, limit the number of participants in each team and,more importantly, have a referee to oversee the game.
H.The game persisted in a disorganised form until the early 19th century, when a number of influential English schools developed thefr ownadaptations. In some, including Rugby School, the ball could be touchedwith the hands or carried; opponents could be tripped up and evenkicked. It was recognised in educational circles that, as a team game,football helped to develop such fine qualities as loyalty, selflessness,cooperation, subordination and deference to the team spirit. A 'gamescult' developed in schools, and some form of football became an obligatory part of the curriculum.
I. In 1863, developments reached a climax. At Cambridge University, an initiative began to establish some uniform standards and rules that wouldbe accepted by everyone, but there were essentially two camps: theminority Rugby School and some others - wished to continue withtheir own form of the game, in particular allowing players to carry theball. In October of the same year, eleven London clubs and schools sentrepresentatives to establish a set of fundamental rules to govern thematches played amongst them. This meeting marked the both of theFootball Association.
J. The dispute concerning kicking and tripping opponents andcarrying the ball was discussedthoroughly at this and subsequentmeetings, until eventually, on 8December, the die-hard exponentsof the Rugby style withdrew,marking a final split betweenrugby and football. Within eightyears, the Football Associationalready had 50 member clubs, and the first football competition in the world was started - the FA Cup.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1
Questions 1-7
Reading Passage 1 has ten paragraphs A-J.
List of Headings
i Limited success in suppressing the game
i Opposition to the role of football in schools
iii A way of developing moral values
iv Football matches between countries
v A game that has survived
vi Separation into two sports
viiProposals for minor improvements
vii Attempts to standardise the game
ix Probably not an early version of football
x A chaotic activity with virtually no rules
Choose the correct headings for paragraphs D-Jfrom the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-x in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
Example ParagraphC Answer v
1 Paragraph D
2 Paragraph E
3 Paragraph F
4 Paragraph G
5 Paragraph H
6 Paragraph I
7 Paragraph J
Questions 8-13
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-l from the box below. Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
8 Tsu'chu
9 Kemari
10 Harpastum
11 From the 8th to the 19th centuries, football in the British Isles
12 In the past, the authorities legitimately despised the football and acted onthe belief that football
13 When it was accepted in academic settings, football
Section 2
A New Ice Age

AWilliam Curry is a serious, sober climate scientist, not an art critic. But he has spent a lot of time perusing Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze's famous painting "George Washington Crossing the Delaware," which depicts aboatload of colonial American soldiers making their way to attack English and Hessian troops the day after Christmas in 1776. "Most people think these other guys in the boat arerowing, but they are actually pushing the ice away," says Curry, tapping his finger ona reproduction of the painting. Sure enough, the lead oarsman is bashing the frozenriver with his boot. "I grew up in Philadelphia. The place in this painting is 30 minutesaway by car. I can tell you, this kind of thing just doesn't happen anymore."
B.But it may again soon. And ice-choked scenes, similar to those immortalized by the 16th-century Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder, may also return to Europe. His works, including the 1565 masterpiece "Hunters in the Snow," make the now-temperate European landscapes look more like Lapland. Such frigid settings were commonplace during a period dating roughly from 1300 to 1850 because much of North America and Europe was in the throes of a little ice age. And now there is mounting evidence that the chill could return. A growing number of scientists believe conditions are ripe for another prolonged cooldown, or small ice age. While no one is predicting a brutal ice sheet like the one that covered the Northern Hemisphere with glacier about 12,000 years ago, the next cooling trend could drop average temperatures 5 degrees Fahrenheit over much of the United States and 10 degrees in the Northeast, northern Europe, and northern Asia.
C. "It could happen in 10 years," says Tenence Joyce, who chaừs the Woods Hole Physical Oceanography Department. "Once it does, it can take hundreds of years toreverse." And he is alarmed that Americans have yet to take the threat seriously.
D.A drop of 5 to 10 degrees entails much more than simply bumping up the thermostat and carrying on. Both economically and ecologically, such quick,persistent chilling could have devastating consequences. A 2002 report titled "AbruptClimate Change: Inevitable Surprises," produced by the National Academy ofSciences, pegged the cost from agricultural losses alone at $100 billion to $250 billionwhile also predicting that damage to ecologies could be vast and incalculable. A grimsampler: disappearing forests, increased housing expenses, dwindling freshwater,lower crop fields andacceleratedspeciesextinctions.
E. Political changes since the last ice age could make survival far more difficult for the world's poor. During previous cooling periods, whole tribes simply picked up andmoved south, but that option doesn't work in the modem, tense world of closedborders. "To the extent that abrupt climate change may cause rapid and extensivechanges of fortune for those who live off the land, the inability to migrate mayremove one of the major safety nets for distressed people," says the report.
F. But first things first. Isn't the earth actually warming? Indeed it is, says Joyce. In his cluttered office, full of soft light from the foggy Cape Cod morning, he explainshow such warming could actually be the surprising culprit of the next mini-ice age.The paradox is a result of the appearance over the past 30 years in the North Atlanticof huge rivers of freshwater the equivalent of a 10-foot-thick layer mixed into thesalty sea. No one is certain where the fresh torrents are coming from, but a primesuspect is meltinị Arcticice,causedbyabuildupofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere that traps solar energy.
G. The freshwater trend is major news in ocean-science circles. BobDickson, a British oceanographer whosounded an alarm at a Februaryconference in Honolulu, has termed thedrop in salinity and temperature in theLabrador Seaa body of waterbetween northeastern Canada andGreenland that adjoins theAtlantic"arguably the largestfull-depth changes observed in themodem instrumental oceanographic record." could cause a little ice age by subverting the northern
H.The trend penetration of Gulf Stream waters. Normally, the Gulf Stream, laden with heat soaked up in the tropics, meanders up the east coasts of the United States and Canada. As itflows northward, the stream surrenders heat to the an. Because the prevailing NorthAtlantic winds blow eastward, a lot of the heat wafts to Europe. That's why manyscientists believe winter temperatures on the Continent are as much as 36 degreesFahrenheit warmer than those in North America at the same latitude. Frigid Boston,for example, lies at almost precisely the same latitude as balmy Rome. And somescientists say the heat also warms Americans and Canadians. "It's a real mistake tothink of this solely as a European phenomenon," says Joyce.
I. Having given up its heat to the air, the now-cooler water becomes denser and sinks into the North Atlantic by a mile or more in a process oceanographers callthermohaline circulation. This massive column of cascading cold is the main enginepowering a deepwater current called the Great Ocean Conveyor that snakes throughall the world's oceans. But as the North Atlantic fills with freshwater, it grows lessdense, making the waters carried northward by the Gulf Stream less able to sink. Thenew mass of relatively freshwater sits on top of the ocean like a big thermal blanket,threatening the thermohalinecirculation. That in turn could makethe Gulf Stream slow or veersouthward. At some point, the wholesystem could simply shut down, anddo so quickly. "There is increasingevidence that we are getting closer toa transition point, from which we canjump to a new state. Small changes,such as a couple of years of heavyprecipitation or melting ice at highlatitudes, could yield a big response,says Joyce.
J. You have all this freshwater sitting at high latitudes, and it can literally take hundreds of years to get rid of it, Joyce says. So while the globe as a whole getswarmer by tiny fractions of 1 degree Fahrenheit annually, the North Atlantic regioncould, in a decade, get up to 10 degrees colder. What worries researchers at WoodsHole is that history is on the side of rapid shutdown. They know it has happenedbefore.
Question 14-16
Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D.
Write the correct letter in box 14-16 on your answer sheet.
14 The writer mentions the paintings in the first two paragraphs to illustrate
A that the two paintings are immortalized.
B peoples different opinions.
Ca possible climate change happened 12,000 years ago.
D the possibility of a small ice age in the future.
15 Why is it hard for the poor to survive the next cooling period?
A because people cant remove themselves from the major safety nets.
B because politicians are voting against the movement,
Cbecause migration seems impossible for the reason of closed borders.
D because climate changes accelerate the process of moving southward.
16 Why is the winter temperature in continental Europe higher than that in NorthAmerica?
A because heat is brought to Europe with the wind flow.
B because the eastward movement of freshwater continues,
Cbecause Boston and Rome are at the same latitude.
D because the ice formation happens in NorthAmerica.

Questions 17-21
Match each statement (Questions 17-21) with the correct person A-D in the box below. Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes 17-21 on your answer sheet.

NB: You may use any letter more than once.
17 A quick climate change wreaks great disruption.
18 Most Americans are not prepared for the next cooling period.
19 A case of a change of ocean water is mentioned in a conference.
20 Global warming urges the appearance of the ice age.
21 The temperature will not drop to the same degree as it used to be.
---------------
List of People
A Bob Dickson B Terrence Joyce CWilliam Curry
D National Academy of Science
Questions 22-26
Complete the flow chart below.
ChooseNO MORE THAN THREE WORDSfrom the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet.


Section 3
Soviets New Working Week
Historian investigates how Stalin changed the calendar to keep the Soviet people continually at work.
A. There are no fortresses that Bolsheviks cannot storm. With these words, Stalin expressed the dynamic self-confidence of the Soviet Unions Five Year Plan:weak and backward Russia was to turn overnight into a powerful modemindustrial country. Between 1928 and 1932, production of coal, iron and steelincreased at a fantastic rate, and new industrial cities sprang up, along with theworlds biggest dam. Everyones life was affected, as collectivised farming drovemillions from the land to swell the industrial proletariat. Private enterprisedisappeared in city and country, leaving the State supreme under the dictatorshipof Stalin. Unlimited enthusiasm was the mood of the day, with the Communistsbelieving that iron will and hard-working manpower alone would bring about anew world.
B. Enthusiasm spread to tune itself, in the desire to make the state a huge efficient machine, where not a moment would be wasted, especially in the workplace.Lenin had already been intrigued by the ideas of the American Frederick WinslowTaylor (1856-1915), whose time-motion studies had discovered ways ofstream-lining effort so that every worker could produce the maximum. TheBolsheviks were also great admirers of Henry Fords assembly line massproduction and of his Fordson tractors that were imported by the thousands. Theengineers who came with them to train their users helped spread what became areal cult of Ford. Emulating and surpassing such capitalist models formed part ofthe training of the new Soviet Man, a heroic figure whose unlimited capacity forwork would benefit everyone in the dynamic new society. All this culminated inthe Plan, which has been characterized as the triumph of the machine, whereworkers would become supremely efficient robot-like creatures.
C. Yet this was Communism whose goals had always included improving the lives of the proletariat. One major step in that direction was the sudden announcementin 1927 that reduced the working day from eight to seven hours. In January 1929,all Indus-tries were ordered to adopt the shorter day by the end of the Plan.Workers were also to have an extra hour off on the eve of Sundays and holidays.Typically though, the state took away more than it gave, for this was part of ascheme to increase production by establishing a three-shift system. This meantthat the factories were open day and night and that many had to work at highly undesfrable hours.
D. Hardly had that policy been announced, though, than Yuri Larin, who had been a close associate of Lenin and architect of his radical economic policy, came upwith an idea for even greater efficiency. Workers were free and plants were closedon Sundays. Why not abolish that wasted day by instituting a continuous workweek so that the machines could operate to their full capacity every day of theweek? When Larin presented his idea to the Congress of Soviets in May 1929, noone paid much attention. Soon after, though, he got the ear of Stalin, whoapproved. Suddenly, in June, the Soviet press was filled with articles praising thenew scheme. In August, the Council of Peoples Commissars ordered that thecontinuous work week be brought into immediate effect, during the height ofenthusiasm for the Plan, whose goals the new schedule seemed guaranteed toforward.
E. The idea seemed simple enough, but turned out to be very complicated in practice. Obviously, the workers couldnt be made to work seven days a week, nor shouldtheir total work hours be increased. The Solution was ingenious: a new five-dayweek would have the workers on the job for four days, with the fifth day free;holidays would be reduced from ten to five, and the extra hour off on the eve ofrest days would be abolished. Staggering the rest-days between groups of workersmeant that each worker would spend the same number of hours on the job, but thefactories would be working a full 360 days a year instead of 300. The 360 dividedneatly into 72 five-day weeks. Workers in each establishment (at first factories,then stores and offices) were divided into five groups, each assigned a colourwhich appeared on the new Uninterrupted Work Week calendars distributed allover the country. Colour-coding was a valuable mnemonic device, since workersmight have trouble remembering what their day off was going to be, for it wouldchange every week. A glance at the colour on the calendar would reveal the freeday, and allow workers to plan their activities. This system, however, did notapply to construction or seasonal occupations, which followed a six-day week, orto factories or mines which had to close regularly for maintenance: they also hada six-day week, whether interrupted (with the same day off for everyone) orcontinuous. In all cases, though, Sunday was treated like any other day.
F. Official propaganda touted the material and cultural benefits of the new scheme. Workers would get more rest; production and employment would increase (formore workers would be needed to keep the factories running continuously); thestandard of living would improve. Leisure time would be more rationallyemployed, for cultural activities (theatre, clubs, sports) would no longer have tobe crammed into a weekend, but could flourish every day, with their facilities farless crowded. Shopping would be easier for the same reasons. Ignorance andsuperstition, as represented by organized religion, would suffer a mortal blow,since 80 per cent of the workers would be on the job on any given Sunday. Theonly objection concerned the family, where normally more than one member was working: well, the Soviets insisted, the narrow family was far less important than the vast common good and besides, arrangements could be made for husband andwife to share a common schedule. In fact, the regime had long wanted to weakenor sideline the two greatest potential threats to its total dominance: organisedreligion and the nuclear family. Religion succumbed, but the family, as evenStalin finally had to admit, proved much more resistant.
G. The continuous work week, hailed as a Utopia where time itself was conquered and the sluggish Sunday abolished forever, spread like an epidemic. According toofficial figures, 63 per cent of industrial workers were so employed by April 1930;in June, all industry was ordered to convert during the next year. The fad reachedits peak in October when it affected 73 per cent of workers. In fact, manymanagers simply claimed that their factories had gone over to the new week,without actually applying it. Conforming to the demands of the Plan wasimportant; practical matters could wait. By then, though, problems werebecoming obvious. Most serious (though never officially admitted), the workershated it. Coordination of family schedules was virtually impossible and usuallyignored, so husbands and wives only saw each other before or after work; restdays were empty without any loved ones to share them even friends werelikely to be on a different schedule. Confusion reigned: the new plan wasintroduced haphazardly, with some factories operating five-, six- and seven-dayweeks at the same time, and the workers often not getting their rest days at all.
H. The Soviet government might have ignored all that (It didnt depend on public approval), but the new week was far from having the vaunted effect onproduction. With the complicated rotation system, the work teams necessarilyfound themselves doing different kinds of work in successive weeks. Machines,no longer consistently in the hands of people who knew how to tend them, wereoften poorly maintained or even broken. Workers lost a sense of responsibility forthe special tasks they had normally performed.
I. As a result, the new week started to lose ground. Stalin's speech of June 1931, which criticised the depersonalised labor its too hasty application had brought,marked the beginning of the end. In November, the government ordered thewidespread adoption of the six-day week, which had its own calendar, withregular breaks on the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th, and 30th, with Sunday usually as aworking day. By July 1935, only 26 per cent of workers still followed thecontinuous schedule, and the six-day week was soon on its way out. Finally, in1940, as part of the general reversion to more traditional methods, both thecontinuous five-day week and the novel six-day week were abandoned, andSunday returned as the universal day of rest. A bold but typically ill-conceivedexperiment was at an end.
Questions 27-34

Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs A-I.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct numberI-XIIin boxes 27-34 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
iBenefits of the new scheme and its resistance
ii Making use of the once wasted weekends
iiiCutting work hours for better efficiency
iv Optimism of the great future
v Negative effects on production itself
viSoviet Unions five year plan
viiThe abolishment of the new work-week scheme
viiiThe Ford model
ix Reaction from factory workers and their families
x The color-coding scheme
xi Establishing a three-shift system
xii Foreign inspiration
--------------
27 Paragraph A
28 Paragraph B
Example Answer
ParagraphC iii
29Paragraph D
30 Paragraph E
31 Paragraph F
32 Paragraph G
33 Paragraph H
34 Paragraph I
Questions35-37
Choose the correct letter A, B, c or D.
Write your answers in boxes 35-37 on your answer sheet.
35 According to paragraph A, Soviets five year plan was a success because

A Bolsheviks built a strong fortress.
B Russia was weak and backward,
Cindustrial production increased.
D Stalin was confident about Soviets potential.
36 Daily working hours were cut from eight to seven to
A improve the lives of allpeople.
B boost industrial productivity,
Cget rid of undesirable work hours.
D change the already establish three-shift work system.
37 Many factory managers claimed to have complied with the demands of the newwork week because
A they were pressurized by the state to do so.
B they believed there would not be any practical problems,
Cthey were able to apply it.
D workers hated the new plan.
Questions 38-40
Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
38 Whose idea of continuous work week did Stalin approve and helped to implement?
39 What method was used to help workers to remember the rotation of theft off days?
40 What was the most resistant force to the new work week scheme?

Reading Test 29
Section 1
Density and Crowding

A. Of the great myriad of problems which man and the world face today, there are three significant fiends which stand above all others in importance: the uprecedentedpopulation growth throughout the world a net increase of1,400,000 people per week and all of its associations and consequences; theincreasing urbanizationof these people, so that more and more of them are rushing into cities and urban areas of the world; and the tremendous explosion of communication and social contact throughout the world, so that every part of the world is now aware of every other part. All of these fiends are producing increased crowding and the perception of crowding.
B.It is important to emphasize at the outset that crowding and density are not necessarily the same. Density is the number of individuals per unit area or unit space.It is a simple physical measurement. Crowding is a product of density, communication,contact, and activity. It implies a pressure, a force, and a psychological reaction. It may occur at widely different densities. The frontiersman may have feltcrowded when someone built a homestead a mile away. The suburbanite may feelrelatively uncrowded in a small house on a half-acre lot if it is surrounded by trees,bushes, and a hedgerow, even though he lives under much higher physical densitythan did the frontiersman. Hence, crowding is very much a psychological andecological phenomenon, andnotjust a physical condition.
C. A classic crowding study was done by Calhoun (1962), who put rats into a physical environment designed to accommodate 50 rats and provided enough food,water, and nesting materials for the number of rats in the environment. The ratpopulation peaked at 80, providing a look at ramped living conditions.
Although the rats experienced no resource limitations other than spacerestriction, a number of negativeconditions developed: the two mostdominant males took harems ofseveral female rats and occupied morethan their share of space, leaving otherrats even more crowded; manyfemales stopped building nests and abandoned their infant rats; the pregnancy rate declined; infant and adult mortality ratesincreased; more aggressive and physical attacks occurred; sexual variation increased, including hypersexuality, inhibited sexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality.
D.Calhoun's results have led to other research on crowding's effects on human beings, and these research findings have suggested that high density is not the single cause of negative effects on humans. When crowding is defined only in terms of spatial density (the amount of space per person), the effects of crowding are variable. However, if crowding is defined in terms of social density, or the number of people who must interact, then crowding better predicts negative psychological and physical effects.
E. There are several reasons why crowding makesUSfeel uncomfortable. One reason is related to stimulus overload - there are just too many stimuli competing for our attention. We cannot notice or respond to all of them. This feeling is typical of the harried mother, who has several childrencompeting for her attention, while she is on the phone and thedoorbell is ringing. This leaves her feeling confused, fatiguedand yearning to withdraw from the situation. There are strong feelings of a lack of privacy - being unable to pay attention to what you want without being repeatedly interrupted orobserved by others.
F. Field studies done in a variety of settings illustrate that social density is associatedwith negative effects on humanbeings. In prison studies, males generally became more aggressive with increases in density. In male prison, inmate; living in conditions of higher densities were more likely to suffer from fight. Males rated themselves as more aggressive in small rooms (a situation ofhigh spatial density), whilst the females rated themselves as more aggressive in large rooms (Stokols et al., 1973). These differences relate to the different personal space requirements of the genders. Besides, Baumand Greenberg found that high density leads to decreased attraction, both physical attraction and liking towards others and it appears to have gender differences in theimpact that density has on attraction levels, with males experiencing a more extremereaction. Also, the greater the density is, the less the helping behavior. One reasonwhy the level of helping behavior may be reduced in crowded situations links to theconcept of diffusion ofresponsibility. The more people that are present in a situation that requires help, the less often help is given. This may be due to the fact that people diffuse responsibility among themselves with no-one feeling that theyought to be the one to help.
G. Facing all these problems, what are we going to do with them? The more control a person has over the crowded environment the less negatively theyexperience it, thus the perceived crowding is less (Schmidt and Keating). The abilityto cope with crowding is also influenced by the relationship the individual has withthe other people in the situation. The high density will be interpreted less negatively ifthe individual experiences it with people he likes. One of the main coping strategiesemployed to limit the impact of high density is social withdrawal. This includesbehaviors such as averting the gaze and using negative body language to attempt to block any potential intrusions.
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 1-13, which are based on reading passage 1 on the following pages.
Questions 1-7
Reading passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A -G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
List of headings
i Other experiments following Calhouns experiment offering a clearer indication
ii The effects of crowding on people in the social scope
iii Psychological reaction to crowding
iv Problems that result in crowding
v Responsibility does not work
vi What cause the upset feel of crowding
vii Definitions of crowding and density
viii Advice for crowded work environment
ix Difference between male and females attractiveness in a crowdXNature and results of Calbouns experiment
-----------------
1 Paragraph A
2 Paragraph B
3Paragraphc
4 Paragraph D
5 Paragraph E
6 Paragraph F
7 Paragraph G
Questions 8-13
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
8 Being disturbed repeatedly, the harried mother feels frustrated for thelack of .............
9 Inmates in high density settings were more aggressive in
10 The different result between male and female is associated with the varying need of..........
11 Especially for male, Baum and Greenberg found that ..........declined with high density.
12 The idea of responsibility diffusion may explain a person's reluctantto........
13 Schmidt and Keating suggest that if more.......was present there would be a reduction in crowding stress.
Section 2
The reconstruction of community in Talbot Park,Auckland
A. An architecture of disguise is almost complete at Talbot Park in the heart of Auckland's Glen Innes. The place was once described as a state housing ghetto, rife with crime, vandalism and other social problems. But today after a $48million urban renewal makeover, the site ishome to 700 residents 200 more than before and has people regularly inquiring whether they can buy or rent there."It doesn't look like social housing," Housing New Zealand housingservices manager Dene Busby says of the tidy brick and weatherboardapartments and townhouses which would look just as much at home in"there is no reason why public housing should look cheap in my view,"says Design Group architect Neil of the eight three-bedroom terracehouses his firm designed.
B. Talbot Park is a triangle of government-owned land bounded by Apirana Ave, Pilkington Rd and Point England Rd. In the early 1960s it wasdeveloped for state housing built around a linear park that ran throughthe middle. Initially, there was a strongsense of a family-friendly community. Former residents recall how the Talbot Park reserve played a big part in theirchildhoods a place where the kids inthe block came together to play softball,cricket, tiggy, leapfrog and bullrush. Sometimes they'd play "Maoris against Pakehas" but without any animosity. "It was all just good fun", says Georgie Thompson in Ben Schrader's We Call it Home: A History of StateHousing in New Zealand. "We had respect for our neighbours andaddressed them by title Mr. and Mrs. so-and-so," she recalls.
C. Quite what went wrong with Talbot Park is not clear. We call it Home Records that the community began to change in the late 1970s as morePacific Islanders and Europeans moved in. The new arrivals didn't readilyintegrate with the community, a "them and us" mentality developed, andresidents interacted with their neighbours less. What was clear was thebuildings were deteriorating and becoming dilapidated, petty crime wason the rise and the reserve focus of fond childhood memories hadbecome a wasteland and was considered unsafe.
D.But it wasn't until 2002 that Housing New Zealand decided the properties needed upgrading. The master renewalplan didn't take advantage of themaximum accommodation densityallowable (one unit per 100 sq metres )but did increase density to one emit per180 sq m by refurbishing all 108 star flatunits, removing the multis and building111 new home. The Talbot strategy canbe summed up as mix, match and manage. Mix up the housing with variety plans from a mix of architects, match house styles to what7s built by the private sector, match tenants tothe mix, and manage their occupancy. Inevitably cost comes into theequation." If you're going to build low cost homes, you've got to keepthem simple and you can't afford a fancy bit on them. " says MichaelThompson ofArchitectuswhich designed the innovative three-levelAtrium apartments lining two sides of a covered courtyard. At $300,000per two bedroom unit, the building is more expensive but provides forindependent disabled accommodation as well as offering solar hot waterheating and rainwater collection for toilet cisterns and outside taps.
E. The renewal project budget at $1.5 million which will provide park pathways, planting, playgrounds, drinking fountains, seating, skateboardrails, a half-size basketball hard court, and a pavilion. But if there was anydoubt this is a low socio-economic area, the demographics for thesurrounding Tamaki area are sobering. Of the 5000 households there, 55per cent are state houses, 28 per cent privately owned (compared to about 65 per cent nationally) and 17 per cent are private rental. Thearea has a high concentration ofhouseholds with incomes in the$5000 to $15,000 range and veryfew with an income over$70,000. That's in sharp contrast to the more affluent suburbs like Kohimarama and St John's that surround the area.
F. "The design is for people with different culture background," says architect James Lunday of Common Ground which designed the 21 largefamily homes. "Architecturally we decided to be relatively conservative nice house in its own garden with a bit of space and good indooroutdoor flow." There's a slight reflection of the whare and a Pacific fale,but not overplayed "The private sector is way behind in urban design andsustainable futures," says Bracey. "Redesigning sheets and parks is a bigdeal and very difficult to do. The private sector won't do it, because It's sohard."
G.There's no doubt good urban design and good architecture play a significant part in the scheme. But probably more important is a newstandard of social control. Housing New Zealandcalls it "intensive tenancy management". Othersview it as social engineering. "It's a model that we are looking at going forward," according to Housing New Zealand's central Auckland regional manager Graham Bodman.1The focus is onfrequent inspections, helping tenants to get to know each other and tryingto create an environment of respect for neighbours, " says Bodman. Thatincludes some strict rules no loud parties after 10 pm, no dogs, no catsin the apartments, no washing hung over balcony rails and a requirementto mow lawns and keep the property tidy. Housing New Zealand has alsobeen active in organising morning teas and sheet barbecues for residentsto meet their neighbours. "IVs all based on the intensification," says Community Renewalproject manager Stuart Bracey. "We acknowledge if you are going to putmore people living closer together, you have to actually help them to livecloser together because it creates tension especially for people thataren't used to it."
Questions 14-20
Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs, A-G from the list below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Financial hardship of community
ii A good tendency of strengthening the supervision
iii Details of plans for the communitys makeover and upgrade
iv Architecture suits families of various ethnic origins
v Problems arise then the mentality of alienation developed later
vi Introduction of a social housing community with unexpected highstandard
vii A practical design and need assist and cooperate in future
viii closer relationship among neighbors in original site
ix different need from a makeup of a low financial background shouldbe considered
x How to make the community feel safe
xi a plan with details for house structure
---------------
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16Paragraphc
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
19 Paragraph F
20 Paragraph G
Questions 21-23
List of people
A Michael Thompson
B Graham Bodman
CStuart Bracey
D James Lunday
E Dene Busby
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters, A-E, in boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet.
21 Design should meet the need of mix-raced cultural background
22 for better living environment, regulations and social control should beimperative
23 organising more community's activities helps strengthening relationship incommunity

Questions 24-27
Complete the folbwing summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 2 ChooseNO MORE THAN TWO WORDSfrom the passage for each answer. Write youranswers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
In the year 2002, the Talbot decided to raise housing standard, yet the plan was to build homes go much beyond the accommodation limit and people complainabout the high living24................. And as the variety plans were complemented under the designs of many 25................together, madehouse styles go with the part designed by individuals, matched tenants from different culture. As for the finance, reconstruction program's major concern is to build a house within low26.................; finally, just as expert predicted residents will agree on builbing a relatively conventional house in its own 27................, whichprovidesconsiderablespace to move around.
Section 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on reading passage III below.
Video Games Unexpected Benefits to Human Brain
A. James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, played his firstvideo game years ago when his six-year-old sonSam was playing Pajama Sam: No Need to HideWhen Its Dark Outside. He wanted to play thegame so he could support Sams problem solving. Though Pajama Sam is not an educational game, it is replete with the types of problems psychologists study when they study thinking and learning. When he saw how well the game held Sams attention, he wondered what sort of beast a moremature video game might be.
B. Video and computer games, like many other popular, entertaining and addicting kids activities, are lookeddown upon by many parents as time-wasters, andworse, parents think that these games rot the brain. Violent video games are readily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior.Recent content analyses of video games show that as many as 89% of gamescontain some violent content, but there is no form of aggressive content for 70%of popular games. Many scientists and psychologists, like James Paul Gee, findthat video games actually have many benefits - the main one being making kidssmart. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills that theywill need in the future.
C. "Video games change your brain," according to University of Wisconsin psychologist Shawn Green. Video games change the brains physical structure the same way as do learning to read, playing the piano, or navigating using a map. Much like exercise can build muscle, the powerful combination of concentrationand rewarding surges of neurotransmitters like dopamine, which strengthensneural circuits, can build the player’s brain.
D.Video games give your child’s brain a real workout. In many video games, the skills requừed to win involve abstract and high level thinking. These skills are noteven taught at school. Some of the mental skills trained by video games include:following instructions, problem solving, logic, hand-eye coordination, fine motorand spatial skills. Research also suggests that people canlearn iconic, spatial, and visual attention skills fromvideo games. There have been even studies with adultsshowing that experience with video games is related tobetter surgical skills. Jacob Benjamin, doctor from BethIsrael Medical Center NY, found a direct link betweenskill at video gamingand skill at keyhole or laparoscopicsurgery. Also, a reason given by experts as to why fighterpilots of today are more skillful is that this generations pilots are being weanedon video games.
E. The players learn to manage resources that are limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life. In strategy games, for instance,whiledeveloping a city, an unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge. Thisforces the player to be flexible and quickly change tactics. Sometimes the playerdoes this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout.According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier,a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found inbattle or action games could be a training tool for real-world situations. The studysuggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quickdecisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according tothe study. Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You: HowToday's Popular Culture, says gamers must deal with immediate problems whilekeeping their long-term goals on their horizon. Young gamers force themselves toread to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get information from thegame texts.
F. James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science problem.Like students in a laboratory, gamers must come up with a hypothesis. Forexample, players in some games constantly try out combinations of weapons andpowers to use to defeat an enemy. If one does not work, they change hypothesisand try the next one. Video games are goal-driven experiences, says Gee, whichare fundamental to learning. Also, using math skills is important to win in many games that involve quantitative analysis like managing resources. In higher levels of a game, players usually fail the first time around, but they keep on trying untilthey succeed and move on to the next level.
G. Many games are played online and involve cooperation with other online players in order to win. Video and computer games also help children gainself-confidence and many games are based on history, city building, andgovernance and so on. Such games indirectly teach children about aspects of lifeon earth.
H.In an upcoming study in the journal Current Biology, authors Daphne Bavelier, Alexandre Pouget, andC. Shawn Green report that video games could provide a potent training regimen for speeding up reactions in many types of real-life situations. The researchers tested dozens of 18- to 25-year-olds who were not ordinarily video game players. They split the subjectsinto two groups. One group played 50 hours of the fast-paced action video games"Call of Duty 2" and "Unreal Tournament," and the other group played 50 hoursof the slow-moving strategy game "The Sims 2." After this training period, all ofthe subjects were asked to make quick decisions in several tasks designed by theresearchers. The action game players were up to 25 percent faster at coming to aconclusion and answered just as many questions correctly as their strategy gameplaying peers.
Questions 28-31
Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.
28 What is the main purpose of paragraphONE?
A. Introduction of professor James Paul Gee.
B. Introduction of the video game: Pajamas Sam.
C.Introduction of types of video games.
D. Introduction of the background of this passage.
29 What does the author want to express in thesecondparagraph?
A. Video games are widely considered harmful for childrens brain.
B. Most violent video games are the direct reason of juvenile delinquency,
C.Even there is a certain proportion of violence in most video games; scientistsand psychologists see its benefits of childrens intellectual abilities.
D Many parents regard video games as time-wasters, which rot childrens brain.
30 What is correctly mentioned in paragraphfour?
A Some schools use video games to teach students abstract and high level thinking.
B Video games improves the brain ability in various aspects,
CSome surgeons have better skills because they play more video games.
D Skillful fighter pilots in this generation love to paly video games.
31 What is the expectation of the experiment the three researchers did?
A Gamers have to make the best use of the limited resource.
B Gamers with better math skills will win in the end.
CStrategy game players have better ability to make quick decisions.
D Video games help increase the speed of players reaction effectively.
Questions 32-35
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 
32 Most video games are popular because of their violent content.
33 The action game players minimized the percentage of making mistakes in theexperiment.
34 It would be a good idea for schools to apply video games in their classrooms.
35 Those people who are addicted to video games have lots of dopamine in theirbrains.

Questions 36-40
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
A The writers opinion B James Paul Gee CShawn Green
D Daphne Bavelier E Steven Johnson F Jacob Benjamin
36 Video games as other daily life skills alter the brains physical structure.
37 Brain is ready to make decisions without hesitation when players are immersed inplaying stressful games.
38 The purpose-motivated experience that video games offer plays an essential role instudying.
39 Players are good at tackling prompt issues with future intensions.
40 It helps children broaden their horizon in many aspects and gain self-confidence.

Reading Test 30
Section 1
Lie Detector
A.However much we may abhor it, deception comes naturally to all living things. Birds do it byfeigning injury to lead hungry predatorsaway from nesting young. Spider crabs do it bydisguise: adorning themselves with strips of kelpand other debris, they pretend to be something theyare not-and so escape their enemies. Nature amplyrewards successful deceivers by allowing them to survive long enough to mate and reproduce. So it may come as no surprise to learn that human beings-who, according to psychologist Gerald Jellison of the Universityof South California, are lied to about 200 times a day, roughly one untruth every fiveminutesoften deceive for exactly the same reasons: to save their own skins or to getsomething they can't get by other means.
B.But knowing how to catch deceit can be just as important a survival skill as knowing how to tell a lie and get away with it. A person able to spot falsehood quicklyis unlikely to be swindled by an unscrupulous business associate or hoodwinked by adevious spouse. Luckily, nature provides more than enough clues to trap dissemblersin then own tangled webs-if you know where to look. By closely observing facialexpressions, body language and tone of voice, practically anyone can recognize thetelltale signs of lying. Researchers are even programming computers-like those usedon Lie Detector-to get at the truth by analyzing the same physical cues available tothe naked eye and ear. "With the proper training, many people can learn to reliablydetect lies," says Paul Ekman, professor of psychology at the University of California,San Francisco, who has spent the past 15 years studying the secret art ofdeception.
C. In order to know what kind of lies work best, successful liars need to accurately assess other people's emotional states. Ekman's research shows that this sameemotional intelligence is essential for good lie detectors, too. The emotional state towatch out for is stress, the conflict most liars feel between the truth and what theyactually say and do.
D.Even high-tech lie detectors don't detect lies as such; they merely detect the physical cues of emotions, which may or may not correspond to what the personbeing tested is saying. Polygraphs, for instance, measure respiration, heart rate andskin conductivity, which tend to increase when people are nervous as they usuallyare when lying. Nervous people typically perspire, and the salts contained inperspiration conduct electricity. That's why a sudden leap in skin conductivityindicates nervousness about getting caught, perhaps? -- which might, in turn, suggestthat someone is being economical with the truth. On the other hand, it might alsomean that the lights in the television studio are too hot-which is one reason polygraphtests are inadmissible in court. "Good lie detectors don't rely on a single sign," Ekmansays, "but interpret clusters of verbal and nonverbal clues that suggest someone mightbe lying."
E. Those clues are written all over the face. Because the musculatureof the face is directly connected to the areas of the brain that process emotion, the countenance can be a windowto the soul. Neurological studies even suggest thatgenuine emotions travel different pathwaysthrough the brain than insincere ones. If a patientparalyzed by stroke on one side of the face, forexample, is asked to smile deliberately, only themobile side of the mouth is raised. But tell that same person a funny joke, and thepatient breaks into a full and spontaneous smile. Very few people-most notably,actors and politicians-are able to consciously control all of their facial expressions.Lies can often be caught when the liar's true feelings briefly leak through the mask ofdeception. "We don't think before we feel," Ekman says. "Expressions tend to showup on the face before we're even conscious of experiencing an emotion."
F. One of the most difficult facial expressions to fakeor conceal, if it is genuinely feltis sadness. When someone is truly sad, the forehead wrinkleswith grief and the inner comers of the eyebrows are pulled up. Fewer than 15% of the people Ekman tested were able to produce this eyebrow movement voluntarily. By contrast, the lowering ofthe eyebrows associated with an angry scowl can be replicated atwill by almost everybody. "If someone claims they are sad and theinner comers of their eyebrows don't go up," Ekman says, "thesadness is probably false."
G. The smile, on the other hand, is one of the easiest facial expressions to counterfeit. It takes just two muscles-the zygomaticus major muscles that extend from the cheekbones to the comers of the lips-to produce a grin. But there's a catch. A genuine smile affects not only the comers of the lips but also theorbicularis oculi, the muscle around the eye that produces the distinctive "crow's-feet" associated with people who laugh a lot. A counterfeit grin can be unmasked if the lip comers go up, the eyes crinkle but the inner comers of the eyebrows are not lowered,a movement controlled by the orbicularis oculi that is difficult to fake. The absence oflowered eyebrows is one reason why false smiles look so strained and stiff.
Questions 1-5
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 1 All living animals can lie.
2 Some people tell lies for self-preservation.
3 The fact of lying is more important than detecting one.
4 Researchers are using equipment to study which part of the brain is responsiblefor telling lies.
5 To be a good liar, one has to understand other peoples emotions.
Questions 6-9
Choose the correct letter. A, B,cor D.
Write the correct letter in box 6-9 on your answer sheet.
6 How does a lie-detector work?
A It analyzes ones verbal response to a question.
B It records the changes in ones facial expression,
CIt illustrates the reasons about the emotional change when one is tested.
D It monitors several physical reactions in the person undergoing the test.
7 Why couldnt lie detectors be used in a court of law?
A because the nonverbal clues are misleading.
B because there could be other causes of a certain change in the equipment,
Cbecause the lights are too hot.
D because the statistic data on the lie detectors are not accurate.
8 The writer quotes from the paralyzed patients
A to exemplify peoples response to true feelings.
B to show the pathways for patients to recover,
Cto demonstrate the paralyzed patients ability to smile.
D to emphasize that the patient is in a state of stroke.
9 According to the passage, politicians
A can express themselves clearly.
B are good at masking their emotions,
Care conscious of the surroundings.
D can think before action.

Questions 10-13
Classify the following facial traits as referring to
A Happiness
B Anger
CSadness
Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
--------------
10 Lines formed above eyebrows
11 Movement from muscle that orbits the eye
12 Eyebrows down
13 Inner comer of eyebrows raised
Section 2
Leaf-Cutting Ants and Fungus
A. The ants and then agriculture have been extensively studied over the years, butthe recent research has uncoveredintriguing new findings about the fungusthey cultivate, how they domesticated itand how they cultivate it and preserve itfrom pathogens.Forexample, the fungus farms, which the ants were thought to keep free of pathogens, turn out to be vulnerable to a devastating mold, found nowhere else but in ants' nests. Tokeep the mold in check, the ants long ago made a discovery that would do creditto any pharmaceutical laboratory
B. Leaf-cutting ants and then fungus farms are a marvel of nature and perhaps the best known example of symbiosis, the mutual dependence of two species. Theants' achievement is remarkable - the biologist Edward o. Wilson has called it"one of the major breakthroughs in animal evolution" because it allows them toeat, courtesy of their mushroom's digestive powers, the otherwise poisonedharvest of tropical forests whose leaves are laden with terpenoids, alkaloids andother chemicals designed to sicken browsers.
C. Fungus growing seems to have originated only once in evolution, because all gardening ants belong to a single tribe, the descendants of the first fungus farmer.There are more than 200 known species of the attine ant tribe, divided into 12groups, or genera. The leaf-cutters use fresh vegetation; the other groups, knownas the lower attines because their nests are smaller and their techniques moreprimitive, feed their gardens with detritus like dead leaves, insects and feces.
D. The leaf-cutters' fungus was indeed descended from a single strain, propagated clonally, or just by budding, for at least 23 million years. But the lower attine antsused different varieties of the fungus, and in one case a quite separate species, thefour biologists discovered. The pure strain of fungus grown by the leaf-cutters, itseemed to Mr. Currie, resembled the monocultures of various human crops, thatare very productive for a while and then succumb to some disastrous pathogen,such as the Irish potato blight. Monocultures, which lack the genetic diversity torespond to changing environmental threats, are sitting ducks for parasites. Mr.
Currie felt there had to be a parasite in the ant-fungus system. But a century of ant research offered no support for the idea. Textbooks describe how leaf-cutter antsscrupulously weed their gardens of all foreign organisms. "People kept telling me,'You know the ants keep then gardens free of parasites, don't you?'" Mr. Curriesaid of his efforts to find a hidden interloper.
E. But after three years of sifting through attine ant gardens, Mr. Currie discovered they are far from free of infections. In last month's issue of the Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences, he and two colleagues, Dr. Mueller and DavidMairoch, isolated several alien organisms, particularly a family of parasitic moldscalled Escovopsis.
F. Escovopsis turns out to be a highly virulent pathogen that can devastate a fungus garden in a couple of days. It blooms like a white cloud, with the garden dimlyvisible underneath. In a day or two the whole garden is enveloped. "Other antswon't go near it and the ants associated with the garden just starve to death," Dr.Rehner said. "They just seem to give up, except for those that have rescued theirlarvae." The deadly mold then turns greenish-brown as it enters its spore-formingstage.
G. Evidently the ants usually manage to keep Escovopsis and other parasites under control. But with any lapse in control, or if the ants are removed, Escovopsis will quickly burst forth. Although new leaf-cutter gardens start off free of Escovopsis, within two years some 60 percent become infected. The discovery of Escovopsis's role brings a new level of understanding to the evolution of the attine ants. "In the last decade, evolutionary biologists have been increasingly aware of the role of parasites as driving forces in evolution," Dr. Schultz said. There is now a possible reason to explain why the lower attine species keep changing the variety of fungus in their mushroom gardens, and occasionally domesticating new ones to stay one step ahead of the relentless Escovopsis.
H.Interestingly, Mr. Currie found that the leaf-cutters had in general fewer alien molds in their gardens than the lower attines, yet they had more Escovopsisinfections. It seems that the price they pay for cultivating a pure variety of fungusis a higher risk from Escovopsis. But the leaf-cutters may have little alternative:they cultivate a special variety of fungus which, unlike those grown by the lowerattines, produces nutritious swollen tips for the ants to eat.
I. Discovery of a third partner in the ant-fungus symbiosis raises the question of how the attine ants,especially the leaf-cutters, keep this dangerousinterloper under control. Amazingly enough, Mr.Currie has again provided the answer. "People haveknown for a hundred years that ants have a whitishgrowth on the cuticle," said Dr. Mueller, referring tothe insects' body surface. "People would say this islike a cuticular wax. But Cameron was the first one in a hundred years to put thesethings under a microscope. He saw it was not inert wax. It is alive." Mr. Curriediscovered a specialized patch on the ants' cuticle that harbors a particular kind ofbacterium, one well known to the pharmaceutical industry, because it is the sourceof half the antibiotics used in medicine. From each of 22 species of attine antstudied, Mr. Cameron and colleagues isolated a species of Streptomycesbacterium, they reported in Nature in April. The Streptomyces does not have mucheffect on ordinary laboratory funguses. But it is a potent poisoner of Escovopsis,inhibiting its growth and suppressing spore formation. It also stimulates growth ofthe ants' mushroom fungus. The bacterium is carried by virgin queens when theyleave to establish new nests, but is not found on male ants, playboys who take noresponsibility in nest-making or gardening.
J. Because both the leaf-cutters and the lower attines use Streptomyces, the bacterium may have been part of their symbiosis for almost as long as theEscovopsis mold. If so, some Alexander Fleming of an ant discovered antibioticsmillions of years before people did. Even now, the ants are accomplishing twofeats beyond the powers of human technology. The leaf-cutters are growing amonocultural crop year after year without disaster, and they are using an antibioticapparently so wisely and prudently that, unlike people, they are not provokingantibiotic resistance in the target pathogen.
Questions 14-19

Use the information in the passage to match the options (listed A-C) with activities or features of ants below. Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 14-19 on youranswer sheet.

NB: you may use any letter more than once
14 Build small nests and live with different foreign fungus.
15 Use toxic leaves to feed funguso
16 Raise fungus which don't live with other foreingers.
17 Use substance to fight against escovopsis.
18 Use dead vegetable to feed fungus.
19 Are free of parasites explained previously.

Questions 20-24
The reading Passage has ten paragraphsA-J.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-J,in boxes20-24on your answer sheet.
20 Dangerous outcome of Escovopsis.
21 Disadvantage of growing single fungus.
22 Comparison of features of two different nests.
23 Two achievements made by ants earlier than human.
24 Advantage of growing new breed of fungus.
Questions 25-26

Choose the correct letter,A,B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 25-26 on your answer sheet.
25 How does author think ofCurrie'sopinion?
A. his viewpoint was verified later.
B. earlier study has sufficient evidence,
C.no details mentioned in article.
D his opinion was proved to be wrong.
26 What did scientists find on the skin of ants under microscope?
A. some white cloud mold embed in their skin
B. that Wax is all over their skin,
C.a substance which is useful to humans.
D. a substance which suppresses growth of fungus.
Section3
Save Endangered Language
"Obviously we must do some serious rethinking of our priorities, lest linguistics go down in history as the only science that presided obviously over the disappearance of90 percent of the very field to which It is dedicated."-Michael Krauss, The WorldsLanguages in Crisis"
A. Ten years ago Michael Krauss sent a shudder through the discipline of linguistics with his prediction that half the 6,000 or so languagesspoken in the world would cease to be uttered within a century. Unless scientists and community leaders directed a worldwide effort to stabilize the decline of local languages, he warned, nine tenths of the linguistic diversity of humankind would probably be doomed to extinction. Krausss prediction was little more than an educated guess, but other respected linguists had been clanging out similar alarms. Keneth L. Hale of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology noted in the same journal issue that eight languages on which he bad done fieldwork had since passed into extinction. A 1990 survey in Australia found that 70 of the 90 surviving Aboriginal languages were no longer used regularly by all age groups. The same was true for all but 20 of the 175 Native American languages spoken or remembered in the US., Krauss told a congressional panel in 1992.
B. Many experts in the field mourn the loss of rare languages, for several reasons. To start, there is scientific self-interest; some of the most basic questions inlinguistics have to do with the limits of human speech, which are far from fullyexplored. Many researchers would like to know which structural elements ofgrammar and vocabularyif anyare truly universal and probably thereforehardwired into the human brain. Other scientists try to reconstruct ancientmigration patterns by comparing borrowed words that appear in otherwiseunrelated  languages, in each of these cases, the wider the portfolio of languagesyou study, the more likely you are to get the rightanswers.
C. Despite the near constant buzz in linguistics about endangered languages over the past 10 years, the field has accomplished depressingly little. You would thinkthat there would be some organized response to this dire situation some attemptto determine which language can be saved and which should be documentedbefore they disappear, says Sarah G. Thomason, a linguist at the University of Michigan atAnn Arbor. But there isnt any such effort organized in the profession. It is only recently that it has become fashionable enough to work onendangered languages. Six years ago, recalls Douglas H. Whalen of YaleUniversity, when I asked linguists who was raising money to deal with theseproblems, I mostly got blank stares. So Whalen and a few other linguists foundedthe Endangered Languages Fund. In the five years to 2001 they were able tocollect only $80,000 for research grants. A similar foundation in England, directedby Nicholas Ostler, has raised just $8,000 since 1995.
D. But there are encouraging signs that the field has turned a comer. The Volkswagen Foundation, a German charity, just issued its second round of grantstotaling more than $2 million. It has created a multimedia archive at the MaxPlanck Institute for Psycholinguistics in theNetherlands that can house recordings,grammars, dictionaries and other data on endangered languages. To fill the archive, the foundation has dispatched field linguists to  document Aweti (100 or so speakers in Brazil), Ega (about 300speakers in Ivory Coast), Waimaa (a few hundred speakers in East Timor), and adozen or so other languages unlikely to survive the century. The Ford Foundationhas also edged into the arena. Its contributions helped to reinvigorate amaster-apprentice program created in 1992 by Leanne Hinton of Berkeley andNative Americans worried about the imminent demise of about 50 indigenouslanguages in California. Fluent speakers receive $3,000 to teach a younger relative(who is also paid) their native tongue through 360 hours of shared activities,spread over six months. So far about 5 teams have completed the program, Hintonsays, transmitting at least some knowledge of 25 languages. Its too early to callthis language revitalization, Hinton admits. In California the death rate ofelderly speakers will always be greater than the recruitment rate of youngspeakers. But at least we prolong the survival of the language. That will givelinguists more time to record these tongues before they vanish.
E. But the master-apprentice approach hasnt caught on outside the U.S., and Hintons effort is a drop in the sea. At least 440 languages have been reduced to amere handful of elders, according to the Ethnologue, a catalogue of languagesproduced by the Dallas-based group SIL International that comes closest to globalcoverage. For the vast majority of these languages, there is little or no record oftheir grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or use in daily life. Even if a languagehas been fully documented, all that remains once it vanishes from active use is afossil skeleton, a scattering of features that the scientist was lucky and astuteenough to capture. Linguists may be able to sketch an outline of the forgottenlanguage and fix its place on the evolutionary tree, but little more. How didpeople start conversations and talk to babies? How did husbands and wivesconverse? Hinton asks. Those are the first things you want to learn when you want to revitalize the language.
F. But there is as yet no discipline of conservation linguistics, as there is for biology. Almost every strategy tried so far has succeeded in some places but failedin others, and there seems to be no way to predict with certainty what will workwhere. Twenty years ago in New Zealand, Maori speakers set up languagenests, in which preschoolers were immersed in the native language. AdditionalMaori-only classes were added as the children progressed through elementary andsecondary school. A similar approach was tried in Hawaii, with somesuccessthe number of native speakers has stabilized at1,000 or so, reports Joseph E. Grimes of SIL International,who is working on Oahu. Students can now get instruction inHawaiian all the way through university.
GOne factor that always seems to occur in the demise of a language is that the speakers begin to have collective doubts about the usefulness of language loyalty. Once they start regarding their own language as inferior to themajority language, people stop using it for all situations. Kids pick up on theattitude and prefer the dominant language. In many cases, people dont noticeuntil they suddenly realize that their kids never speak the language, even at home.This is how Cornish and some dialects of Scottish Gaelic is still only rarely usedfor daily home life in Ireland, 80 years after the republic was founded with Irish asits first official language.
H.Linguists agree that ultimately, the answer to the problem of language extinction is multilingualism. Even uneducated people can learn several languages, as longas they start as children. Indeed, most people in the world speak more than onetongue, and in places such as Cameroon (279 languages), Papua New Guinea(823) and India (387) it is common to speak three or four distinct languages and adialect or two as well. Most Americans and Canadians, to the west of Quebec,have a gut reaction that anyone speaking another language in front of them iscommitting an immoral act. You get the same reaction in Australia and Russia. Itis no coincidence that these are the areas where languages are disappearing thefastest. The first step in saving dying languages is to persuade the worldsmajorities to allow the minorities among them to speak with theft own voices.
Questions 27-33
The reading passage has eight paragraphs, A-H
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list below.
Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i data consistency needed for language
iiconsensus on an initiative recommendation for saving dying out languages
iii positive gains for protection
iv minimum requirement for saving a language
v Potential threat to minority language
vi a period when there was absent of real effort made.
viinative language programs launched
viiiLack in confidence in young speakers as a negative factor
ix Practise in several developing countries
x Value of minority language to linguists.xigovernment participation in language field
--------------- 27 Paragraph A
28 Paragraph B
Example:ParagraphC vi
29 Paragraph D
30 Paragraph E
31 Paragraph F
32 Paragraph G
33 Paragraph H
Questions 34-38

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 34-38 on your answer sheet.
A Nicholas Ostler
B Michael Krauss
CJoseph E. Grimes
D Sarah G. Thomason
E Keneth L. Hale
F Douglas H. Whalen
----------------
34 Reported language conservation practice in Hawaii
35 Predicted that many languages would disappear soon
36 Experienced process that languages die out personally
37 Raised language fund in England
38 Not enough effort on saving until recent work

Questions 39-40
Choose the correct letter, A,B, corD.
Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.
39 What is real result ofmaster-apprentice programsponsored byThe Ford Foundation?
A Teach children how to speak
BRevive some endangered languages in California
Cpostpone the dying date for some endangered languages
DIncrease communication between students
40 What should majority language speakers do according to thelast paragraph?
A They should teach their children endangered language in free lessons
BThey should learn at least four languages
CThey should show their loyalty to a dying language
DThey should be more tolerant to minority language speaker

Reading Test 31
Section 1
Food forthought 2
A. There are not enough classrooms at the Msekeni primary school, so half the lessons take place in the shade of yellow-blossomed acacia trees. Given this shortage, it might seem odd that one of the school's purpose-built classrooms has been emptied of pupils and turned into a storeroom for sacks of grain. But it makes sense. Food matters more than shelter.
B. Msekeni is in one of the poorer parts of Malawi, a landlocked southern African country of exceptional beauty and great poverty. No war layswaste Malawi, nor is the land unusually crowded or infertile, butMalawians still have trouble finding enough to eat. Half of the childrenunder five are underfed to the point of stunting. Hunger blights mostaspects of Malawian life, so the country is as good a place as any toinvestigate how nutrition affects development, and vice versa.
C. The headmaster at Msekeni, Bernard Kumanda, has strong views on the subject. He thinks food is a priceless teaching aid. Since1999, his pupils have received free school lunches. Donors such as the World Food Programme (WFP) provide the food: those sacks of grain (mostly mixedmaize and soyabean flour, enriched with vitamin A) inthat converted classroom. Local volunteers do thecookingturning the dry ingredients into a bland butnutritious slop, and spooning it out on to plastic plates. The children line up in large crowds, cheerfully singing a song called "We are getting porridge".
D. When the school's feeding programme was introduced, enrolment at Msekeni doubled. Some of the new pupils had switched from nearbyschools that did not give out free porridge, but most were children whosefamilies had previously kept them at home to work. These families were so pool that the long-term benefits of education seemed unattractive when set against the short-term gain of sending children out to gather firewood orhelp in the fields. One plate of porridge a day completely altered thecalculation A child fed at school will not howl so plaintively for food athome. Girls, who are more likely than boys to bekept out of school, are given extra snacks to takehome.
E. When a school takes in a horde of extra students from the poorest homes, you would expect standards to drop. Anywhere in the world, poor kids tend to perform worse than their better-off classmates.When the influx of new pupils is not accompanied by any increase in thenumber of teachers, as was the case at Msekeni, you would expectstandards to fall even further. But they have not Pass rates at Msekenlimproved dramatically, from 30% to 65%. Although this was an exceptionalexample, the nationwide results of school feeding programmes were stillpretty good. On average, after a Malawian school started handing out freefood it attracted 38% more girls and 24% more boys. The pass rate for boysstayed about die same, while for girls it improved by93%.
F. Better nutrition makes for brighter children. Most immediately, well-fed children find it easier to concentrate. It is hard to focus the mind on longdivision when your stomach is screaming for food. Mr Kumanda says thatit used to be easy to spot the kids who were really undernourished. "Theywere the ones who stared into space and didn?t respond when you askedthem questions," he says. More crucially, though, more and better foodhelps brains grow and develop. Like any other organ in the body, the brainneeds nutrition and exercise. But if it is starved of the necessary calories,proteins and micronutrients. It Is stunted, perhaps not as severely as amuscle would be, but stunted nonetheless. That is why feeding children atschools works so well. And the fact that the effect of feeding was morepronounced on girls than on boys gives a clue to who eats first In ruralMalawian households. It isn't the girls.
G. On a global scale, the good news Is that people are eating better than ever before. Homo sapiens has grown 50% bigger since the industrial revolution. Three centuries ago, chronic malnutrition was more or less universal. Now, it Is extremely rare in rich countries. In developing countries, where most people live, plates and rice bowls are also fuller than ever before. The proportion of children under five in the developing world who are malnourished to the point of stunting fell from 39% in 1990 to 30% in 2000, says the World Health Organisation (WHO). In other places, the battle against hunger is steadily being won. Better nutrition is making people cleverer and more energetic, which will help them grow more prosperous. And when they eventually join the ranks of the well off, theycan start fretting about growing too fat.
Questions 1-7

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-G from the list below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Why better food helps students learning
ii A song for getting porridge
iii Surprising use of school premises
iv Global perspective
V Brains can be starved
vi Surprising academics outcome
vii Girls are specially treated in the program
viii How food program is operated
ix How food program affects school attendanceXNone of the usual reasons
xi How to maintain academic standard
---------------------------------
1 Paragraph A
2 Paragraph B
3Paragraphc
4 Paragraph D
5 Paragraph E
6 Paragraph F
7 Paragraph G
Questions 8-11
Complete the sentences below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage?
Write your answers in boxes 8-11 on your answer sheet
8 _______are exclusively offered to girls in the feeding programme.
9 Instead of going to school, many children in poverty are sent to collect _______in the fields.
10 The pass rate at Msekeni has risen to ______with the help of the feeding programme.
11 Since the industrial revolution, the size of the modern human has grown by_______

Questions 12-13
Choose TWO letters, A-F.
Write your answers in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following statements are true?
A Some children are taught in the open air.
B Malawi have trouble to feed its large population.
C. No new staffs were recruited when attendance rose.
D Girls enjoy a higher status than boys in thefamily
E Boys and girls experience the same improvement in the pass rate.
F WHO has cooperated with WFP to provide grain to the school at Msekeni.

Section 2
Savingthe British Bitterns
A. Breeding bitterns became extinct in the UK by 1886 but, following re-colonisation early last century, numbers rose to a peak of about 70 booming (singing) males in the 1950s, falling to fewer than 20 by the 1990s. In the late 1980s it was clear that the bittern was in trouble, but there was little information on which to base recovery actions.
B. Bitterns have cryptic plumage and a shy nature, usually remaining hidden within the cover of reedbed vegetation. Our firstchallenge was to develop standard methods tomonitor their numbers. The boom of the malebittern is its most distinctive feature during thebreeding season, and we developed a method tocount them using the sound patterns unique to eachindividual. This not only allowsUSto be much morecertain of the number of booming males in the UK,but also enables us to estimate local survival of males from one year to thenext.
C. Our first direct understanding of the habitat needs of breeding bitterns came from comparisons of reedbedsites that had lost their booming birdswith those that retained them. This research showed that bitterns had beenretained in reedbeds where the natural process of succession, or dryingout, had been slowed through management. Based on this work, broad recommendations on how to manage and rehabilitate reedbeds for bitterns weremade, and funding was provided throughthe EU LIFE Fund to manage 13 sites withinthe core breeding range. This project, thoughled by the RSPB, involved many other organisations.
D.To refine these recommendations and provide fine-scale, quantitative habitat prescriptions on the bitterns' preferred feeding habitat, weradio-tracked male bitterns on the RSPB's Minsmere and Leighton Moss reserves. This showed clear preferences for feeding in the wetter reedbed margins, particularly within the reedbed next to larger open pools. Theaverage home range sizes of the male bitterns we followed (about 20hectares) provided a good indication of the area of reedbed needed whenmanaging or creating habitat for this species. Female bitterns undertake allthe incubation and care of the young, so it was important to understandthen needs as well. Over the course of our research, we located 87 bitternnests and found that female bitterns preferred to nest in areas ofcontinuous vegetation, well into the reedbed, but where water was stillpresent during the driest part of the breeding season.
E. The success of the habitat prescriptions developed from this research has been spectacular. For instance, at Minsmere, booming bittern numbersgradually increased from one to 10 following reedbed lowering, amanagement technique designed to halt the drying out process. After alow point of 11 booming males in 1997, bittern numbers in Britainresponded to all the habitat management work and started to increase forthe first time since the 1950s.
F. The final phase of research involved understanding the diet, survival and dispersal of bittern chicks. To do this we fitted small radio tags to young bittern chicks in the nest, to determine their fate through to fledgingand beyond. Many chicks did not survive to fledging and starvation was found to be the most likely reason for their demise. The fish prey fed to chicks was dominated by those species penetrating into the reed edge. So, an important element of recent studies (including a PhD with the University of Hull) has been the development of recommendations on habitat and water conditions to promote healthynative fish populations.
G. Once independent, radio-tagged young bitterns were found to seek out new sites during their first winter; a proportion of these would remain onnew sites to breed if the conditions were suitable. A second EU LIFEfunded project aims to provide these suitable sites in new areas. Anetwork of 19 sites developed through this partnership project will securea more sustainable UK bittern population with successful breeding outsideof the core area, less vulnerable to chance events and sea level rise.
H.By 2004, the number of booming male bitterns in the UK had increased to 55, with almost all of the increase being on those sites undertakingmanagement based on advice derived from our research. Although science has been at the core of the bittern story, success has only been achieved through the trust, hard work and dedication of all the managers, owners and wardens of sites that have implemented, in some cases very drastic, management to secure the future of this wetland species in the UK. The constructed bunds and five majorsluicesnow control the water level over 82 ha, with a further 50 ha coming under control in the winter of 2005/06. Reed establishment has principally used natural regeneration or planted seedlings to provide small core areas that will in time expand to create a bigger reed area. To date nearly 275,000 seedlings have been planted and reed cover is extensive. Over 3 km of new ditches have been formed, 3.7 km of existing ditch have been re-profiled and 2.2 km of old meander (former estuarine features) have been cleaned out.
I. Bitterns now regularly winter on the site with some indication that they are staying longer into the spring. No breeding has yet occurred but abooming male was present in thespring of 2004. A range ofwildfowl breed, as well as a good numberof reedbed passerines including reedbunting, reed, sedge and grasshopperwarblers. Numbers of winteringshoveler have increased so that the sitenow holds a UK important wintering population. Malltraeth Reserve nowforms part of the UK network of key sites for water vole (a UK priorityspecies) and 12 monitoring transectshave been established.Otter and brown-hare occur on the site as does the rare plant, pillwort.
Questions14-20

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-H
List of Headings
i research findings into habitats and decisions made
iifluctuation in bittern number
iii protect the young bittern
iv international cooperation works
v Began in calculation of the number
viimportance of food
viiResearch has been successful.
viiiresearch into the reedbed
ixreserve established holding bittern in winter
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-Hfrom the list below. Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16ParagraphC
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph F
19 Paragraph G
20 Paragraph H
Questions 21-26

Answer the questions below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.
21 When did the bird of bitten reach its peak of number?
22 What does the author describe the bittern's character?
23 What is the main cause for the chick bittern's death?
24 What is the main food for chick bittern?
25 What system does it secure the stability for bittern's population?
26 Besides bittern and rare vegetation, what mammaldoes the protection plan benefit?
Questions 27
Choose the correct letter, A, B,Cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 27 on your answer sheet.
27 What is the main purpose of this passage?
A Main characteristic of a bird called bittern.
B Cooperation can protect an endangered species,
CThe difficulty of access information of bittern's habitat and diet.
D To save wetland and reedbed in UK.

Section 3
E- training
A. E-leaming is the unifying term to describe the fields of online learning, web-based training, and technology-delivered instruction, which can be a great benefit to corporate e-learning. IBM, for instance, claims that the institution of its e-training program, Basic Blue, whose purpose is to train new managers, saved the company in the range of $200 million in 1999. Cutting the travel expenses required to bring employees and instructors to a central classroom accounts for the lion's share of the savings. With an online course, employees can learn from any Internet-connected PC, anywhere in the world. Ernst and Young reduced training costs by 35 percent while improving consistency and scalability.
B. In addition to generally positive economic benefits, other advantages such as convenience, standardized delivery, self-paced learning, and variety ofavailable content, have made e-learning a high priority for manycorporations. E-learning is widely believed to offer flexible "any time, any place" learning. The claim for "any place" is valid in principle and is a great development.Many people can engage with rich learningmaterials that simply were not possible in apaper or broadcast distance learning era. Forteaching specific information and skills,e-training holds great promise. It can be especially effective at helpingemployees prepare for IT certification programs. E-learning also seems toeffectively addresstopicssuchassexualharassmenteducation, safety training and management training all areas where a clear set of objectives can be identified. Ultimately, training experts recommend a"blended" approach that combines both online and in-person framing asthe instruction requires. E-learning is not an end-all solution. But if ithelps decrease costs and windowless classrooms filled with snoringstudents, it definitely has its advantages.
C. Much of the discussion about implementing e-learning has focused on the technology, but as Driscoll and others have reminded us, e-learning is notjust about the technology, but also many human factors. As any capablemanager knows, teaching employees new skills is critical to a smoothlyrun business. Having said that, however, the traditional route ofclassroom instruction runs the risk of being expensive, slow and, oftentimes, ineffective. Perhaps the classroom's greatest disadvantage is the fact that it takes employees out of their jobs. Every minute an employee is sitting in aclassroom training session is a minute they'renot out on the floor working. It now looks as ifthere is a way to circumventthese traditional training drawbacks. E-training promises more effective teaching techniquesby integrating audio, video, animation, textand interactive materials with the intent ofteaching each student at his or her own pace.In addition to higher performance results,there are other immediate benefits to studentssuch as increased time on task, higher levels of motivation, and reducedtest anxiety for many learners. A California State University Northridgestudy reported that e-learners performed 20 percent better thantraditional learners. Nelson reported a significant difference between themean grades of 406 university students earned in traditional and distanceeducation classes, where the distance learners outperformed thetraditional learners.
D. On the other hand, nobody said E-training technology would be cheap. E-training service providers, on the average, charge from $10,000 to$60,000 to develop one hour of online instruction. This price variesdepending on the complexity of the training topic and the media used.HTML pagesarealittle cheaper to develop while streaming-video presentationsor flash animations cost more. Course content is just the starting place for cost. A complete e-learning solution also includes the technology platform (the computers,applications and network connections that are used to deliver the courses).This technology platform, known as a learning management system(LMS), can either be installed onsite or outsourced. Add to that cost thenecessary investments in network bandwidthto deliver multimedia courses, and you're left holding one heck of a bill. For the LMS infrastructure and a dozen or so online courses, costs can top$500,000 in the first year. These kinds of costs mean that custom e-trainingis, for the time being, an option only for large organizations. For thosecompanies that have a large enough staff, the e-training concept pays for itself. Aware of this fact, large companies are investing heavily in online training. Today, over half of the 400-plus courses that Rockwell Collinsoffers are delivered instantly to its clients in an e-learning format/ achange that has reduced its annualtraining costs by 40%. Many other success stories exist
E. E-learning isn't expected to replace the classroom entirely. For one thing, bandwidth limitations are still an Issue in presenting multimedia over the Internet Futhermore, e-training isn't suited to every mode of instruction or topic. For instance,it's rather ineffective impasting cultural valuesor building teams. If your company has a uniquecorporate culture it would be difficult to conveythat to first time employees through a computermonitor. Group training sessions are more idealfor these purposes. In addition, there is a perceivedlossof research time because of the work involved in developing and teaching online classes. Professor Wallin estimated that It required between 500and 1000 person-hours, that is, Wallin-hours, to keep the course at theappropriate level of currency and usefulness, (Distance learninginstructors often need technical skills, no matter how advanced thecourseware system.) That amounts to between a quarter and half of aperson-year. Finally, teaching materials require computer literacy and access to equipment Any e-Learning system Involves basic equipment and a minimum level of computer knowledge in order toperform the tasks required by the system. A student that does not possessthese skills, or have access to these tools, cannot succeed in an e-Learningprogram.
F. While few people debate the obvious advantages of e-learning, systematic research is needed to confirm that learners areactually acquiring and using -the skills that arebeing taught online, and that e-learning is the best way to achieve the outcomes in a corporate environment. Nowadays, a go-between style of theBlended learning,which refers to a mixing ofdifferent learning environments, is gaining popularity. It combinestraditional face-to-face classroom methods with more modemcomputer-mediated activities. According to its proponents, the strategycreates a more integratedapproachforboth instructors and learners. Formerly, technology-based materials played a supporting role to face-to-face instruction. Through a blended learning approach,technology will be more important
Questions 28-33

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-F.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list below. Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i overview of the benefits for the application of E-training
ii IBM's successful choice of training
iii Future direction and a new style of teaching
iv learners' achievement and advanced teaching materials
v limitations when E-training compares with traditional class
vi multimedia over the Internet can be a solution
vii technology can be a huge financial burden
viii the distance learners outperformed the traditional university learners in worldwide
ix other advantages besides economic consideration
x Training offered to help people learn using computers

----------
28 Paragraph A
29 Paragraph B
30 Paragraphc
31 Paragraph D
32 Paragraph E
33 Paragraph F
Questions 34-37

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-F,in boxes35-37on your answer sheet.
34Projected Basic Blue in IBM achieved a great success.
35 E-learning wins as a priority for many corporations as its flexibility.
36The combination of the traditional and c-training environments may prevail.
37Example of a fast electronic delivery for a companys products to its customers.

Questions 38-40
ChooseThreecorrect letters, among A-E
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
A. Technical facilities are hardly obtained.
B.Presenting multimedia over the Internet is restricted due to the bandwidth limit,
C.It is ineffective imparting a unique corporate value to fresh employees.
D.Employees need block a long time leaving their position attending training.
E. More preparation time is needed to keep the course at the suitable level.

Reading Test 32
Section 1
Animal minds: Parrot Alex
A. In 1977 Irene Pepperberg, a recent graduate of Harvard University, did something verybold. At a time when animals still wereconsidered automatons, she set out to findwhat was on another creature's mind bytalking to it. She brought a one-year-oldAfrican gray parrot she named Alex into herlab to teach him to reproduce the sounds of the English language. "I thought if he learned to communicate,Icould ask him questions about how he sees the world."
B. When Pepperberg began her dialogue with Alex, who died last September at the age of 31, many scientists believed animals wereincapable of any thought. They were simply machines,robots programmed to react to stimuli but lacking theability to think or feel. Any pet owner would disagree. Wesee the love in our dogs' eyes and know that, of course, theyhas thoughts and emotions. But such claims remain highlycontroversial. Gut instinct is not science, and it is all tooeasy to project human thoughts and feelings onto anothercreature. How, then, does a scientist prove that an animal iscapable of thinkingthat it is able to acquire informationabout the world and act on it? "That's why I started mystudies with Aex," Pepperberg said. They were seatedsheat her desk, he on top of his cagein her lab, a windowlessroom about the size of a boxcar, at Brandeis University. Newspapers linedthe floor; baskets of bright toys were stacked on the shelves. They wereclearly a teamand because of their work, the notion that animals canthink is no longer so fanciful.
C. Certain skills are considered key signs of higher mental abilities: good memory, a grasp of grammar and symbols, self-awareness, understanding others' motives, imitating others, and being creative. Bit by bit, in ingenious experiments, researchers have documented these talents inother species, gradually chipping away at what we thought made humanbeings distinctive while offering a glimpse of where our own abilitiescame from. Scrub jays know that other jays are thieves and that stashedfood can spoil; sheep can recognize faces; chimpanzees use a variety oftools to probe termite mounds and even use weapons to hunt smallmammals; dolphins can imitate human postures; the archerfish, whichstuns insects with a sudden blast of water, can learn how to aim its squirtsimply by watching an experienced fish perform the task. And Alex theparrot turned out to be a surprisingly good talker.
D.Thirty years after the Alex studies began; Pepperberg and a changing collection of assistants were still giving him English lessons. The humans,along with two younger parrots, also served as Alex's flock, providing thesocial input all parrots crave. Like anyflock, this one as small as it washad itsshare of drama. Alex dominated hisfellow parrots, acted huffy at timesaround Pepperberg, tolerated the otherfemale humans, and fell to pieces over amale assistant who dropped by for a visit. Pepperberg bought Alex in a Chicago pet store where she let the store's assistant pick him out because she didn't want other scientists saying laterthat she'd particularly chosen an especially smart bird for her work. Giventhat Alex's brain was the size of a shelled walnut, most researchersthought Pepperberg's interspecies communication study would be futile.
E. "Some people actually called me crazy for trying this," she said. "Scientists thought that chimpanzees were better subjects, although, of course, chimps can't speak." Chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas have been taught touse sign language and symbols tocommunicate withUS,often withimpressive results. The bonobo Kanzi, forinstance,carrieshis symbol-communication board with him so he can "talk" to his human researchers, and he has inventedcombinations of symbols to express his thoughts. Nevertheless, this is notthe same thing as having an animal look up at you, open his mouth, andspeak. Under Pepperberg's patient tutelage, Alex learned how to use hisvocal tract to imitate almost one hundred English words, including thesounds for various foods, although he calls an apple a "banerry." "Applestaste a little bit like bananas to him, and they look a little bit like cherries, so Alex made up that word for them," Pepperberg said.
F. It sounded a bit mad, the idea of a bừd having lessons to practice, and willingly doing it. But after listening to and observing Alex, it wasdifficult to argue with Pepperberg's explanation for his behaviors. Shewasn't handing him treats for the repetitious work or rapping him on theclaws to make him say the sounds. "He has to hear the words over andover before he can correctly imitate them," Pepperberg said, afterpronouncing "seven" for Alex a good dozen times in a row. "I'm not tryingto see if Alex can learn a human language," she added. "That's never beenthe point. My plan always was to use his imitative skills to get a betterunderstanding of avian cognition."
G. In other words, because Alex was able to produce a close approximation of the sounds of some English words, Pepperberg could ask himquestions about a bird's basic understanding of the world. She couldn'task him what he was thinking about, but she could ask him about hisknowledge of numbers, shapes, and colors. To demonstrate, Pepperbergcarried Alex on her arm to a tall wooden perch in the middle of the room.She then retrieved a green key and a small green cup from a basket on ashelf. She held up the two items to Alex's eye. "What's same?" she asked.Without hesitation, Alex's beak opened: "Color." "What's different?"Pepperberg asked. "Shape," Alex said. His voicehad the digitized sound of a cartoon character. Since parrots lack lips (another reason it was difficult for Alex to pronounce some sounds,such as ba), the words seemed to come from theair around him, as if a ventriloquist were speaking. But the wordsand what can only be called the thoughtswere entirely his.
H.For the next 20 minutes, Alex ran through his tests, distinguishing colors, shapes, sizes, and materials (wool versus wood versus metal). He didsome simple arithmetic, such as counting the yellow toy blocks among apile of mixed hues. And, then, as if to offer final proof of the mind insidehis bird's brain, Alex spoke up. "Talk clearly!" he commanded, when oneof the younger birds Pepperberg was also teaching talked with wrongpronunciation. "Talk clearly!" "Don't be a smart aleck," Pepperberg said,shaking her head at him. "He knows all this, and he gets bored, so heinterrupts the others, or he gives the wrong answer just to be obstinate.At this stage, he's like a teenager; he's moody, and I'm never sure whathe'll do."
Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?In boxes1-6on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true FALSE if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 1 Firstly,Alexhas grasped quite a lot of vocabulary.
2 At the beginning of study,Alexfelt frightened in the presence of humans.
3 Previously, many scientists realized that animals possess the ability of thinking.
4 It has taken a long time before people get to know cognition existing in animals.
5 AsAlexcould approximately imitate the sounds of English words, he was capable J of roughly answering Irenes questions regarding the world.
6 By breaking in other parrots as well as producing the incorrect answers, he tried to be focused.
Questions 7-10
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading
Passage, usingno more than three wordsfrom the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes7-10on your answer sheet.
After the framing of Irene, Parrot Alex can use his vocal tract to pronounce more than____7_____, while other scientists believe that animals have no this advanced ability of thinking, they would rather teach_____8____. Pepperbergclarifiedthatshewantedto conduct a study concerning_____9____but not to teach him to talk. The store's assistant picked out a bird at random for her for the sake of avoiding other scientists saying that the bird is ____10_____afterwards.
Questions 11-13
Answer the questions 11-13 below.
ChooseNO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBERfrom the passage for each answer.
11. What did Alex reply regarding the similarity of the subjects showed tohim?
12. What is the problem of the young parrots except Alex?
13. To some extent, through the way he behaved what we can call him?

Section 2
stealth Forces in weight Loss
The field of weight loss is like the ancient fable about the blind men and the elephant. Each man investigates a different part of the animal and reports back, only todiscover their findings are bafflingly incompatible.
A. The various findings by public-health experts, physicians, psychologists, geneticists, molecularbiologists, and nutritionists are about as similar as anelephant's tusk is to its tail Some say obesity is largely predetermined by our genes and biology; others attribute it to an overabundance of fries, soda, and screen-sucking; still others think we're fatbecause of viral infection, insulin, or the metabolic conditions we encountered in the womb. "Everyone subscribes to their own little theory," says Robert Berkowitz,medical director of the Center for Weightand Eating Disorders at the University ofPennsylvania School of Medicine. We'reprogrammed to hang onto the fat we have, andsome people are predisposed to create and carrymore fat than others. Diet and exercise help, but inthe end the solution will inevitably be more complicated than pushing awaythe plate and going for a walk. "It's not as simple as 'You're fat because you'relazy,'" says Nikhil Dhurandhar, an associate professor at PenningtonBiomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge. "Willpower is not a prerogativeof thin people. It's distributed equally."
B. Science may still be years away from givingUSa miracle formula for fat-loss. hormone leptin is a crucial player in the brain's weight-management circuitrySome people produce too little leptin; others become desensitized to it. Andwhen obese people lose weight, their leptin levels plummet along with theirmetabolism. The body becomes more efficient at using fuel and conservingfat, which makes it tough to keep the weight off. Obese dieters' bodies go intoa state of chronic hunger, a feeling Rudolph Leibel, an obesity researcher atColumbia University, compares to thirst. "Some people might be able to tolerate chronic thirst, but the majority couldn't stand it," says Leibel "Is that a behavioral problema lack of willpower? I don't think so."
C. The government has tong espoused moderate daily exerciseof the evening-walk or take-the-stairs varietybut that may not do much to budgethe needle on the scale. A 150-pound person burns only 150 calories on ahalf-hour walk, the equivalent of two apples. It's good for the heart, less so forthe gut "Radical changes are necessary," saysDeirdre Barrett, a psychologist at Harvard MedicalSchool and author of Waistland "People don't loseweight by choosing the small fries or taking a littlewalk every other day." Barrett suggests taking a cuefrom the members of the National Weight ControlRegistry (NWCR), a self-selected group of more than 5,000 successfulweight-losers who have shed an average of 66 pounds and kept it off 5.5 years.Some registry members lost weight using tow-carb diets; some went low-fat;others eliminated refined foods. Some did it on their own; others relied oncounseling. That said, not everyone can lose 66 pounds and not everyoneneeds to. The goal shouldn't be getting thin, but getting healthy. It's enough towhittle your weight down to the tow end of your set range, says JeffreyFriedman, a geneticist at Rockefeller University. Losing even 10 pounds vastlydecreases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. Thepoint is to not give up just because you don't took like a swimsuit model.
D. The negotiation between your genes and the environment begins on day one. Your optimal weight, writ by genes, appears to get edited early on byconditions even before birth, inside the womb. If a woman has highblood-sugar levels while she's pregnant, her children are more likely to beoverweight or obese, according to a study of almost 10,000 mother-childpairs. Maternal diabetes may influence a child's obesity risk through aprocess called metabolic imprinting, says Teresa Hillier, an endocrinologistwith Kaiser Permanente's Center for Health Research and the study's leadauthor. The implication is clear: Weight may be established very early on, andobesity largely passed from mother to child Numerous studies in bothanimals and humans have shown that a mother's obesity directly increasesher child's risk for weight gain. The best advice for moms-to-be: Get fit beforeyou get pregnant. You'll reduce your risk of complications during pregnancyand increase your chances of having a normal-weight child
E. It's the $64,000 question: Which diets work? It got people wondering: Isn't there a better way to diet? A study seemed to offer an answer. The papercompared two groups of adults: those who, after eating, secreted high levels ofinsulin, a hormone that sweeps blood sugar out of the bloodstream andpromotes its storage as fat, and those who secreted less. Within each group, half were put on a tow-fat diet and half on a tow-glycemic-toad diet. On average, the tow-insulin-secreting group fared the same on both diets, losingnearly 10 pounds in the first six months but they gained about half of itback by the end of the 18-month study. The high-insulin group didn't do aswell on the tow-fat plan, losing about 4.5 pounds, and gaining back more thanhalf by the end But the most successful were the high- insulin-secretors onthe low-glycemic-toad diet. They lost nearly 13 pounds and kept it off.
F. What if your fat is caused not by diet or genes, but by germssay, a virus? It sounds like a sci-fi horror movie, but research suggests some dimension ofthe obesity epidemic may be attributable to infection by common viruses, saysDhurandhar. The idea of infectobesity came to him 20 years ago when hewas a young doctor treating obesity in Bombay. He discovered that a localavian virus, SMAM-1, caused chickens to die, sickened with organ damage butalso, strangely, with tots of abdominal fat. In experiments, Dhurandhar foundthat SMAM-l-infected chickens became obese on the same diet as uninfectedones, which stayed svelte.
G.He later moved to theU.S.and onto a bona fide human virus, adenovirus36(AD-36). In the lab, every species of animal Dhurandhar infected with thevirus became obesechickens got fat, mice got fat, even rhesus monkeys atthe zoo that picked up the virus from the environment suddenly gained 15percent of their body weight upon exposure. In his latest studies, Dhurandharhas isolated a gene that, when blocked from expressing itself, seems to turnoff the virus's fattening power. Stem cells extracted from fat cells and thenexposed to AD-36 reliably blossom into fat cellsbut when stem cells areexposed to an AD-36 virus with the key gene inhibited, the stems cells dontdifferentiate. The gene appears to be necessary and sufficient to triggerAD-36-related obesity, and the goal is to use the research to create a sort ofobesity vaccine.
Researchers have discovered 10 microbes so far that trigger obesityseven of them viruses. It may be a long shot, but for people struggling desperately to be thin, even the possibility of analternative cause of obesity offers some solace. "They feel better knowing there may be somethingbeyond them that could be responsible, says Dhurandhar. "The thought that there could besomething besides what they've heard all their livesthat they are greedy and lazyhelps.
Questions 14-18

Reading Passage 2 has five sections, A-G.
Which section contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-Q in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
14 evaluation on the effect of weight loss on different kind of diets
15 an example of research which include relatives of participants
16 Example of a group of people who never regain weightimmediately after.
17 tong term hunger may appear to be acceptable to most of theparticipants while losing weight
18 a continuous experiment may bad to a practical application besides diet orhereditary resort.

Questions 19-23
Look at the following researchers and the list offindings below. Match each researcher with the correct finding.
Write the correct letter in boxes 19-23 on your answer sheet.
List of Researchers
A Robert Berkowitz
B Rudolph Leibel
CNikhil Dhurandhar
D Deirdre Barrett
E Jeffrey Friedman
F Teresa Hillier
-----------
19 A persons weight is predetermined to a set point by the DNA.
20 Pregnant mother who are overweight may risk their fetus
21 The aim of losing Wright should be keeping healthy rather than attractiveness
22 mall changes in lifestyle will not have great impact on reducing much weight
23 Researchers should be divided into different groups with their own point of viewabout weight loss.
Questions 24-27
Complete the summery below.
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
In Bombay Clinic, a young doctor who came up with the concept 'infect obesity' believed that the obesity is caused by a kind of virus,Years of experiment that he conducted on 24........................... Later he moved to America and tested on a new virus named 25 ........................... which proved to be a significant breakthrough. Although there seems no way to eliminate the virus, a kind of 26 ...........................can be separated as to block the expressing power of the virus. The doctor future is aiming at developing a new 27 ...........................to effectively combating the virus.
Section 3
Bright Children
A. BY the time Laszlo Polgars first baby was born in 1969 he already had film views on child- rearing. Aneccentric citizen of communist Hungary, he had writtena book called "Bring up Genius r and one of hisfavourite sayings was Geniuses are made, not bom77.An expert on the theory of chess, he proceeded to teachlittle Zsuzsa at home, spending lip to tm hours a day onthe game. Two more daughters were similarly hot-housed. All three obliged then father by becomingworld-class players. The youngest, Judit, is currently ranked 13th in the world, and isby far the bestfemalechess player of all time. Would the experiment have succeededwith a different trio of children? If any child can he turned into a star, then a lot oftime and money are being wasted worldwide on trying to pick winners.
B. America has long held talent searches, using test results and teacher recommendations to select children for advanced school courses, summer schools and other extra tuition. This provision is set to grow. In his state-of-the-union address in 2006, President George Buah announced the American Competitiveness Initiative, which,amongmuch else, would train 70,000 high-school teachers to lead advanced courses for selected pupils in mathematics and science. Just as the superpowers' space race made Congress put money into science education, the thought of China and India turning out hundreds of thousands of engineers and scientists is scaring America into prodding its brightest todo their best.
C. The philosophy behind this talent search is that ability is innate; that it can be diagnosed with considerable accuracy, and that it is worth cultivating. In America,bright children are ranked as moderately, "highly, "exceptionally andprofoundly gifted. The only chance to influence innate ability is thought to be in thewomb or the first couple of years of life. Hence the fed for teaching aids such as videos and flashcards for newborns, and whale sounds* on tape which a pregnant mother can strap to her belly.
D. In Britain, there 5 a broadly similar belief in die existence of innate talent, but also an egalitarian sentiment which makes people queasy about the idea of investingresources in grooming intelligence. Teachers are often opposed to separate provisionfor the best-performing children, saying any extra help should go to stragglers. In2002, in a bid to help the able while leaving intact die ban on most selection by abilityin state schools, the government get up the National Acadony for Gifted and TalentedYouth. This outfit runs summer schools and masts- classes for children nominated bythen schools. To date, though, only seven in ten secondary schools have nominatedeven a single child. Last year all schools were told they must supply the names oftheir top 10%.
E. Picking winners is also the order of the day in ex-communist states, a hangover from the times when talented individuals were plucked from their homes and ruthlessly trainedfardieglory ofthe notion. But in many other countries, oppositiontothe idea of singling out talent and groomingitrunsdeep.InScandinavia, a belief in virtues like modesty and social solidarity makes people flinch from die idea of treating brainy children differently.
F. And in Japan there is a widespread belief that all children are born with the some innate abilitiesand should therefore be treated alike. All aretaught together, covering the same syllabus at the same Tateuntiltheyfinishcompulsory schooling. Those who team quickest are expected then to teach theirclassmates. In China, extra teaching is provided, but to a self-selected hunch.Children's palaces' in big cities offer a huge range of after-school classes. Anyonecan sign up; all that is asked is excellent attendance.
G. Statistics give little clue as to which system is best. The performance of the most able is heavily affected by factors other than state provision. Most state education inBritainis nominally rum-selective, but middle-class parents try to live near die bestschools. Ambitious Japanese parents have made private, out-of-school tuition athriving business. And Scandinavia's egalitarianism might work less well in placeswith more diverse populations and less competent teachers. For what it's worth, thedata suggest that some countrieslike Japan and Finland, see tablecan eschewselection and still thrive. But that does not mean that any country can ditch selectionand do as well.
H. Mr Polgar thought any child could be a prodigy given the right teaching, an early start and enough practice. At one point he planned to prove it by adopting three baby boysfrom a poor country and toying his methods on them. (His wife vetoed the scheme.)Some say the key to success is simply hard graft. Judit, the youngest of the Polgar sisters, was the most driven, and the most successful; Zsofia, the middle one, was regarded as the most talented, but she was the only one who did not achieve the statusof grand master. Everything came easiest to her, said her older sister. But she waslazy.
Questions28-33

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage 28 America has a long history of selecting talented students into different categories.
29 Teachers and schools in Britain held welcome attitude towards government'sselection of gifted students.
30 Some parents agree to move near reputable schools in Britain.
31 Middle-class parents participate in theft childrens education.
32 Japan and Finland comply with selected students policy.
33 Avoiding-selection-policy only works in a specific environment.

Questions 34-35
Choose the correct letter,A,B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 34-35 on your answer sheet.
34 What's Laszlo Polgar's point of view towards geniuses of children?
A Chess is the best way to train geniuses
B Genius tend to happen on first child
CGeniuses can be educated later on
D Geniuses are born naturally
35 What is the purpose of citing Zsofia's example in the last paragraph?
A Practice makes genius
B Girls are not good atchessing
CShe was an adopted child
D Middle child is always the most talented
Questions 36-40

Use the information in the passage to match the countries (listed A-E) with correct connection below. Write the appropriate letters A-E in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
A Scandinavia
B Japan
C Britain
D China
E America
---------------
36 Less gifted children get help from other classmates
37 Attending extra teaching is open to anyone
38 People are reluctant to favor gifted children due to social characteristics
39 Both view of innate and egalitarian co-existed
40 Craze of audio and video teaching for pregnant women.

Reading Test 33
Section 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 1 on the following pages.
SectionA: A decibel Hell:
Its not difficult for a person to encounter sound at levels that can cause adverse health effects. During a single day, people living in a typical urban environment canexperience a wide range of sounds in many locations, even once-quiet locales havebecome polluted with noise. In fact, its difficult today to escape sound completely. In its 1999 Guidelines forpredictingCommunity Noise, the World Health Organization (WHO)declared "Worldwide, noise-induced hearing impairment isthe most prevalent irreversible occupational hazard, and it is estimated that 120million people worldwide have disabling hearing difficulties." Growing evidencealso points to many other health effects of too much volume.
Mark Stephenson, a Cincinnati, Ohio-based senior research audiologist at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), says his agencys definition of hazardous noise is sound that exceeds the time-weighted average of 85 dBA, meaning the average noise exposure measured over a typical eight-hour work day. Other measures and definitions are used for other purposes.
SectionB:Growing Volume
In the United States, about 30 million workers are exposed to hazardous sound levels on the job,according to NIOSH. Industries having a high numberof workers exposed to bud sounds include construction, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, utilities, transportation, and the military.
Noise in U.Sindustry is an extremely difficult problem to monitor, acknowledges Craig Moulton, a senior industrial hygienist for the Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA). "Still," he says, "OSHA does require that any employer withworkers overexposed to noise provide protection for those employees against theharmful effects of noise. Additionally, employers must implement a continuing,effective hearing conservation program as outlined in OSHAs Noise Standard"
Section C: Scary Sound Effects
Numerous scientific studies over the years have confirmed that exposure to certain levels of sound can damage hearing. Prolonged exposure can actuallychange the structure of the hair cells in the inner ear, resulting in hearing toss. Itcan also cause tinnitus, a ringing, roaring, buzzing, or clicking in the ears.
NIOSH studies from the mid to late 1990s show that 90% of coal miners have hearing impairment by age 52compared to 9% of the general populationand70% of male metal/nonmetal miners will experience hearing impairment by age60 (Stephenson notes that from adolescence onward, females tend to have betterhearing than males). Neitzel says nearly half of all construction workers havesome degree of hearing toss. "NIOSH research also reveals that by age twenty-five,the average carpenters hearing is equivalent to an otherwise healthyfifty-year-old male who hasnt been exposed to noise," he says.
William Luxford, medical director of the House Ear Clinic of St Vincent Medical Center in Los Angeles, points out one piece of good news: "It's true thatcontinuous noise exposure will lead to the continuation of hearing toss, but assoon as the exposure is stopped, the hearing toss stops. So a change inenvironment can improve a persons hearing health."
Research is catching up with this anecdotal evidence. In the July 2001 issue of Pediatrics, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that, based on audiometric testing of 5,249 children as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition, Examination Survey, an estimated 12.5% of American children have noise-induced hearing threshold shifts or dulled hearing in one or both ears. Most children with noise-induced hearing threshold shifts have only limited hearing damage, but continued exposure to excessive noise can lead to difficulties with high-frequency sound discrimination. The report listed stereos, music concerts, toys (such as toy telephones and certain rattles), lawn mowers, and fireworks asproducing potentially harmful sounds.
SectionD:Beyond the Ears
The effects of sound dont stop with the ears. Nonauditory effects of noise exposure are those effects that don't cause hearing toss but still can be measured,such as elevated blood pressure, toss of sleep, increased heart rate, cardiovascular constriction, labored breathing, and changes in brain chemistry.
The nonauditory effects of noise were noted as early as 1930 in a study published by E.L. Smith and D.L. Laird in volume 2 of the Journal of the Acoustical Society ofAmerica. The results showed that exposure to noise caused stomach contractionsin healthy human beings. Reports on noise's nonauditory effects published sincethat pioneering study have been both contradictory and controversial in someareas.
Bronzaft and the school principal persuaded the school board to have acoustical tile installed in the classrooms adjacent to the tracks. The Transit Authority alsotreated the tracks near the school to make them less noisy. A follow-up studypublished in the September 1981 issue of the Journal of EnvironmentalPsychology found that children's reading scores improved after theseinterventions were put in place.
Section E: FightingforQuiet
Anti-noise activists say that Europe and several countries in Asia are more advanced than the United States in terms of combating noise. "Populationpressure has prompted Europe to move more quickly on the noise issue than theUnited States has," Hume says. In the European Union, countries with cities of atleast 250,000 people are creating noise maps of those cities to help leadersdetermine noise pollution policies. Paris has already prepared its first noise maps.The map data, which must be finished by 2007, will be fed into computer modelsthat will help test the sound impact of street designs or new buildings beforeconstruction begins.
Activists in other countries say they too want the United States to play a more leading role on the noise issue. But as in other areas of environmental health,merely having a more powerful government agency in place that can set moreregulations is not the ultimate answer, according to other experts. Bronzaftstresses that governments worldwide need to increase funding for noise researchand do a better job coordinating their noise pollution efforts so they can establishhealth and environmental policies based on solid scientific research."Governments have a responsibility to protect their citizens by curbing noisepollution," she says.
Questions 1-5
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
Nowadays it seems difficult for people to avoid the effects of living in a noisy world. Noise is the sound beyond average of 1........................ referring to the agency's definition. Scientific studies over the years from the mid to late 1990s have confirmed that exposure to certain levels of sound can cause damage2........................on certain senior age.
From the testing of 5,249 children, those who are constantly exposed to excessive noise may have troublein 3........................ sound discrimination. The effects of sound don't stop with the ears, exposure to noise may lead to unease of 4........................in healthypeople. Europe has taken steps on the noise issue, big cities of over 250,000 people are creating 5........................to help creating noise pollution policies.
Questions 6-10
Look at the following researchers and the list of findings below. Match each researcher with the correct finding.
Write the correct letter in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.
List of people or orgnisations
A WHO
B William Luxford (the House Ear Clinic),
CCarig Moulton (OSHA)
D Arline Bronzaft
E Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
----------------
6 People can change the environment to improve hearing health.
7 Government should continue the research on anti-noise researches with fund
8 companies should be required to protect the employees to avoid noise
9 Noise has posed effect on American children children's hearing ability
10 noise has seriously affected human being where they live worldwide
Questions 11-13
11 The board of schools built close to the tracks are convinced to
A moved the classrooms away from the noisy track
B regulated the track usage to a less extent
Cutilised a special material into classroom buildings lessening the effect of outside noise
D oganised a team for a follow-up study
12 In the European countries, the big cities research on noise focuses on
A How to record pollution details of the city on maps
B the impact of noise on population shift in the European cities
Chow wide can a city be to avoid noise pollution
D helping the authorities better make a decision on management of the city
13 What is the best title of paragraph 1?
A How people cope with noise pollutions
B the fight against the noise with the powerful technology
CThe Effects of Living in a Noisy World
D The Effects of noise on childrens learning

Section 2
Is Graffiti Art or Crime?
A. The term graffiti derives from the Italiangraffiomeaning 'scratching' and can be defined as uninvited markings or writing scratched or applied to objects, built structures and natural features. It is not a new phenomenon: examples can be found on ancient structures around the world, in some cases predating the Greeks and Romans. In such circumstances it has acquired invaluable historical and archaeological significance, providing a social history of life and events at that time. Graffiti is now a problem that has become pervasive, as a result of the availability of cheap and quick means of mark-making.
B. It is usually considered a priority to remove graffiti as quickly as possible after it appears. This is for several reasons. The first is to prevent'copy-cat' emulation which can occur rapidly once a clean surface isdefaced. It may also be of a racist or otherwise offensive nature and manycompanies and councils have a policy of removing this type of graffitiwithin an hour or two of it being reported. Also, as paints, glues and inksdry out over time they can become increasingly difficult to remove andare usually best dealt with as soon as possible after the incident. Graffitican also lead to more serious forms of vandalism and, ultimately, thedeterioration of an area, contributing to social decline.
C. Although graffiti may be regarded as an eyesore, any proposal to remove it from sensitive historic surfaces should be carefully considered: techniques designed for more robust or utilitarian surfaces may result inconsiderable damage. In the event ofgraffiti incidents, it is important that theowners of buildings or other structures andtheir consultants are aware of the approachthey should take in dealing with the problem. The police should be informed as there may be other related attacks occurring locally. An incidence pattern can identify possibleculprits, as can stylised signatures or nicknames, known as 'tags, whichmay already be familiar to local police. Photographs are useful to recordgraffiti incidents and may assist the police in bringing a prosecution. Suchimages are also required for insurance claims, and can be helpful tocleaning operatives, allowing them to see the problem area beforearriving on site.
D. There are a variety of methods that are used to remove graffiti. Broadly these divide between chemical and mechanical systems. Chemicalpreparations are based on dissolving the media; these solvents can rangefrom water to potentially hazardous chemical 'cocktails'. Mechanicalsystems such as wire-brushing and grit-blasting attempt to abrade or chipthe media from the surface. Care should be taken to comply with healthand safety legislation with regard to the protection of both passers-by andany person carrying out the cleaning, operatives should follow productguidelines in terms of application and removal, and wear the appropriateprotective equipment. Measures must betaken to ensure that run-off, aerial mists,drips and splashes do not threatenunprotected members of the public. Whenexamining a graffiti incident it is importantto assess the ability of the substrate towithstand the prescribed treatment. If there is any doubt regarding this, then small trial areas should be undertaken to assess the impact of more extensive treatment.
E. A variety of preventive strategies can be adopted to combat a recurring problem of graffiti at a given site. As no two sites are the same, no one setof protection measures will be suitable for all situations. Each site must belooked at individually. Surveillance systems such as closed circuittelevision may also help. In cities and towns around the country,prominently placed cameras have been shown to reduce anti-socialbehaviour of all types including graffiti. Security patrols will also act as adeterrent to prevent recurring attacks. However, the cost of this may betoo high for most situations. Physical barriers such as a wall, railings,doors or gates can be introduced to discourageunauthorised access to a vulnerable site. However,consideration has to be given to the impact measures haveon the structure being protected. In the worst cases, they canbe almost as damaging to the quality of the envfronment as the graffiti they prevent. In others, they might simply provide a new surface for graffiti.
F. One of the most significant problems associated with graffiti removal is the need to remove it from surfaces that are repeatedly attacked. Under these circumstances the repeated removal of graffiti using even the most gentle methods will ultimately cause damage to the surface material. There may be situations where the preventive strategies mentioned above do not work or are not a viable proposition at a given site. Anti-graffiticoatings are usually applied by brush or spray leaving a thin veneer thatessentially serves to isolate the graffiti from the surface.
G. Removal of graffiti from a surface that has been treated in this way is much easier, usually using low-pressure water which reduces thepossibility of damage. Depending on the type of barrier selected it may benecessary to reapply the coating after each graffiti removal exercise.
Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G ,in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once.
14 why chemically cleaning graffiti may cause damage
15 the benefit of a precautionary strategy on the gentle removal
16 the damaging and accumulative impact of graffiti to the community
17 the need for different preventive measures being taken to cope with graffiti
18 a legal proposal made to the owner of building against graffiti
19 the reasons of removing graffiti as soon as possible
Question 20-21
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 20-21 on your answer sheet.
Which two statements are true concerning the removal of graffiti
A cocktail removal can be safer than water treatment
B small patch trial before applying large scale of removing
cChemical treatments are the most expensive way of removing
D there are risks for both Chemical and medication method
E mechanical removals are much more applicable than Chemical treatments
Questions22-23
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write your answers in boxes 22-23 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following preventive measures against graffiti are mentioned effective in the passage?
A organise more anti graffiti movement in the city communities
B increase the police patrols on the street
cBuild a new building with material repelling to water
Dinstalling more visible security cameras
E Provide a whole new surface with chemical coat
Questions 24-27
Complete the Summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 2.
Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
24 Ancient graffiti is of significance and records the 24................... of details life for that period.
25 The police can recognize newly committed incidents of graffiti by the signature which is called 25...................that they are familiar with
26 Operatives ought to comply with relevant rules during the operation, and put on the suitable 26....................
27 Removal of graffiti from a new type of coating surface can be much convenient of using 27....................

Section 3
Serendipity: The Accidental Scientists
A. A paradox lies close to the heart of scientific discovery. If you know just what you are looking for, finding it can hardly count as a discovery, since it was fully anticipated. But if, on the other hand, you have no notion of what you are looking for, you cannot know when you have found it, and discovery, as such, is out of the question. In the philosophy of science, these extremes map onto the purist forms of deductivism and inductivism:Intheformer,theoutcome is supposed to be logically contained in the premises you start with; in the latter, you are recommended to start with no expectations whatsoever and see what turnsup.
B. As in so many things, the ideal position is widely supposed to reside somewhere in between these two impossible-to-realize extremes. You want to have a goodenough idea of what you are looking for to be surprised when you find somethingelse of value, and you want to be ignorant enough of your end point that you can entertain alternative outcomes. Scientific discovery should, therefore, have anaccidental aspect, but not too much of one.Serendipity is a word that expresses a positionsomething like that. It's a fascinating word,and the late Robert King Mertonthe fatherof the sociology of scienceliked it wellenough to compose its biography, assisted bythe French cultural historian Elinor Barber.
C. Serendipity means a happy accident or pleasant surprise; specifically, the accident of findingsomething good or useful without looking for it. The first noted use ofserendipity in the English language was by Horace Walpole (1717-1792). In aletter to Horace Mann (dated 28 January 1754) he said he formed it from thePersian fairy taleThe Three Princes of Serendip,whose heroes were alwaysmaking discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things they were not in questof. The name stems fromSerendip,an old name for Sri Lanka.
D. Besides antiquarians, the other community that came to dwell on serendipity to say something important about their practice was that of scientists. Many scientists, including the Harvard physiologist Walter Cannon and, later, the British immunologist Peter Medawar, liked to emphasize how much of scientific discovery was unplanned and even accidental. One of Cannon's favorite examples of such serendipity is Luigi Galvani's observation of the twitching of dissected frogs' legs, hanging from a copper wire, when they accidentally touched an iron railing, leading to the discovery of galvanism; another is Hans Christian Orsted's discovery of electromagnetism when he unintentionally brought a current-carrying wire parallel to a magnetic needle. The context in which scientific serendipity was most contested and had its greatest resonance was that connected with the idea of planned science. The serendipitists were not all inhabitants of academic ivory towers. Two of the great early-20th-century American pioneers of industrial researchWillis Whitney and Irving Langmuir, both of General Electricmade much play of serendipity, in the course of arguing against overly rigid research planning.
E. Yet what Cannon and Medawar took as a benign method, other scientists found incendiary. Tosaythat science had a significant serendipitous aspectwastakenbysomeasdangerous denigration. If scientific discovery were really accidental, then what was the special basis of expert authority?
F. In this connection, the aphorismofchoice came from no less an authority on scientific discovery than Louis Pasteur: "Chance favors the prepared mind." Accidents may happen, and things may turn up unplanned and unforeseen,as one is looking for something else, but the ability to notice such events, to seetheir potential bearingand meaning, to exploit then occurrence andmake constructive use of them these are the results of systematic mental preparation. What seems like an accident is just another form of expertise. On closer inspection, it is insisted, accident dissolves into sagacity.
G. In 1936, as a very young man, Merton wrote a seminal essay on "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action." It is, he argued, thenature of social action that what one intends is rarely what one gets: Intending toprovide resources for buttressing Christian religion, the natural philosophers of the Scientific Revolution laid the groundwork for secularism; peoplewantingtobe alone with nature in Yosemite Valley wind up crowding one another. We just don't knowenoughand we can never know enoughtoensure that the past is an adequate guide to the future: Uncertainty aboutoutcomes, even of our best-laid plans, is endemic. All social action, including thatundertaken with the best evidence and formulated according to the most rationalcriteria, is uncertain in its consequences.
Questions 28-33

Reading passage 3 has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A -F from the list of headings below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.
List of headings
i The origin of serendipity
ii Horace Walpoles fairy tale
iii Arguments against serendipity
iv Two basic knowledge in the paradox of scientific discoveryVThe accidental evidences in and beyond science
vi organizations movement Opposing against the authority
vii Accident and mental preparation
viii Planned research and anticipated outcome
ix The optimum balance between the two extremes
-------------
28 Paragraph A
29 Paragraph B
30Paragraphc
31 Paragraph D
32 Paragraph E
33 Paragraph F
Questions 34-36

Complete the summary below, using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 34-36 on your answer sheet.
The word serendipity was coined in the writing of 34.............to Horace Mann. He derived it from a 35.........., thecharacters of which were always making fortunate discoveries by accident. The stemSerendipwas a former name for 36...........
Questions 37-40
Choose the correct letter. A, B,cor D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet.
37 What does inductivism mean in paragraph A?
A. observation without anticipation at the beginning
B. Looking for what you want in the premise
C. The expected discovery
D. The map we pursued
38 Scientific discovery should
A be much of accidental aspect
B be full of value
C. be between the two exhemes
D be skeptical
39 The writer mentions Luigi Galvani's observation to illustrate
A the cruelty of frogs dissection
B the happy accident in scientific discovery
cthe practice of scientists
D the rigid research planning
40 Why does the writer mention the example in Yosemite Valleyin paragraph G?
A To illustrate the importance of a systematic plan
B To illustrate there is an unpredictable reality towards expectation
CTo illustrate the original anticipation
D To illustrate that intention of social action is totally meaningless

Reading Test 34
Section 1
LONGAEVA: Ancient Bristlecone Pine
A. To understand more about the earth's history, humans have often looked to the natural environment for insightinto the past. The bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva), ofthe White Mountains in California, has served thispurpose greater than any other species of free on theplanet. Conditions here are brutal: scant precipitationand low average temperatures mean a short growingseason, only intensified by ferocious wind and mal-nutritious rocky. Nevertheless, bristlecone pines have claimed these barren slopes as their permanent home. Evolving here in this harsh environment,super-adapted and without much competition, bristlecones have earned their seat onthe longevity throne by becoming the oldest living trees on the planet. Results ofextensive studies on bristlecone pine stands have shown that in fact such,environmental limitations are positively associated withthe attainment of great age. This intriguingphenomenon will be discussed further on.
B. But exactly how old is old? Sprouted before the invention of Egyptian hieroglyphs and long before the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, Dethuselah is the oldest bristlecone alive at roughly 4,700 years. Although specimens of this age do not represent the species' average,there are 200 trees more than 3,000 years old, and two dozen more than 4,000.Considering that these high ages are obtained in the face of such remarkableenvnonmental adversity, the bristlecone pines have become the focus of muchscientific examination over the past half century.
C. Perhaps most interested in the bristlecone pine are dendochronologists, or tree-ring daters. With every strenuous year that passes in the White Mountains, eachbristlecone grows and forms a new outer layer of cambium that reflects a season'sparticular ease or hardship. So while, growing seasons may expand or shrink, thetrees carry on, their growth rings faithfully recording the bad years alongside the goods. Through examining the annual growth rings of both living and dead specimens, taking thousands of core samples, and by processes of cross-datingbetween trees and other qualitative records, scientists have compiled a continuoustree-ling record that dates back to the last Ice Age between eight and ten thousandyears ago. Among other linked accomplishments, this record has enhanced the datingprocess, helping to double-cheek and correct the radiocarbon-14 method to moreaccurately estimate the age of organic material.
D. Now more than ever the importanceofmonitoring the bristiecone isbeing realized. As our global climate continues to undergo its most recent and abrupt atmosphericchange, these ancient scribes continue to respond. Since, the rings of wood formedeach year reveal the trees' response to climatic conditions during a particular growingseasons, in their persistence they have left US natural recordings of the past, markersof the present, and clues to the future.
E. The species' name originates from the appearance of its unusual cones and needles. The bristlecone's short, pale needles are also trademarks, bunching together to formfoxtail-like bundles. As is the case of moat conifer needles, these specialized leavescluster together to shelter the stomata so very little moistureis lost through them. This adaptation helps the bristleconephotosynthesize during particularly brutal months, Savingthe energy of constant needle replacement and providing astable supply of chlorophyll. For a plant trying to store somuch energy, bristlecone seeds are relatively large in size. They are first reproduced when trees reach ages between thirty and seventy-five years old Germination rates are generally high, in part because seeds require little to no initial stratification. Perhaps the most intriguing physical characteristic of a mature bristlecone, however, is itsratio of living to dead wood on harsh sites and how this relates to old age. In oldertrees, however, especially in individuals over 1,500 years, a strip-bark trait isadaptive. This condition occurs as a result of cambium dieback, which erodes andthereby exposes certain areas of the bole, leaving only narrow bands of bark intact
F. The technique of cambial edge retreat has help promote old age in bristlecone pine, but that certainly is not the only reason. Most crucial to these trees' longevity is theircompact size and slow rates of growth. By remaining in most cases under ten meterstall, bristlecones stay close to the limited water supply and can hence support morebranches and photosynthesizing. Combined with the dry, windy, and often freezingmountain aữ, slow growth guarantees the hrifltlecones tight, fibrous rings with a highresin content and structural strength. The absence of natural disaster has alsosafeguarded the bristlecone's lengthy lifespan. Due to a lack of ground covervegetation and an evenly spaced layout, bristlecone stands on the White Mountain peaks have been practically unaffected by fire. This lack of vegetation also means a lack of competition for the bristlecones.
G. Bristlecone pine's restricted to numerous, rather isolated stands at higher altitudes in the southwestern United States. Stands occur from the Rocky Mountains, through theColorado Plateau, to the western margin of the Great Basin. Within this natural range,the oldest and most widely researched stands of bristlecones occur in California'sWhite Mountains. Even just 200 miles away from the Pacific Ocean, the WhiteMountains are home to one of this country's few high-elevation deserts. Located inthe extreme eastern rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada, this region receives only 12.54inches of precipitation per year and experiences temperatures between -20F and+50F. The peaks south of the Owens Valley, are higher up than they might appearfrom a distance. Although most summits exist somewhere around 11,000 feet,snow-capped White Mountain Peak, for which the range is named, stands at 14,246feet above sea level. That said, to reach areas of pure bristlecone is an intense journeyall to itself.
H. With seemingly endless areas of wonder and interest, the bristlecone pines have become subject to much research over the past half-century. Since the annual growthof these ancient organisms directly reflects the climatic conditions of a particular timeperiod, bristlecones are of greatest significance to dendochronologists, or tree-ringspecialists. Dating any tree is simple and can be done within reasonable accuracy justby counting out the rings made each year by the plant's natural means of growth. Bycarefully compiling a nearly 10,000-year-old bristlecone pine record, these patientscientists have accurately corrected the carbon-14 dating method and estimated agesof past periods of global climate change. What makes this record so special todendochronologists, too, is that, nowhere, throughout time, is precisely the samelong-term sequence of wide and narrow rings repeated, because year-to-yearvariations in climate are never exactly the same.
I. Historically the bristlecone's remote location and gnarled wood have deterred commercial extraction, but nothing on earth will go unaffected by global warming. Iftemperatures rise by only 6 degrees F, which many experts say is likely this century,about two-thirds of the bristlecones' ideal habitat in the White Mountains effectivelywill be gone. Almost 30,000 acres of National Forest now preserves the ancientbristlecone, but paved roads, campsites, and self-guided trails have led only to morehuman impact. In 1966, the U.S.F.S reported over 20,000 visitors to the AncientBristlecone Pine Forest, a figure which could exceed 40,000 today. Over the pasthundreds of thousands of years, this species has endured in one of earth's most tryingenvironments; they deserve our respect and reverence. As global climate changeslowly alters their environment, we as humans must do our part to raise awarenessand lower our impact.
Questions 1-4
The reading Passage has nine paragraphs A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letterA-I,in boxes1-4on your answer sheet.
1 Human activity threats bristlecone pines habitat
2 Explanations for ring of bristlecone pines
3 An accountable recording provided from the past till now
4 Survived in hostile environment
Questions 5 - 7

Choose the correct letter, A, B,cor D.
Write your answers in boxes 5-7 on your answer sheet.
5 According to passage A, what aspect of bristlecone pines attracts author's attention?
A Brutal environment they live
B Remarkable long age
CThey only live in California
D Outstanding height
6 Why do we investigate Bristlecone pines in higher altitudes of California's WhiteMountains?
A Because oldest ones researched in this region
B Because most bizarre ones are in this region
CBecause precipitation is rich in this region
D Because sea level is comparatively high in this region
7 Why there are repeated patterns of wide and narrow rings?
A Because sea level rises which affects tree ring
B Because tree ring pattern is completely random
cBecause ancient organisms affect its growth
D Because variation of climate change is different
Questions 8-13
Summary
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, usingno more than threewords from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers inboxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
The bristlecone's special adaptation is benefit for photosynthesizing, and reserving the_8_of leave replacement and providing sufficient chlorophyll. Probably because seeds do not rely on primary _____9_____, Germinationrate is high. Because of cambium dieback, only narrow ____10_____ remain complete.Dueto multiple factors such as windy, cold climate and____11_____, bristlecones' rings have tight and solid structure full of resin. Moreover, bristlecone stands are safe from fire because of little ____12_____plants spread in this place. The summits of Owens Valley is higher than they emerge if you observe from a ___13_____.

Section 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27, which are based on Reading Passage 2 on the following pages.
Monkeys and Forests
AS AN EAST WIND blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tiỉarn, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howlermonkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.
A. Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking thefemale's movements. Holding a dart gun, he waitswith infinite patience for the right moment toshoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch inGuanacaste province. Other native primates white-faced capuchin monkeysand spider monkeys once were common in this area, too, but vanished afterthe Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of thesmrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.
B. Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit, when its available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, donot depend on large areas of fruiting trees. Howlers can survive anyplace youhave half a dozen trees, because theft eating habits are so flexible, he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriadcreatures that feed on leaves.Plants have evolved a variety ofchemical defenses, ranging frombad-tasting tannins, which bindwith plant-produced nutrients,rendering them indigestible, todeadly poisons, such as alkaloidsand cyanide.
C. All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot ofanimals Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actuallymore howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old treesthat survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, frees put mostof their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce muchlower levels of toxin than do well- established, old-growth trees.
D. The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hostspopulations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins andspider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 yearsold. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the treeswere as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, needsomewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. Aworking ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom inSanta Rosa. Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys forseveral reasons, Fedigan explains. They can live within a small home range, aslong as the trees have the right food for them, spider monkeys, on the other hand,occupy a huge home range, so they cant make it in fragmented habitat.
E. Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins dont beartheir first young until about 7 years old, and spidermonkeys do so even later, but howlers give birthfor the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also,while a female spider monkey will have a babyabout once every four years, well-fed howlers canproduce an infant every two years.
F. The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage overcapuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoingdrought in Guanacaste.
G. Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, anecologist at Estacion de Biologia LosTuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has beenexploring how monkeys survive in alandscape increasingly shaped byhumans. He and his colleaguesrecently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacaoplants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig,monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop.The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. Thisstrange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems tosupport about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wiki forest.The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuablecacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.
HEstrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and othershade frees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points outthat howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacaoplantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as inMexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations,though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in thelong term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see theadvantages of associating with wild monkeys, whichincludes potential ecotourism projects.
Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature, Estrada says. We're moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities maybecome a tool for the conservation of primates inhuman-modified landscapes.
Questions 14-19

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-I.
Which paragraph contains the following information?Write the correct letterA-I,in boxes14-19on your answer sheet.
14 a reference of reduction in Forest inhabitant
15 Only one species of monkey survived while other two species were vanished
16 a reason for howler Monkey of choosing new leaves
17 mention to howler Monkey's nutrient and eating habits
18 a reference of asking farmers' changing attitude toward wildlife
19 the advantage for howler Monkey's flexibility living in a segmented habitat
Questions 20-22
Look at the following places and the list of descriptions below. Match each description with the correct place, A-E.
List of places
A Hacienda La Pacifica
B Santa Rosa National Park
Ca cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico
D Estacion de Biotogia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico
E Amazon Basin
Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 20-22 on your answer sheet.
20 howler Monkeys benefit to the focal regions agriculture
21 Original home for all three native monkeys
22 A place where Capuchins monkey comes for a better habitat
Question 23-27
Complete the sentences below
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage or each answer. Write your answer in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet.
The reasons for Howlers monkey survive better
in local region than other two species
- Howlers in La Pacifica since they can feed themselves with leaf when 23..............is noteasily found
- Howlers has better ability to alleviate the24.............., which old and young trees used to protect themselves
- when compared to that of spider monkeys and capuchin monkeys, the I 25............ rate ofHowlersisrelatively faster(roundforjustevery2years).
- the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes as the in Guanacaste leaves howlers eat hold high content of 26.............. which ensure them to resist to continuous 27. in Guanacaste
Section 3
A. While it nay not be possible to completely age-proof our brains, a bravenew world of anti-aging research shows that our gray mattermay be far more flexible than we thought. So no one, no matterhow old, has to lose their mind. The brain has often been calledthe three-pound, universe. Its our most powerful and mysteriousorgan, the seat of the self, laced with as many billions of neuronsas the galaxy has stars. NO wonder the mere notion of an aging,falling brainand the prospect of memory loss, confusion, andthe unraveling of our personalityis so terrifying. As MarkWilliams, M.D., author of The American Geriatrics SocietysComplete Guide to Aging and Health, says, The fear of dementiaIs stronger than the fear of death Itself. Yetthe degeneration of the brain is far fromInevitable. Itsdesign features are such that it should continue to function for a lifetime, says Zaven Khachaturian,Ph.D.,director of theAlzheimer's Associations Ronald and NancyReagan Research Institute. 'There's no reasonto expect It to deteriorate with age, eventhough many of US are living longer lives in fact, scientists'view of the brains potential Is rapidly changing, according toStanford University neuroscientist Robert Sapol3ky, Ph.D.Thirty-five years ago we thought Alzheimer's disease was a dramatic version of normal aging.Nowwerealize it's a disease with a distinct pathology. In fact, some people simply don't experience any mental decline,so we've begun to study them.1AntonioDamasio, M.D., Ph.D., head of the Departmentof Neurology at the University of Iowa andauthor of Descartes' Error, concurs. 'Older people can continue to have extremely rich and healthy mental lives.
B. The seniors were tested in 1988 and again in 1991. Four factors were found to be related to their mental fitness: levels ofeducation and physical activity, lung function,andfeelings of self-efficacy. 'Each of these elements alters the way our brain functions," says Marilyn Albert, Ph.D., of Harvard Medical School, and colleagues from Yale, Duke, and Brandeis Universities and theMt. Sinai School of Medicine, who hypothesizes that regularexercise may actually stimulate blood flow to the brain and nervegrowth, both of which create more densely branched neurons, rendering the neurons stronger and better able to resist disease. Moderate aerobic exercise, including long brisk walksand frequently climbing stairs, will accomplish this.
C. Education also seems to enhance brain function. People who have challenged themselves with at least a college education mayactually stimulate the neurons in their brains. Moreover, nativeintelligence may protect our brains. It's possible that smartpeople begin life with a greater number of neurons, and thereforehave a greater reserve to fall back on if some begin to fail. "Ifyou have a lot of neurons and keep them busy, you may be able totolerate more damage to your brain before it shows," says PeterDavies, M.D., of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in theBronx, New York. Early linguistic ability also seems to help ourbrains later in life. A recent study in the NewEngland Journal of Medicine looked at93elderlynuns and examined the autobiographies they hadwritten60years earlier, just as they were joininga convent.Thenunswhoseessays were complex and dense with ideas remained sharp into their eighties and nineties.
D. Finally, personality seems to play an important role in protecting our mental prowess. A sense of self-efficacy may protect our brain,buffeting it from the harmful effects of stress. According toAlbert, there's evidence that elevated levels of stress hormonesmay harm brain cells and cause the hippocampus a smallseahorse-shaped organ that's a crucial moderator of memory toatrophy. A sense that we can effectively chart our own course inthe world may retard the release of stress hormones and protectus as we age. "It's not a matter of whether you experience stressor not, " Albert concludes, "it's your attitude toward it. " Reducingstress by meditatingona regular basis may buffer the brain as well. It also increases the activity of the brain's pineal gland, the source of the antioxidant hormone melatonin, whichregulates sleep and may retard the aging process. Studies at theUniversity of Massachusetts Medical Center and the University ofWestern Ontario found that people who meditated regularly hadhigher levels of melatonin than those who took 5-milligram supplements.Anotherstudy,conductedjointlyby Maharishi International University, Harvard University, and the University of Maryland, found that seniors who meditated for threemonths experienced dramatic improvements in their psychologicalwell-being, compared to their non-meditative peers.
E. Animal studies confirm that both mental and physical activity boost brain fitness. At the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science andTechnology in Urbana, Illinois, psychologist William Greenough, Ph.D, let some rats play with a profusion of toys. These rodentsdeveloped about 25 percent more connections between their neuronsthan did rats that didn't get any mentally stimulating recreation.In addition, rats that exercised on a treadmilldeveloped more capillaries in specific parts of their brains than did their sedentarycounterparts.Thisincreasedtheblood flow to their brains. "Clearly the message is to do as many different flyings as possible," Greenough says.
F. It's not just scientists who are catching anti-aging fever. Walk into any health food store, and you'll find nutritional formulaswith names like Brainstorm and Smart ALEC--that claimto sharpen mental ability. The book Smart Drugs & Nutrients, byWard Dean, M.D. , and John Morgenthaler, was self-published in 1990and has sold over 120,000 copies worldwide. It has also spawnedan underground network of people tweaking their own brain chemistrywith nutrients and drugs the latter sometimesobtained from Europe and Mexico. Sales of ginkgoan extractfromtheleavesof the 200-million-year-old ginkgo tree, which has been shown in published studies to increase oxygen inthe brain and melioratesymptomsof Alzheimer's diseaseare up by 22 percent in the last six months alone, according to Paddy Spence, president of SPINS, a San Francisco-based market research firm. Indeed,products that increase and preserve mental performance are a smallbut emerging segment of the supplements industry, says LindaGilbert, president of HealthFocus, a company that researchesconsumer health trends. While neuroscientists like Khachaturianliken the use of these products to the superstitionof tossing salt over your shoulder, the public is nevertheless gobbling upnutrientsthatpromisecognitive enhancement.
Questions 28-31

Choose theFourcorrect letters amongA-G
Write your answers in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.
Which of the FOUR situations or conditions assisting the Brains’ function?
APreventive treatment against Alzheimer's disease
BDoing active aerobic exercise and frequently climbing staữs
CHigh levels of education
DEarly verbal or language competence training
EHaving more supplements such as ginkgo tree
FParticipate in more physical activity involving in stimulating tasks
G Personality and feelings of self-fulfillment

Questions 32-39
Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-G) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 32-39 on your answer sheet.NB you may use any latter more than once
A. Zaven Khachaturian
B. William Greenough
C. Marilyn Albert
D. Robert Sapolsky
E. Linda Gilbert
F. Peter Davies
G. Paddy Spence
-------------------
32 Alzheimer's was probably a kind of disease rather than a normal aging process.
33 Keeping neurons busy, people may be able to endure more harm to your brain
34 Regular exercises boost blood flow to the brain and increase anti-diseasedisability.
35 Significant increase of Sales of ginkgo has been shown.
36 More links between their neurons are found among stimulated animals.
37 Effectiveness of the use of brains supplements products can be of little scientificproof.
38 Heightened levels of stress may damage brain cells and cause part of brain todeteriorate.
39 Products that upgrade and preserve mental competence are still a newlydeveloping industry.

Questions 40
Choose the correct letters among A-D
Write your answers in box 40 on your answer sheet.
According the passage, what is the most appropriate title for this passage?
A Making our minds last a lifetime
Bamazing pills of the ginkgo
Chow to stay healthy in your old hood
D more able a brain and neurons

Answer Keys
Reading Test 1
Section 1
1 NOT GIVEN 2 TURE 3 FALSE 4 NOT GIVEN 5 FALSE 6 TRUE 7 TRUE 8 Stonemason 9 Gian Giorgio Trissino 10 Inigo Jones 11 Temple 12 Quattro Libri dell' Architettura 13 Benevolent calm  Section 2
14 Yes 15 No 16 Yes 17 Not given 18 No 19 Not Given 20 Temperature 21 (molten) rock/ash 22 Food 23 Tidal wave 24 Ice age 25 Rockets 26 D     Section 3
27 B 28 D 29 A 30 E 31 D 32 C 33 NOT GIVEN 34 NO 35 YES 36 NO 37 YES 38 YES 39 A 40 B 

Reading Test 2
Section 1
1 I 2 Iv 3 Ix 4 viii 5 x 6 iii 7 35 8 The bony carapace 9 Cold water/ temperature 10 Florida, America/ The north American 11 (detecting) magnetic fields 12 Its meat 13 Jellyfish Section 2
14 v 15 viii 16 vi 17 vii 18 iii 19 i 20 ii 21 Equal opportunity 22 internal costs 23 c 24 c 25 A 26 B  Section 3
27 TRUE 28 FALSE 29 TRUE 30 Not given 31 A 32 C 33 D 34 D 35 B 36 A 37 E 38 Popular pastime 39 TV addicts 40 Orienting response  Reading Test 3
Section 1
1 F 2 B 3 H 4 C 5 F 6 Yes 7 No 8 Not given 9 Home 10 2.8s 11 Oil/lubrication 12 Sextant 13 Marine chronometer  Section 2
14 v 15 iii 16 ix 17 vii 18 viii 19 ii 20 Not given 21 True 22 False 23 False 24 A 25 E 26 B 27 D 
Section 3
28 400,000 years ago 29 8000 years ago 30 7000 years ago 31 Wooded interglacials 32 10500 years ago 33 Males huge anlers 34 Minerals 35 Habitat destruction 36 B 37 D 38 A 39 C 40 C   Reading Test 4
Section 1
1 E 2 D 3 C 4 A 5 F 6 D 7 B 8 G 9 No 10 Yes 11 No 12 Yes 13 Not given  
Section 2
14 G 15 C 16 B 17 D 18 B 19 B 20 A 21 C 22 True 23 False 24 Not given 25 True 26 Not given  Section 3
27 iv 28 iii 29 viii 30 ii 31 ix 32 i 33 Collaborative and interative 34 Tangible 35 Tailorable 36 Group of people 37 C 38 A 39 A 40 D 



Reading Test 5
Section 1
1 A 2 C 3 A 4 A 5 C 6 B 7 True 8 True 9 False 10 True 11 False 12 Not given 13 Not given     Section 2
14 TRUE 15 Not given 16 FALSE 17 TRUE 18 FALSE 19 (high-pressure) air microphones 20 sound energy/ sound wave 21 cable 22 hydrophones/underwater micorphones 23 shipping container 24 seismic reflection profiling 25 laboratory 26 three-dimensional 27 fishing nets   
Section 3
28 D 29 C 30 B 31 F 32 C 33 A 34 E 35 FALSE 36 TRUE 37 TRUE 38 Not Given 39 B 40 E     

Reading Test 6
Section 1
1 B 2 A 3 B 4 F 5 C 6 E 7 G 8 G 9 A 10 Sea water/Salt 11 swimming speed 12 Coastal otters 13 Small mammals     
Section 2
14 iv 15 v 16 ii 17 x 18 vii 19 i 20 vii 21 A 22 C 23 parental guidance 24 compass 25 predators 26 visible     
Section 3
27 C 28 C 29 B 30 A 31 B 32 C 33 20 34 foam 35 waste water 36 harmful 37 bodegrade 38 droplets 39 Lamination and packing 40 Grape growers    Reading Test 7

Section 1      1 Yes 2 Not Given 3 Yes 4 Not Given 5 No 6 No 7 ecological release 8 competitors 9 dragon 10 overlooked 11 (have) vanished 12 swallowed up 13 misdated           Section 2      14 presentation 15 (daily) routine 16 cultures 17 E 18 D 19 F 20 D 21 C 22 D 23 A 24 E 25 B 26 C           Section 3      27 D 28 C 29 A 30 Yes 32 Yes 32 No 33 Not Given 34 Yes 35 C 36 A 37 F 38  39 E 40 A   


Reading Test 8
Section 1      1 (serve) drought 2 large seeds 3 heavy rains 4 small seeds 5 finch evolution 6 medium-sized bills 7 human population 8 rice 9 FALSE 10 Not Given 11 TRUE 12 FALSE 13 TRUE           Section 2      14 navigation and communications 15 radiation 16 antennae 17 smoke 18 C 19 D 20 B 21 E 22 A 23 FALSE 24 TRUE 25 TRUE 26 Not Given           Section 3      27 iii 28 vii 29 i 30 iv 32 ix 32 viii 33 v 34 ii 35 FALSE 36 TRUE 37 Not Given 38 TRUE 39 TRUE 40 B    Reading Test 9
Section 1      1 B 2 A 3 E 4 D 5 B 6 A 7 A 8 C 9 A 10 animal rights 11 workshops 12 picnic (lunch) 13 dominican Sisters 14 incomes         Section 2      15 D 16 G 17 F 18 A 19 E 20 B 21 C 22 Not Given 23 FALSE 24 TRUE 25 TRUE 26 FALSE 27 Not Given           Section 3      28 iv 29 vii 30 iii 31 ii 32 ix 33 F 34 B 35 D 36 A 37 FALSE 38 Not Given 39 TRUE 40 TRUE      Reading Test 10
Section 1      1 C 2 C 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 Yes 7 No 8 No 9 Not Given 10 Yes 11 Not Given 12 Yes 13 A           Section 2      14 D 15 F 16 E 17 C 18 A 19 D 20 A 21 C 22 C 23 A 24 C 25 C 26 C           Section 3      27 B 28 F 29 A 30 C 31 L 32 D 33 personel development 34 (the first) luxury 35 developed/Set 36 strategic solution 37 6 stages 38 90 hours (for one single stage) 39 three years 40 C    Reading Test 11
Section 1      1 Word 2 Syllable 3 Single sound/ phoneme 4 TRUE 5 FALSE 6 Not given 7 TRUE 8 FALSE 9 TRUE 10 Not given 11 C 12 B 13 E 14 A         Section 2      15 D 16 E 17 C 18 G 19 F 20 fuel 21 power 22 water streams 23 contaminate 24 harvesting 25 photosynthesis 26 Goverment B5 27 (producing/ production) capacity           Section 3      28 wood 29 status and weath 30 expensive commodity 31 calssical 32 furniture and textiles 33 Edwin Lutyens 34 local authorities 35 B 36 A 37 D 38 A 39 C 40 C     

Reading Test 12
Section 1      1 chip 2 grit 3 milten zinc 4 milling machine 5 sockets 6 loudspeakers 7 valves 8 cheaper 9 components 10 lighter 11 cost 12 A 13 chip           Section 2      14 Not Given 15 TRUE 16 TRUE 17 TRUE 18 FALSE 19 Not Given 20 clues 21 relationship 22 message 23 rechedule 24 voice mail 25 cellphone 26 meeting           Section 3      27 B 28 B 29 A 30 C 32 Yes 32 No 33 Not Given 34 No 35 Yes 36 D 37 B 38 I 39 E 40 G   


Reading Test 13
Section 1      1 FALSE 2 Not Given 3 Not Given 4 TRUE 5 FALSE 6 tram 7 1954 8 beach volleyball 9 environment 10 wealth people 11 Manly 12 Bondi 13 titled roofs           Section 2      14 B 15 E 16 A 17 D 18 B 19 TRUE 20 TRUE 21 Not Given 22 FALSE 23 Not Given 24 headspace 25 filters 26 needle           Section 3      27 D 28 H 29 A 30 G 32 E 32 F 33 C 34 B 35 B 36 B 37 Not Given 38 FALSE 39 TRUE 40 Not Given   


Reading Test 14
Section 1      1 need 2 (the) ashes 3 (vegetable) cassava 4 houses 5 C 6 B 7 A 8 A 9 TRUE 10 Not Given 11 TRUE 12 TRUE 13 B           Section 2      14 iii 15 i 16 v 17 iv 18 ii 19 vi 20 D 21 C 22 A 23 B 24 B 25 A 26 D           Section 3      27 B 28 A 29 D 30 C 32 J 32 F 33 K 34 K 35 D 36 ailes 37 experiments 38 loyalty card 39 cosmetics 40 group    Reading Test 15
Section 1      1 vi 2 v 3 ix 4 iv 5 viii 6 iii 7 vii 8 Not Given 9 TRUE 10 FALSE 11 FALSE 12 Not Given 13 TRUE           Section 2      14 iii 15 i 16 ii 17 vi 18 v 19 iv 20 B 21 D 22 C 23 B 24 D 25 B 26 C           Section 3      27 A 28 C 29 B 30 D 32 B 32 Yes 33 Not Given 34 Not Given 35 No 36 word choices 37 colloquail terminilogy 38 observer 39 invariant description 40 (theory of) general relativity   

Reading Test 16
Section 1      1 D 2 B 3 G 4 A 5 F 6 E 7 Mississippi 8 London 9 The Netherlands 10 Berlin 11 Los Angeles/ LA 12 B 13 D           Section 2      14 i 15 D 16 B 17 G 18 F 19 TRUE 20 FALSE 21 TRUE 22 Not Given 23 FALSE 24 Fighting 25 commerce 26 estates 27 flower lovers         Section 3      28 D 29 C 30 C 31 A 33 Yes 33 Not Given 34 No 35 Not Given 36 B 37 E 38 A 39 D 40 C     


Reading Test 17
Section 1      1 No 2 Yes 3 No 4 No 5 Not Given 6 D 7 C 8 D 9 A 10 D 11 B 12 B 13 A           Section 2      14 B 15 C 16 A 17 C 18 B 19 C 20 D 21 A 22 TRUE 23 Not Given 24 TRUE 25 FALSE 26 FALSE           Section 3      27 v 28 ii 29 iii 30 viii 32 Not Given 32 TRUE 33 FALSE 34 FALSE 35 Not Given 36 TRUE 37 growing population 38 racist assumption 39 archeological and historical 40 inhuman behavior   


Reading Test 18
Section 1      1 D 2 G 3 B 4 A 5 F 6 short 7 complex, non-repetitive 8 rats 9 TRUE 10 FALSE 11 FALSE 12 Not Given 13 TRUE           Section 2      14 A 15 D 16 E 17 G 18 winds 19 (the) pedestrians 20 horizontal forces 21 (excessive dynamic) vibration 22 motion 23 Imperial College 24 normal forward walking 25 (the) Arup engineers 26 (the) design assumptions           Section 3      27 B 28 C 29 A 30 A 32 Yes 32 Not Given 33 No 34 Not Given 35 Yes 36 No 37 F 38 B 39 A 40 D    Reading Test 19
Section 1      1 FALSE 2 TRUE 3 Not Given 4 TRUE 5 FALSE 6 TRUE 7 Not Given 8 E 9 C 10 A 11 D 12 F 13 A           Section 2      14 stories 15 America 16 folklore 17 fairy-stories 18 adventure 19 C 20 A 21 E 22 FALSE 23 TRUE 24 Not Given 25 TRUE 26 TRUE           Section 3      27 B 28 L 29 A 30 C 32 F 32 D 33 C 34 A 35 B 36 TRUE 37 FALSE 38 TRUE 39 FALSE 40 Not Given    Reading Test 20
Section 1      1 FALSE 2 TRUE 3 Not Given 4 TRUE 5 FALSE 6 TRUE 7 Not Given 8 E 9 C 10 A 11 D 12 F 13 A           Section 2      14 stories 15 America 16 folklore 17 fairy-stories 18 adventure 19 C 20 A 21 E 22 FALSE 23 TRUE 24 Not Given 25 TRUE 26 TRUE           Section 3      27 B 28 L 29 A 30 C 32 F 32 D 33 C 34 A 35 B 36 TRUE 37 FALSE 38 TRUE 39 FALSE 40 Not Given    Reading Test 21
Section 1      1 vi 2 v 3 ix 4 iv 5 viii 6 iii 7 vii 8 Not Given 9 TRUE 10 FALSE 11 FALSE 12 Not Given 13 TRUE           Section 2      14 clay 15 water 16 straw 17 cow manure 18 950 degress 19 60 minutes 20 FALSE 21 TRUE 22 Not Given 23 Not Given 24 C 25 D 26 A           Section 3      27 vi 28 iv 29 ii 30 vi 32 vii 32 F 33 B 34 E 35 D 36 G 37 A 38 C 39 B 40 C    Reading Test 22
Section 1      1 Yes 2 No 3 No 4 Not Given 5 Yes 6 Not Given 7 No 8 rock 9 teeth 10 descendants 11 canoes 12 trade winds 13 seabirds and turtles           Section 2      14 TRUE 15 FALSE 16 TRUE 17 Not Given 18 TRUE 19 Not Given 20 1976 and 1995 21 2000 floods 22 France 23 1856 24 1988 and 2002 25 1990 26 500 27 D         Section 3      28 FALSE 29 FALSE 30 TRUE 31 Not Given 32 FALSE 33 Not Given 34 TRUE 35 history of childhood 36 (as) miniature adults 37 (with the) industrialization 38 The factory Act 39 play and education 40 classroom      Reading Test 23
Section 1      1 A 2 C 3 B 4 D 5 Yes 6 No 7 No 8 Yes 9 Not Given 10 Not Given 11 G 12 A 13 B 14 E         Section 2      15 indentical 16 balls of paper 17 Count/ caculate eggs 18 fruits flies 19 mosquitofish 20 surface area 21 sugar water 22 TRUE 23 FALSE 24 Not Given 25 TRUE 26 Not Given 27 TRUE           Section 3      28 hammer 29 body 30 pad 31 cavities/ sinus cavities 32 trunks and feet 33 infrasonic 34 ecology 35 seismic messages 36 acoustic communication/ communications 37 mate 38 ground 39 A 40 C      Reading Test 24
Section 1      1 C 2 A 3 D 4 B 5 A 6 A 7 beaks 8 vomiting 9 harderns 10 TRUE 11 Not Given 12 FALSE 13 Not Give           Section 2      14 E 15 B 16 E 17 F 18 A 19 birch trees 20 Russian rivers 21 pumps 22 cables 23 volcanic explosions 24 C 25 D 26 A           Section 3      27 Yes 28 Not Given 29 No 30 No 31 Yes 32 controverial 33 tapped/ (new) 34 expensive 35 competitive 36 E 37 D 38 B 39 A 40 C    Reading Test 25
Section 1      1 Not Given 2 TRUE 3 FALSE 4 TRUE 5 mason 6 holes 7 metal/ iron wedges 8 split 9 bricks 10 heating 11 C 12 E 13 F           Section 2      14 A 15 B 16 A 17 C 18 C 19 D 20 B 21 C 22 C 23 create a story 24 brain scans 25 olfactory cortex 26 spice           Section 3      27 E 28 A 29 C 30 G 31 F 32 specific person 33 three cards/ 3 cards 34 mental walk 35 loci method 36 education 37 A 38 D 39 B 40 E    Reading Test 26
Section 1      1 E 2 A 3 D 4 B 5 C 6 B 7 F 8 G 9 migrated 10 withering skin 11 (tectonic) plates 12 dispersalism 13 vicarisanism           Section 2      14 F 15 C 16 A 17 G 18 F 19 TRUE 20 FALSE 21 FALSE 22 TRUE 23 TRUE 24 TRUE 25 FALSE 26 Not Given           Section 3      27 sound laws 28 fashion 29 imperfect 30 principle of ease 31 FALSE 32 Not Given 33 Not Given 34 TRUE 35 TRUE 36 Not Given 37 TRUE 38 C 39 B 40 A    Reading Test 27
Section 1      1 C 2 A 3 B 4 B 5 customers 6 public relation skills 7 museology/ (the new) museology 8 tourist attractions 9 A 10 D 11 B 12 C 13 E           Section 2      14 A 15 D 16 B 17 D 18 C 19 B 20 D 21 A 22 workplace injury 23 16.6 weeks 24 7% 25 golf 26 massage 27 workloads         Section 3      28 F 29 C 30 G 31 B 32 F 33 E 34 Not Given 35 Not Given 36 FALSE 37 TRUE 38 C 39 A 40 D      Reading Test 28
Section 1      1 ix 2 x 3 i 4 vii 5 iii 6 viii 7 vi 8 I 9 D 10 B 11 H 12 E 13 A           Section 2      14 D 15 C 16 A 17 D 18 B 19 A 20 B 21 C 22 heat 23 denser 24 Great ocean Conveyor 25 freshwater 26 southward           Section 3      27 iv 28 xii 29 ii 30 x 31 i 32 ix 33 v 34 vii 35 C 36 B 37 A 38 Yuri Larin 39 Colour-coding/ colour 40 family    Reading Test 29
Section 1      1 iv 2 vii 3 x 4 i 5 vi 6 ii 7 viii 8 privacy 9 male prison 10 personal space 11 attraction/ attraction levels 12 help 13 control           Section 2      14 vi 15 viii 16 v 17 iii 18 ix 19 vii 20 ii 21 D 22 B 23 C 24 density 25 architects 26 budget 27 garden         Section 3      28 D 29 C 30 B 31 D 32 Not Given 33 FALSE 34 Not Given 35 TRUE 36 C 37 D 38 B 39 E 40 A     


Reading Test 30
Section 1      1 TRUE 2 TRUE 3 FALSE 4 Not Given 5 TRUE 6 D 7 B 8 A 9 B 10 C 11 A 12 B 13 C           Section 2      14 B 15 A 16 A 17 C 18 B 19 A 20 F 21 H 22 C 23 J 24 G 25 A 26 C           Section 3      27 v 28 x 29 iii 30 i 31 vii 32 viii 33 ii 34 C 35 B 36 E 37 A 38 D 39 C 40 D   


Reading Test 31
Section 1      1 iii 2 x 3 viii 4 ix 5 vi 6 i 7 iv 8 extra snacks 9 firewood 10 85% 11 50% 12 A 13 C           Section 2      14 ii 15 v 16 i 17 viii 18 vi 19 iii 20 iv 21 1950s 22 (being) shy/shyness 23 starvation 24 (native) fish 25 patnership project/ network (of sites)/ partnership project network 26 Otter and brown-hare 27 B         Section 3      28 i 29 ix 30 iv 31 vii 32 v 33 iii 34 A 35 B 36 F 37 D 38 B 39 C 40 E      Reading Test 32
Section 1      1 Not Given 2 Not Given 3 FALSE 4 TRUE 5 TRUE 6 FALSE 7 100 English words 8 chimpanzees 9 avian cognition 10 particularly chosen 11 color 12 wrong pronunciation 13 teenager           Section 2      14 E 15 D 16 C 17 B 18 G 19 C 20 F 21 E 22 D 23 A 24 Chickens 25 AD-36 26 Gene 27 vaccine         Section 3      28 Yes 29 No 30 Yes 31 Not Given 32 No 33 Yes 34 C 35 A 36 B 37 D 38 A 39 C 40 E     


Reading Test 33
Section 1      1 85 dBA 2 hearing (impairement) 3 high-frequenncy 4 stomach (contractions) 5 noise map 6 B 7 D 8 C 9 E 10 A 11 C 12 D 13 C           Section 2      14 D 15 G 16 B 17 E 18 C 19 B 20 B/D 21 B/D 22 B/D 23 D/B 24 social history 25 tag 26 protective equiment 27 (lower pressure) water         Section 3      28 iv 29 ix 30 i 31 v 32 iii 33 vii 34 Horace Walpole 35 fairy tale 36 Sri Lanka 37 A 38 C 39 B 40 B     


Reading Test 34
1 I 2 C 3 D 4 A 5 B 6 A 7 D 8 energy 9 stratification 10 (bands of) bark 11 (dry moutain) air 12 ground cover 13 distance           Section 2      14 G 15 A 16 C 17 B 18 H 19 D 20 C 21 A 22 B 23 fruit 24 plant toxins/toxin 25 reproduction/ reproduce 26 water 27 drought         Section 3      28 C 29 D 30 F 31 G 32 D 33 F 34 C 35 G 36 B 37 A 38 C 39 E 40 A     
X