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1.Animal characteristics
2.Body structure
3.Anatomy
4.Skelton of animal
5.Historical reseach


































Animal characteristics
Bearsare HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal" \o "Mammal" mammalsof the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Family_(biology)" \o "Family (biology)" familyUrsidae. Bears are classified as HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caniformia" \o "Caniformia" caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinniped" \o "Pinniped" pinnipedsbeing their closest living relatives. Although only eight HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species" \o "Species" speciesof bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitat" \o "Habitat" habitatsthroughout the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Hemisphere" \o "Northern Hemisphere" Northern Hemisphereand partially in the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hemisphere" \o "Southern Hemisphere" Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continent" \o "Continent" continentsof HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_America" \o "North America" North America, HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_America" \o "South America" South America, HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe" \o "Europe" Europe, and HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia" \o "Asia" Asia.
Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, shaggy hair, HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantigrade" \o "Plantigrade" plantigradepaws with five nonretractile claws, and short tails. While the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polar_bear" \o "Polar bear" polar bearis mostly HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnivore" \o "Carnivore" carnivorous, and the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giant_panda" \o "Giant panda" giant pandafeeds almost entirely on HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboo" \o "Bamboo" bamboo, the remaining six species are HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnivore" \o "Omnivore" omnivorouswith varied diets.
With the exception of HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courting" \o "Courting" courtingindividuals and mothers with their young, bears are typically HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solitary_animals" \o "Solitary animals" solitary animals. They are generally HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diurnality" \o "Diurnality" diurnal, but may be active during the night ( HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nocturnal" \o "Nocturnal" nocturnal) or twilight ( HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crepuscular" \o "Crepuscular" crepuscular), particularly around humans. Bears possess an excellent HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olfaction" \o "Olfaction" sense of smelland, despite their heavy build and awkward gait, are adept runners, climbers, and swimmers. In autumn, some bear species forage large amounts of fermented fruits, which affects their behavior. HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bear" \l "cite_note-1" [1]Bears use shelters, such as caves and burrows, as their dens; most species occupy their dens during the winter for a long period (up to 100 days) of sleep similar to HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibernation" \o "Hibernation" hibernation. HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bear" \l "cite_note-bear_essentials_of_hibernation-2" [2]
Bears have been hunted since HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric" \o "Prehistoric" prehistorictimes for HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bear_meat" \o "Bear meat" their meatand fur. With their tremendous physical presence and charisma, they play a prominent role in HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_arts" \o "The arts" the arts, HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mythology" \o "Mythology" mythology, and other cultural aspects of various human societies. In modern times, the bears' existence has been pressured through the encroachment on their habitats and the illegal trade of bears and bear parts, including the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia" \o "Asia" Asian HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bile_bear" \o "Bile bear" bile bearmarket. The HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Conservation_Union" \o "World Conservation Union" IUCNlists six bear species as HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulnerable_species" \o "Vulnerable species" vulnerableor HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_species" \o "Endangered species" endangered, and even HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Least_concern" \o "Least concern" least concernspecies, such as the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_bear" \o "Brown bear" brown bear, are at risk of HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_extinction" \o "Local extinction" extirpationin certain countries. The poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing.
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Body structure


2 Bear Addition heavy, clumsy. The body is elongated, the limbs are relatively short, plantigrade, five-fingered. All fingers are touching the ground and armed with long, curved, powerful claws nevtyazhnymi. The front limbs are usually much larger than the rear. On the bottom surface of the hands and feet in addition to naked finger pads has a cross-naked pillow, as well as bare skin behind her. The neck is thick, usually long.
The head is large, often with short, rarely elongated snout. Eyes small. Ears in some species of small, barely protruding above the fur, or moderate length, not wide or long.
The coat is a tall, hairy; the northern and mountain species thick from the Malay bear - low and rare. Its color-color, white, black or brown with different shades. In some species, there is an individual and geographical variability of coloration. there is a white spot, sometimes white collar on his chest. In a black bear or a brown muzzle light. At the spectacled bear's eyes are surrounded by bright rings. Seasonal dimorphism is expressed in the fact that the height and density of fur in the winter and the summer is different. Anal glands are absent or very poorly developed. operates one pair of nipples - pectoral.


















Anatomy




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Skelton of animal





1- skull 2- cervical spine department 3- blade 4- thoracic vertebrae department 5- lumbar vertebrae 6- hip bone 7- femur 8- shin 9-ribs 10- forearm 11- shoulder













Historical reseach




While it is generally believed by the archaeological community that the Aurignacian tool making culture that existed until about 26,000 years was Cro-Magnon, a 2004 study suggested the possibility that the civilization was, in fact, "the last hurrah" of the Neanderthals' civilization and racial existence.[1] The culture and loci of the finds better match Auel's portrayed homelands for the Cro-Magnon cultures in her works: the plains of the Ukraine and Danube valleys and across the Alps to western France, which is consistent with mainstream archaeological thinking.
Surviving Cro-Magnon artifacts and features include huts, cave paintings, carvings and antler-tipped spears. The remains of tools suggest that they knew how to make woven clothing. They had huts, constructed of rocks, clay, bones, branches, and animal hide/fur. These early humans used manganese and iron oxides to paint pictures and may have created the first calendar around 15,000 years ago.[2]
The flint tools found in association with the remains at the first Cro-Magnon site have associations with the Aurignacian culture that Lartet had identified a few years before he found the skeletons.
If the Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals co-existed in the same regions at the same time, they might be presumed to have come in contact with one another; the former are often credited with causing the latter's extinction, although modern humans seem to have coexisted with Neanderthals for up to 60,000 years in the Levant[3] and for more than 15,000 years in France.[4]
Auel's research led to the incorporation of such data into her story arc and narrative. Her books have been commended for their anthropological authenticity and their ethnobotanical accuracy. However, archaeological research at the time and after the first book was published suggests that some prehistorical details in the series are inaccurate and others fictional, and that specifications of prehistorical milestones are sometimes arbitrary and inconsistent.[citation needed] For example, the differences between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens may have been exaggerated or underestimated in the series; it has been found that Neanderthals had a hyoid bone and may thus have been capable of using vocal language and not as dependent on sign language as portrayed in the series (the existence of a Neanderthal hyoid bone wasn't confirmed until 1983, some years after the first book in the series was published).








































































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